Publications by authors named "Baljinder Kaur"

43 Publications

Metagenomic analysis exploring taxonomic and functional diversity of bacterial communities of a Himalayan urban fresh water lake.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(3):e0248116. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Freshwater lakes present an ecological border between humans and a variety of host organisms. The present study was designed to evaluate the microbiota composition and distribution in Dal Lake at Srinagar, India. The non-chimeric sequence reads were classified taxonomically into 49 phyla, 114 classes, 185 orders, 244 families and 384 genera. Proteobacteria was found to be the most abundant bacterial phylum in all the four samples. The highest number of observed species was found to be 3097 in sample taken from least populated area during summer (LPS) whereas the summer sample from highly populated area (HPS) was found most diverse among all as indicated by taxonomic diversity analysis. The QIIME output files were used for PICRUSt analysis to assign functional attributes. The samples exhibited a significant difference in their microbial community composition and structure. Comparative analysis of functional pathways indicated that the anthropogenic activities in populated areas and higher summer temperature, both decrease functional potential of the Lake microbiota. This is probably the first study to demonstrate the comparative taxonomic diversity and functional composition of an urban freshwater lake amid its highly populated and least populated areas during two extreme seasons (winter and summer).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248116PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993826PMC
March 2021

Response surface optimization of cellulase production from BKT-9: An isolate of urban Himalayan freshwater.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Sep 25;27(9):2333-2343. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Due to their vast industrial potential, cellulases have been regarded as the potential biocatalysts by both the academicians and the industrial research groups. In the present study, culturable bacterial strains of Himalayan Urban freshwater lake were investigated for cellulose degrading activities. Initially, a total of 140 bacterial strains were isolated and only 45 isolates were found to possess cellulose degrading property. On the basis of preliminary screening involving cellulase activity assay on CMC agar (with clear zone of hydrolysis) and biosafety assessment testing, only single isolate named as BKT-9 was selected for the cellulase production studies. Strain BKT-9 was characterized at the molecular level using rRNA gene sequencing and its sequence homology analysis revealed its identity as . Further, various physico-chemical parameters and culture conditions were optimized using one factor approach to enhance cellulase production levels in the strain BKT-9. Subsequently, RSM based statistical optimization led to formulation of cellulase production medium, wherein the bacterial strain exhibited ~60 folds increase in enzyme activity as compared to un-optimized culture medium. Further studies are being suggested to scale up cellulase production in strain BKT-9 so that it can be utilized for biomass saccharification at an industrial level.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.04.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7451742PMC
September 2020

Correction to: Construction of a shuttle expression vector for lactic acid bacteria.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2020 Aug 4;18(1):38. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala, 147002, India.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43141-020-00056-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403355PMC
August 2020

Anticancer Effects of Extracts from Three Different Chokeberry Species.

Nutr Cancer 2021 9;73(7):1168-1174. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University, Bakersfield, Bakersfield, California, USA.

Colon cancer risk appears to be lowered by consumption of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. Chokeberries are rich in phytochemicals that may act as potent anticancer agents. Phytochemicals that are particularly abundant in chokeberries include anthocyanins and phenolic acids. In this study, we compared the growth inhibitory activity of three chokeberry extracts in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. The three extracts tested were derived from (red), (purple), and (black). Cells were incubated with either red, purple, or black chokeberry extracts and cell viability was quantified using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The black chokeberry extract had the greatest effect in reducing cell proliferation. The extracts were also characterized for total phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), total antioxidant activity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay), and levels of bioactive phenolic acids (high-performance liquid chromatography). The growth inhibitory activities of the extracts correlated well with total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and levels of caffeic and chlorogenic acids. The black chokeberry extract had the greatest level of total phenols, antioxidant activity, and individual phenolic acids. This research suggests that the phenolic profile of foods such as chokeberries can help determine their cancer cell growth inhibitory activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2020.1789679DOI Listing
July 2020

Tailoring cellular metabolism in lactic acid bacteria through metabolic engineering.

J Microbiol Methods 2020 03 5;170:105862. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Princess Dr. Najla Bint Saud Al-Saud Center for Excellence Research in Biotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Metabolic engineering combines approaches of synthetic and systems biology for tailoring the existing and creating novel biosynthetic metabolic pathways in the desired industrial microorganisms for production of biofuels, bio-materials and environmental applications. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are gaining attention worldwide due to their extensive utilization in food, fermentation and pharmaceutical industries owing to their GRAS status. Well-elucidated genetics and regulatory control of central metabolism make them potential candidates for the production of industrially valuable metabolites. With the recent advancements in metabolic engineering strategies, genetic manipulation and tailoring of cellular metabolism is being successfully carried out in various LAB strains as they are providing highly efficient and industrially competitive robust expression systems. Thus, this review presents a concise overview of metabolic engineering strategies available for the comprehensive tailoring of lactic acid bacterial strains for large-scale production of industrially important metabolites.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2020.105862DOI Listing
March 2020

Construction of a shuttle expression vector for lactic acid bacteria.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2019 Nov 18;17(1):10. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala, 147002, India.

Background: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a diverse group of Gram-positive bacteria, which are widely distributed in various diverse natural habitats. These are used in a variety of industrial food fermentations and carry numerous traits with utmost relevance to the food industry. Genetic engineering has emerged as an effective means to improve and enhance the potential of commercially important bacterial strains. However, the biosafety of recombinant systems is an important concern during the implementation of such technologies on an industrial scale. In order to overcome this issue, cloning and expression systems have been developed preferably from fully characterized and annotated LAB plasmids encoding genes with known functions.

Results: The developed shuttle vector pPBT-GFP contains two theta-type replicons with a copy number of 4.4 and 2.8 in Pediococcus acidilactici MTCC 5101 and Lactobacillus brevis MTCC 1750, respectively. Antimicrobial "pediocin" produced by P. acidilactici MTCC 5101 and green fluorescent protein (GFP) of Aequorea victoria were successfully expressed as selectable markers. Heterologous bile salt hydrolase (BSH) from Lactobacillus fermentum NCDO 394 has been efficiently expressed in the host strains showing high specific activity of 126.12 ± 10.62 in P. acidilactici MTCC 5101 and 95.43 ± 4.26 in the case of L. brevis MTCC 1750, towards glycine-conjugated bile salts preferably as compared to taurine-conjugated salts.

Conclusion: The present article details the development of a LAB/LAB shuttle expression vector pPBT-GFP, capable of replication in LAB hosts, P. acidilactici MTCC 5101, and L. brevis MTCC 1750. Pediocin and GFP have been used as selectable markers with the efficient production of heterologous extracellular bile salt hydrolase. Thus, the constructed vector pPBT-GFP, with its ability to replicate in multiple hosts, low copy number, and stability in host cells, may serve as an ideal tool for improving LAB strains of commercial value using genetic engineering.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43141-019-0013-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6859148PMC
November 2019

Autophagy is important to the acidogenic metabolism of Aspergillus niger.

PLoS One 2019 11;14(10):e0223895. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Metabolism and Enzymology Laboratory, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India.

Significant phenotypic overlaps exist between autophagy and acidogenesis in Aspergillus niger. The possible role of autophagy in the acidogenic growth and metabolism of this fungus was therefore examined and the movement of cytosolic EGFP to vacuoles served to monitor this phenomenon. An autophagy response to typical as well as a metabolic inhibitor-induced nitrogen starvation was observed in A. niger mycelia. The vacuolar re-localization of cytosolic EGFP was not observed upon nitrogen starvation in the A. niger Δatg1 strain. The acidogenic growth of the fungus consisted of a brief log phase followed by an extended autophagy-like state throughout the idiophase of fermentation. Mycelia in the idiophase were highly vacuolated and EGFP was localized to the vacuoles but no autolysis was observed. Both autophagy and acidogenesis are compromised in Δatg1 and Δatg8 strains of A. niger. The acidogenic growth of the fungus thus appears to mimic a condition of nutrient limitation and is associated with an extended autophagy-like state. This crucial role of autophagy in acidogenic A. niger physiology could be of value in improving citric acid fermentation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0223895PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6788731PMC
March 2020

Simulation study on comprehensive sensing enhancement of BlueP/MoS- and BlueP/WS-based fluoride fiber surface plasmon resonance sensors: analysis founded on damping, field, and optical power.

Appl Opt 2019 Jun;58(16):4518-4525

Two-dimensional (2D) heterostructure-based fluoride fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor designs are simulated and analyzed while emphasizing figure of merit (FOM) enhancement in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region. Through simultaneous optimization of NIR wavelength and Ag layer thickness, exceptionally large FOM values of 15,650.75  RIU and 12,409.30  RIU are achieved for BlueP/MoS-based and BlueP/WS-based fiber SPR sensors, respectively. The results are explained in terms of tunable radiation damping, power loss, and corresponding field enhancement. These FOM values are significantly greater than recently reported sensors. The BlueP/MoS-based sensor with 48.8 nm Ag film and at 738.4 nm wavelength provides an all-round large FOM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.58.004518DOI Listing
June 2019

Fluoride Fiber-Based Plasmonic Biosensor with Two-Dimensional Material Heterostructures: Enhancement of Overall Figure-of-Merit via Optimization of Radiation Damping in Near Infrared Region.

Materials (Basel) 2019 May 10;12(9). Epub 2019 May 10.

Physics Division, Department of Applied Sciences, National Institute of Technology Delhi, Narela, Delhi-110040, India.

Two-dimensional (2D) heterostructure materials show captivating properties for application in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors. A fluoride fiber-based SPR sensor is proposed and simulated with the inclusion of a 2D heterostructure as the analyte interacting layer. The monolayers of two 2D heterostructures (BlueP/MoS and BlueP/WS, respectively) are considered in near infrared (NIR). In NIR, an HBL (62HfF-33BaF-5LaF) fluoride glass core and NaF clad are considered. The emphasis is placed on figure of merit (FOM) enhancement via optimization of radiation damping through simultaneous tuning of Ag thickness (d) and NIR wavelength (λ) at the Ag-2D heterostructure-analyte interfaces. Field distribution analysis is performed in order to understand the interaction of NIR signal with analyte at optimum radiation damping (ORD) condition. While the ORD leads to significantly larger FOM for both, the BlueP/MoS (FOM = 19179.69 RIU (RIU: refractive index unit) at d = 38.2 nm and λ = 813.4 nm)-based sensor shows massively larger FOM compared with the BlueP/WS (FOM = 7371.30 RIU at d = 38.2 nm and λ = 811.2 nm)-based sensor. The overall sensing performance was more methodically evaluated in terms of the low degree of photodamage of the analyte, low signal scattering, high power loss, and large field variation. The BlueP/MoS-based fiber SPR sensor under ORD conditions opens up new paths for biosensing with highly enhanced overall performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12091542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6539228PMC
May 2019

Synthesis, thermal and surface activity of cationic single chain metal hybrid surfactants and their interaction with microbes and proteins.

Soft Matter 2019 Mar;15(11):2348-2358

Department of Chemistry and Centre for Advanced Studies in Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India.

A series of water-soluble metal functionalized surfactants have been prepared using commercially available surfactant cetyl pyridinium chloride and transition metal salts. These complexes were characterized in the solid state by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H NMR and thermogravimetric analysis. The interfacial surface activity and aggregation behaviour of the metallosurfactants were analysed through conductivity, surface tension and small angle neutron scattering measurements. Our results show that the presence of metal ions as co-ions along with counter ions favours micellization at a low critical micellization concentration (CMC). Small angle neutron scattering revealed that the metallomicelles are of a prolate ellipsoidal shape and exhibit strong counterion binding. This article further describes the interaction of the metallosurfactants with transport protein Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) using different spectroscopic techniques. A spectroscopic study was used to study the binding, interaction and quenching mechanism of BSA with the metallosurfactants. Gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and circular dichroism (CD) investigated the structural and conformational changes produced in BSA due to the metallosurfactants. The results indicate that there is an alteration in the secondary structure of BSA due to the electrostatic interaction between positive head groups and metal co-ions of the metallosurfactants and negatively charged amino acids of BSA. As the concentration increases, the α-helicity of BSA decreases and all the three studied metallosurfactants gave comparable results. Finally, the in vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of the metallosurfactants were evaluated against erythrocytes and microorganisms, which showed prominent effects related to the presence of a metal ion in metallomicelles of the hybrid surfactants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9sm00046aDOI Listing
March 2019

Enhancing the Cancer Cell Growth Inhibitory Effects of Table Grape Anthocyanins.

J Food Sci 2018 Sep 2;83(9):2369-2374. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State Univ., Bakersfield, Bakersfield, Calif., U.S.A.

The risk for breast and colon cancer may be lowered in part by high intake of fruits and vegetables. Fruits such as grapes are abundant in bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins. The potential anticancer activity of anthocyanins may be limited by their metabolism in the gut and liver. One metabolic transformation is due to the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), which methylates polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Entacapone is a clinically used inhibitor of COMT, and has been shown to modulate the methylation of food-derived polyphenols. In this study, we compared the effect of entacapone on the cell viability of colon (Caco-2 and HT-29) and breast (MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines treated with anthocyanins. Cells were treated with either cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, or an anthocyanin-rich grape extract, in the absence or presence of entacapone. Cell viability was assessed using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Entacapone in combination with the anthocyanins had a greater than additive effect on growth inhibition of the Caco-2 cells. In the MDA-MB-231 cell line, entacapone similarly enhanced the growth inhibitory activity of the anthocyanin extract. Entacapone also had antiproliferative effects when used as a single treatment. Total hydroperoxides was quantified in the cell culture media. Greater concentrations of the treatments resulted in higher levels of total hydroperoxides, indicating that oxidative stress may be an important mechanism for growth inhibition. In conclusion, the antiproliferative activity of fruit-derived anthocyanins was improved in human cancer cell lines by the clinically used drug entacapone. The efficacy and mechanisms of entacapone/anthocyanin combinations should be carefully studied in vivo.

Practical Application: Chemical components of grapes are good for our health and have been shown to lower risk for certain cancers. Their beneficial health effects could also be enhanced by consuming other molecules that improve their bioavailability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.14294DOI Listing
September 2018

Screening Germplasm and Quantification of Components Contributing to Thrips Resistance in Cotton.

J Econ Entomol 2018 09;111(5):2426-2434

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.

Three hundred and ninety-one Gossypium hirsutum and 34 Gossypium barbadense accessions were screened for thrips resistance under field conditions at the Upper Coastal Plain Research Station in Rocky Mount, North Carolina in years 2014 and 2015. Visual damage ratings, thrips counts, and seedling dry weights were recorded at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 wk after planting, respectively. Population density and thrips arrival times varied between years. Data from the three separate damage scoring dates provided a better estimate of resistance or susceptibility to thrips than ratings from the individual dates over the season. Tobacco thrips [Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)], followed by western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)], were the dominant thrips species observed in the study. Five resistant G. barbadense accessions and five moderately resistant upland cotton accessions were identified from field evaluations. Greenhouse experiments were conducted in Fall 2015 and Spring 2016 to determine if plant height, growth rate, leaf pubescence, and leaf area were significantly different in resistant and susceptible groups of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense accessions identified from the field screenings. Leaf pubescence and relative growth rate were significantly higher in resistant accessions compared with susceptible accessions in absence of thrips. There was no difference for plant height and leaf area between resistant and susceptible groups. Results suggest thrips-resistant plants have a possible competitive advantage through faster growth and higher trichome density, which limits thrips movement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy201DOI Listing
September 2018

Topological Data Analysis as a Morphometric Method: Using Persistent Homology to Demarcate a Leaf Morphospace.

Front Plant Sci 2018 25;9:553. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States.

Current morphometric methods that comprehensively measure shape cannot compare the disparate leaf shapes found in seed plants and are sensitive to processing artifacts. We explore the use of persistent homology, a topological method applied as a filtration across simplicial complexes (or more simply, a method to measure topological features of spaces across different spatial resolutions), to overcome these limitations. The described method isolates subsets of shape features and measures the spatial relationship of neighboring pixel densities in a shape. We apply the method to the analysis of 182,707 leaves, both published and unpublished, representing 141 plant families collected from 75 sites throughout the world. By measuring leaves from throughout the seed plants using persistent homology, a defined morphospace comparing all leaves is demarcated. Clear differences in shape between major phylogenetic groups are detected and estimates of leaf shape diversity within plant families are made. The approach predicts plant family above chance. The application of a persistent homology method, using topological features, to measure leaf shape allows for a unified morphometric framework to measure plant form, including shapes, textures, patterns, and branching architectures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.00553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996898PMC
April 2018

Cationic double chained metallosurfactants: synthesis, aggregation, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity and their impact on the structure of bovine serum albumin.

Soft Matter 2018 Jun;14(25):5306-5318

Department of Chemistry and Centre for Advanced Studies in Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India.

Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is one of the most copious and significant blood proteins with dynamic structure. The understanding of the structural functionality of BSA and its interaction with metal ions is desired for various biological functions. Herein, three different metallosurfactants containing different transition metals and the same hydrophobic tail were engaged to investigate the structural transition of BSA. The metallosurfactants have been prepared by a combination of metal ions (M = Fe, Co and Ni) with cetylpyridinium chloride surfactant via the ligand insertion method and were characterized by elemental, FTIR, 1H-NMR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The obtained results reveal that insertion of a metal ion perturbs the aggregation behavior of the surfactant. Incorporation of a metal-ion has been found to decrease the CMC value of the surfactant, which has been supported by conductivity, surface tension and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). These metallosurfactants were employed to study the interaction and binding mechanism of BSA under physiological conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis points out a weak effect of metallosurfactants on the primary structure of BSA, whereas CD spectra implied a significant change in secondary structure with the decreased α-helical content of BSA. Fluorescence spectroscopy indicates the effect of metallosurfactants on the tertiary structure of BSA, whereas absorption spectra demonstrated static quenching with a blue shift in the presence of metallosurfactants. Moreover, unfolding of BSA in the presence of metallosurfactants has also been confirmed by SAXS studies. The overall results indicate that insertion of the metal ion into the framework of the surfactant structure enhances its protein binding/folding/unfolding abilities, which would be helpful in clinical as well as in life sciences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8sm00535dDOI Listing
June 2018

Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Phyllanthus niruri L.: A Review.

Phytother Res 2017 Jul 17;31(7):980-1004. Epub 2017 May 17.

Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala, 147 002, Punjab, India.

Phyllanthus niruri, a typical member of family Euphorbiaceae, is a small annual herb found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. The genus Phyllanthus has been used in traditional medicine for its wide range of pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, antiinflammatory, antiplasmodial, antiviral, diuretic and hepatoprotective. This review summarizes the information about morphological, biochemical, ethanobotanical, pharmacological, biological and toxicological activities with special emphasis on mechanism of anticancer activity of P. niruri. Gaps in previous studies such as taxonomic inconsistency of P. niruri, novel phytochemicals and their therapeutic properties, especially mechanisms of anticancerous activity and market products available, have been looked into and addressed. Scientific information related to 83 phytochemicals (including many novel compounds detected recently by the authors) has been provided in a very comprehensive manner. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5825DOI Listing
July 2017

Application of recombinant Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 (fcs /ech ) for bioconversion of agrowaste to vanillin.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Jul 21;101(14):5615-5626. Epub 2017 Apr 21.

Sino-Forest Applied Research Centre for Pearl River Delta Environment and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Biotechnological production of vanillin is gaining momentum as the natural synthesis of vanillin that is very expensive. Ferulic acid (FA), a costly compound, is used as the substrate to produce vanillin biotechnologically and the making process is still expensive. Therefore, this study investigated the practical use of an agrobiomass waste, rice bran, and provides the first evidence of a cost-effective production of vanillin within 24 h of incubation using recombinant Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 (fcs /ech ). Introduction of two genes encoding feruloyl CoA synthetase and enoyl CoA hydratase into the native strain increased vanillin yield to 4.01 g L. Bioconversion was monitored through the transformation of phenolic compounds. A hypothetical metabolic pathway of rice bran during the vanillin bioconversion was proposed with the inserted pathway from ferulic acid to vanillin and compared with that of other metabolic engineered strains. These results could be a gateway of using recombinant lactic acid bacteria for industrial production of vanillin from agricultural waste.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8283-8DOI Listing
July 2017

Modifications to a LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 gene are responsible for the major leaf shapes of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 01 20;114(1):E57-E66. Epub 2016 Dec 20.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7620;

Leaf shape varies spectacularly among plants. Leaves are the primary source of photoassimilate in crop plants, and understanding the genetic basis of variation in leaf morphology is critical to improving agricultural productivity. Leaf shape played a unique role in cotton improvement, as breeders have selected for entire and lobed leaf morphs resulting from a single locus, okra (l-D), which is responsible for the major leaf shapes in cotton. The l-D locus is not only of agricultural importance in cotton, but through pioneering chimeric and morphometric studies, it has contributed to fundamental knowledge about leaf development. Here we show that an HD-Zip transcription factor homologous to the LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 (LMI1) gene of Arabidopsis is the causal gene underlying the l-D locus. The classical okra leaf shape allele has a 133-bp tandem duplication in the promoter, correlated with elevated expression, whereas an 8-bp deletion in the third exon of the presumed wild-type normal allele causes a frame-shifted and truncated coding sequence. Our results indicate that subokra is the ancestral leaf shape of tetraploid cotton that gave rise to the okra allele and that normal is a derived mutant allele that came to predominate and define the leaf shape of cultivated cotton. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the LMI1-like gene in an okra variety was sufficient to induce normal leaf formation. The developmental changes in leaves conferred by this gene are associated with a photosynthetic transcriptomic signature, substantiating its use by breeders to produce a superior cotton ideotype.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1613593114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5224360PMC
January 2017

Agrowaste to vanillin conversion by a natural Pediococcus acidilactici strain BD16.

Environ Technol 2017 Jul 13;38(13-14):1823-1834. Epub 2016 Oct 13.

a Sino-Forest Applied Research Centre for Pearl River Delta Environment , Hong Kong Baptist University , Kowloon Tong , Hong Kong SAR , People's Republic of China.

Owing to its flavoring, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic nature, vanillin is widely used in foods, beverages, perfumes and pharmaceutical products. Ferulic acid (FA) is an important precursor of vanillin which is abundant in cereals like maize, rice and wheat and sugar beet. A major drawback of microbial vanillin production from FA is the degradation and biotransformation of toxic vanillin to other phenolic derivatives. The present study is undertaken to explore microbial vanillin production from FA precursor rice bran by employing vanillin-resistant Pediococcus acidilactici BD16, a natural lactic acid bacteria isolate. Extracellular, intracellular and cellular vanillin dehydrogenase activity was found least, which was minimized vanillin degradation, and the strain resists more than 5 g L vanillin in the medium. A metabolomics approach was followed for the detection of FA, vanillin and other metabolites generated during fermentation of rice bran medium. A metabolic pathway was also predicted for vanillin biosynthesis. Approximately 1.06 g L of crude vanillin was recovered from rice-bran-containing medium and this further offers scope for the industrial utilization of the organism and its genetic manipulation to enhance production of biovanillin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2016.1237556DOI Listing
July 2017

Metabolic engineering of E. coli top 10 for production of vanillin through FA catabolic pathway and bioprocess optimization using RSM.

Protein Expr Purif 2016 12 31;128:123-33. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala, India. Electronic address:

Metabolic engineering and construction of recombinant Escherichia coli strains carrying feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase genes for the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin offers an alternative way to produce vanillin. Isolation and designing of fcs and ech genes was carried out using computer assisted protocol and the designed vanillin biosynthetic gene cassette was cloned in pCCIBAC expression vector for introduction in E. coli top 10. Recombinant strain was implemented for the statistical optimization of process parameters influencing F A to vanillin biotransformation. CCD matrix constituted of process variables like FA concentration, time, temperature and biomass with intracellular, extracellular and total vanillin productions as responses. Production was scaled up and 68 mg/L of vanillin was recovered from 10 mg/L of FA using cell extracts from 1 mg biomass within 30 min. Kinetic activity of enzymes were characterized. From LCMS-ESI analysis a metabolic pathway of FA degradation and vanillin production was predicted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2016.08.015DOI Listing
December 2016

Evaluation of bishexadecyltrimethyl ammonium palladium tetrachloride based dual functional colloidal carrier as an antimicrobial and anticancer agent.

Dalton Trans 2016 Apr;45(15):6582-91

Quality Control & Quality Assurance Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu 180001, India.

We have developed a dual function carrier using bishexadecyltrimethyl ammonium palladium tetrachloride, which has anticancer as well as antibacterial activity, using a ligand insertion method with a simple and easy work procedure. The complex is prepared by a simple and cost effective method using hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride and palladium chloride under controlled stoichiometry. Herein, we report the aggregation (self assembly) of the metallosurfactant having palladium as a counter ion, in aqueous medium along with its binding affinity with bovine serum albumin. The palladium surfactant has exhibited excellent antimicrobial efficacy against fungus and bacteria (both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria). Cytotoxicity of palladium surfactant against cancerous (Human leukemia HL-60, pancreatic MIA-Pa-Ca-2 and prostate cancer PC-3) and healthy cells (fR2 human breast epithelial cells) was also evaluated using MTT assay. The present dual functional moiety shows a low IC50 value and has potential to be used as an anticancer agent. Our dual function carrier which itself possesses antimicrobial and anticancer activity represents a simple and effective system and can also be utilized as a drug carrier in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6dt00312eDOI Listing
April 2016

Purification of a dimeric arginine deiminase from Enterococcus faecium GR7 and study of its anti-cancerous activity.

Protein Expr Purif 2016 09 9;125:53-60. Epub 2015 Sep 9.

Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, Punjab, India.

The arginine deiminase (ADI, E.C 3.5.3.6) - a key enzyme of ADI pathway of Enterococcus faecium GR7 was purified to homogeneity. A sequential purification strategy involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, molecular sieve followed by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration was applied to the crude culture filtrate to obtain a pure enzyme preparation. The enzyme was purified with a fold of 16.92 and showed a final specific activity of 76.65IU/mg with a 49.17% yield. The dimeric ADI has a molecular mass of about 94,364.929Da, and comprises of hetrodimers of 49.1kDa and 46.5kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF and PAGE analysis. To assess anti-cancerous activity of ADI by MTT assay was carried out against cancer cell lines (MCF-7, Sp2/0-Ag14 and Hep-G2). Purified ADI exhibited the most profound antiproliferative activity against Hep-G2 cells; with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.95μg/ml. Purified ADI from E. faecium GR7 was observed to induce apoptosis in the Hep-G2 cells by DNA fragmentation assay. Our findings suggest the possibility of a future use of ADI from E. faecium GR7 as a potential anticancer drug.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2015.09.011DOI Listing
September 2016

Statistical optimization of conditions for decolorization of synthetic dyes by Cordyceps militaris MTCC 3936 using RSM.

Biomed Res Int 2015 4;2015:536745. Epub 2015 Feb 4.

Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, India.

In the present study, the biobleaching potential of white rot fungus Cordyceps militaris MTCC3936 was investigated. For preliminary screening, decolorization properties of C. militaris were comparatively studied using whole cells in agar-based and liquid culture systems. Preliminary investigation in liquid culture systems revealed 100% decolorization achieved within 3 days of incubation for reactive yellow 18, 6 days for reactive red 31, 7 days for reactive black 8, and 11 days for reactive green 19 and reactive red 74. RSM was further used to study the effect of three independent variables such as pH, incubation time, and concentration of dye on decolorization properties of cell free supernatant of C. militaris. RSM based statistical analysis revealed that dye decolorization by cell free supernatants of C. militaris is more efficient than whole cell based system. The optimized conditions for decolorization of synthetic dyes were identified as dye concentration of 300 ppm, incubation time of 48 h, and optimal pH value as 5.5, except for reactive red 31 (for which the model was nonsignificant). The maximum dye decolorizations achieved under optimized conditions for reactive yellow 18, reactive green 19, reactive red 74, and reactive black 8 were 73.07, 65.36, 55.37, and 68.59%, respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/536745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4334620PMC
November 2015

Application of recombinant Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 (fcs⁺/ech⁺) in malolactic fermentation.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2015 Apr 4;99(7):3015-28. Epub 2015 Feb 4.

Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala, India,

This study was conducted to enhance flavor characteristics of wine by malolactic fermentation using recombinant Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 (fcs (+)/ech (+)) encoding synthetic genes of feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase. After malolactic fermentation, wine phenolics were characterized using LCMS-ESI technique and a significant improvement in the antioxidant activity and flavor characteristics of wine was observed due to increased concentration of cinnamic acid derivatives. This proof of concept study highlights the role of recombinant P. acidilactici BD16 (fcs (+)/ech (+)) in improving flavor as well as aroma of wine due to production of several phenolic derivatives during secondary fermentation. A novel metabolic pathway was predicted from mass spectral analysis data that indicates biotransformation of cinnamic acid and derivatives into apigenin, catechin, coniferyl aldehyde, cyanidin, hydroxybenzoic acids, laricitrin, luteolin, malvidin 3-glucoside, myricetin, naringenin, pelargonin, piceatannol, querecitin, and vanillin that not only increased the overall consumer appreciation but also improved nutritional and probably the therapeutic properties of wines. This is a first evidence-based study where role of recombinant P. acidilactici BD16 (fcs (+)/ech (+)) in the wine secondary fermentation has been elucidated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-015-6413-8DOI Listing
April 2015

Metabolic engineering of Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 for production of vanillin through ferulic acid catabolic pathway and process optimization using response surface methodology.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2014 Oct 31;98(20):8539-51. Epub 2014 Jul 31.

Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala, India,

Occurrence of feruloyl-CoA synthetase (fcs) and enoyl-CoA hydratase (ech) genes responsible for the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin have been reported and characterized from Amycolatopsis sp., Streptomyces sp., and Pseudomonas sp. Attempts have been made to express these genes in Escherichia coli DH5α, E. coli JM109, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. However, none of the lactic acid bacteria strain having GRAS status was previously proposed for heterologous expression of fcs and ech genes for production of vanillin through biotechnological process. Present study reports heterologous expression of vanillin synthetic gene cassette bearing fcs and ech genes in a dairy isolate Pediococcus acidilactici BD16. After metabolic engineering, statistical optimization of process parameters that influence ferulic acid to vanillin biotransformation in the recombinant strain was carried out using central composite design of response surface methodology. After scale-up of the process, 3.14 mM vanillin was recovered from 1.08 mM ferulic acid per milligram of recombinant cell biomass within 20 min of biotransformation. From LCMS-ESI spectral analysis, a metabolic pathway of phenolic biotransformations was predicted in the recombinant P. acidilactici BD16 (fcs (+)/ech (+)).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-014-5950-xDOI Listing
October 2014

Application of response surface methodology for optimizing arginine deiminase production medium for Enterococcus faecium sp. GR7.

ScientificWorldJournal 2013 17;2013:892587. Epub 2013 Dec 17.

Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, Punjab, India.

Arginine metabolism in Enterococcus faecium sp. GR7 was enhanced via arginine deiminase pathway. Process parameters including fermentation media and environmental conditions were optimized using independent experiments and response surface methodology (central composite design). Fermentation media (EAPM) were optimized using independent experiments which resulted in 4-fold increase in arginine deiminase specific activity as compared to basal medium. To further enhance arginine deiminase activity in E. faecium sp. GR7 and biomass production including a five-level central composite design (CCD) was employed to study the interactive effect of three-process variables. Response surface methodology suggested a quadratic model which was further validated experimentally where it showed approximately 15-fold increase in arginine metabolism (in terms of arginine deiminase specific activity) over basal medium. By solving the regression equation and analyzing the response surface cartons, optimal concentrations of the media components (g/L) were determined as arginine 20.0; tryptone 15.0; lactose 10.0; K2HPO4 3.0; NaCl 1.0, MnSO4 0.6 mM; Tween 80 1%; pH 6.0 for achieving specific arginine deiminase activity of 4.6 IU/mG with concomitant biomass production of 12.1 mg/L. The model is significant as the coefficient of determination (R (2)) was 0.87 to 0.90 for all responses. Enhanced arginine deiminase yield from E. faecium, a GRAS lactic acid bacterial strain, is desirable to explore in vitro therapeutic potential of the arginine metabolizing E. faecium sp. GR7.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/892587DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3877641PMC
September 2014

Statistical media and process optimization for biotransformation of rice bran to vanillin using Pediococcus acidilactici.

Indian J Exp Biol 2013 Nov;51(11):935-43

Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala 147 002, India.

An isolate of P. acidilactici capable of producing vanillin from rice bran was isolated from a milk product. Response Surface Methodology was employed for statistical media and process optimization for production of biovanillin. Statistical medium optimization was done in two steps involving Placket Burman Design and Central Composite Response Designs. The RSM optimized vanillin production medium consisted of 15% (w/v) rice bran, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 0.1% (w/v) ammonium nitrate, 0.005% (w/v) ferulic acid, 0.005% (w/v) magnesium sulphate, and 0.1% (v/v) tween-80, pH 5.6, at a temperature of 37 degrees C under shaking conditions at 180 rpm. 1.269 g/L vanillin was obtained within 24 h of incubation in optimized culture medium. This is the first report indicating such a high vanillin yield obtained during biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using a Pediococcal isolate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
November 2013

In vitro and in vivo survival and colonic adhesion of Pediococcus acidilactici MTCC5101 in human gut.

Biomed Res Int 2013 24;2013:583850. Epub 2013 Sep 24.

Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Punjab, Patiala 147 002, India.

The present study aims to investigate the probiotic nature of Pediococcus acidilactici MTCC5101 by an in vitro assay of bacterial adherence to intestinal epithelial cells of human gastrointestinal (GI) tract using Caco-2 cell line. Further to assess the in vivo survival in the GI tract, oral feeding was carried out with the help of 10 healthy volunteers. The effect on wellness was assessed by studying blood biochemical parameters of the volunteers. The survival of the bacteria was assessed using PCR-based detection of P. acidilactici MTCC5101 in fecal samples. The probiotic nature of P. acidilactici MTCC 5101 was strengthened by its adherence to the intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell line in the in vitro SEM observations. Oral feeding study for assessing the survival of bacteria in GI tract of volunteers showed the strain to be established in the GI tract which survived for about 2 weeks after feeding.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/583850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3794518PMC
June 2014

Mapping and genomic targeting of the major leaf shape gene (L) in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

Theor Appl Genet 2014 Jan 25;127(1):167-77. Epub 2013 Oct 25.

Crop Science Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA.

Key Message: A major leaf shape locus (L) was mapped with molecular markers and genomically targeted to a small region in the D-genome of cotton. By using expression analysis and candidate gene mapping, two LMI1 -like genes are identified as possible candidates for leaf shape trait in cotton. Leaf shape in cotton is an important trait that influences yield, flowering rates, disease resistance, lint trash, and the efficacy of foliar chemical application. The leaves of okra leaf cotton display a significantly enhanced lobing pattern, as well as ectopic outgrowths along the lobe margins when compared with normal leaf cotton. These phenotypes are the hallmark characteristics of mutations in various known modifiers of leaf shape that culminate in the mis/over-expression of Class I KNOX genes. To better understand the molecular and genetic processes underlying leaf shape in cotton, a normal leaf accession (PI607650) was crossed to an okra leaf breeding line (NC05AZ21). An F2 population of 236 individuals confirmed the incompletely dominant single gene nature of the okra leaf shape trait in Gossypium hirsutum L. Molecular mapping with simple sequence repeat markers localized the leaf shape gene to 5.4 cM interval in the distal region of the short arm of chromosome 15. Orthologous mapping of the closely linked markers with the sequenced diploid D-genome (Gossypium raimondii) tentatively resolved the leaf shape locus to a small genomic region. RT-PCR-based expression analysis and candidate gene mapping indicated that the okra leaf shape gene (L (o) ) in cotton might be an upstream regulator of Class I KNOX genes. The linked molecular markers and delineated genomic region in the sequenced diploid D-genome will assist in the future high-resolution mapping and map-based cloning of the leaf shape gene in cotton.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-013-2208-4DOI Listing
January 2014

Effect of the oral intake of probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici BA28 on Helicobacter pylori causing peptic ulcer in C57BL/6 mice models.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2014 Jan;172(2):973-83

Probiotic lactic acid bacteria are being proposed to cure peptic ulcers by reducing colonization of Helicobacter pylori within the stomach mucosa and by eradicating already established infection. In lieu of that, in vitro inhibitory activity of pediocin-producing probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici BA28 was evaluated against H. pylori by growth inhibition assays. Further, chronic gastritis was first induced in two groups of C57BL/6 mice by orogastric inoculation with H. pylori with polyethylene catheter, and probiotic P. acidilactici BA28 was orally administered to study the eradication and cure of peptic ulcer disease. H. pylori and P. acidilactici BA28 were detected in gastric biopsy and fecal samples of mice, respectively. A probiotic treatment with P. acidilactici BA28, which is able to eliminate H. pylori infection and could reverse peptic ulcer disease, is being suggested as a co-adjustment with conventional antibiotic treatment. The study provided an evidence of controlling peptic ulcer disease, by diet mod
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-013-0585-4DOI Listing
January 2014

Phenolic biotransformations during conversion of ferulic acid to vanillin by lactic acid bacteria.

Biomed Res Int 2013 28;2013:590359. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, India.

Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/590359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3771242PMC
June 2014
-->