Publications by authors named "Balasubramanian Sivaraman"

13 Publications

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Dietary intake of trace elements from commercially important fish and shellfish of Thoothukudi along the southeast coast of India and implications for human health risk assessment.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Dec 9;173(Pt A):113020. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Fish Quality Assurance and Management, Fisheries College and Research Institute, Thoothukudi, India.

The concentrations of eight trace elements (chromium, cobalt, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead) in14 commercially important fish and shellfish collected from Thoothukudi along the southeast coast of India was investigated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in order to assess the health risks associated with their consumption. The concentration of trace elements ranged from 0.001 to 39.5 μg/g. The estimated weekly intake of cadmium in seven fish and shellfish (0.0081-0.0996 mg/kg body weight) were above the provisional tolerable weekly intake set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. The risk assessment analysis indicated that there was non- carcinogenic risk upon lifetime consumption of rock crab, C. natator (TTHQ >1) and carcinogenic risks upon lifetime consumption of S. jello, P. semisulcatus, P. sanguinolentus C. natator, Uroteuthis duvaceli, Sepia pharaonis and Cistopus indicus due to cadmium exposure indicating a potential health risk to the exposed consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.113020DOI Listing
December 2021

Medium- to long-term results of acromioclavicular joint stabilisation using the Ligament Augmentation Reconstruction System (LARS) ligament.

Shoulder Elbow 2020 Jun 13;12(3):163-169. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Royal Stoke University Hospital, University Hospitals of North Midlands, Stoke-on-Trent, UK.

Background: Opinion is divided as to optimum management of grade III acromioclavicular joint injuries that have failed conservative management. We objectively investigated the radiological and functional outcome of acromioclavicular joint reconstruction using the Ligament Augmentation Reconstruction System (LARS®).

Methods: Retrospective review of patients with LARS reconstruction of acromioclavicular joint dislocations with minimum six-year follow-up. Functional assessment was performed using the constant score, Disability of Arm Shoulder and Hand score and simple satisfaction score. Radiological assessment was undertaken using plain radiographs. Results were compared with the uninjured limb.

Results: Twenty-four of 25 patients were included. Mean constant score for the injured shoulder was 87.0, Disability of Arm Shoulder and Hand score was 11.6. All patients indicated that they would have the operation again. There were five complications including two patients that suffered small cracks in the clavicle. Coracoid erosion was frequently seen but was most often minor. In two cases, this resulted in a complete dissociation of the coracoid tip but without functional detriment.

Discussion: LARS is a safe and effective method of acromioclavicular joint reconstruction producing good results, and we recommend its use for these injuries. We also caution clinicians who use cerclage methods to be aware of coracoid erosion when following up their patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758573219833697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285975PMC
June 2020

A single enzyme PCR-RFLP protocol targeting 16S rRNA/tRNA region to authenticate four commercially important shrimp species in India.

Food Chem 2018 Jan 23;239:369-376. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Department of Fisheries Environment, Fisheries College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Fisheries University, Thoothukkudi 628 008, India.

Food authenticity is an issue of major concern for food authorities, as mislabeling represents one of the major commercial frauds. In this study, a novel PCR-RFLP protocol was developed as a tool to authenticate four shrimp products of commercial importance belonging to the family, Penaeidae, viz. Litopenaeus vannamei, Penaeus monodon, P. semisulcatus and Fenneropenaeus indicus. PCR amplification was performed targeting 16S rRNA/tRNA region having an amplicon size of 530bp using the specific primers for shrimps, 16S-Cru4/16S-Cru3. Subsequent restriction analysis with a single restriction enzyme, Tsp5091, yielded distinct RFLP pattern for each species of shrimps having fragment sizes below 150bp. The unique RFLP patterns were also obtained in processed shrimp products without any degradation or alteration in the major fragments. The method was also validated with commercial shrimp products. Thus, the developed protocol can be performed within 8h using a single enzyme to authenticate four shrimp products of commercial significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.06.132DOI Listing
January 2018

Antioxidant activities of squid protein hydrolysates prepared with papain using response surface methodology.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2016 30;25(3):665-672. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

2Department of Fish Quality Assurance and Management, Fisheries College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Fisheries University, Thoothukkudi, 628008 India.

Squid protein hydrolysates (SPH) were prepared from the Indian squid using papain. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of hydrolysis conditions, including temperature, time, and the enzyme-substrate ratio using DPPH radical scavenging activity as a response. The amino acid composition of SPH was compared with raw squid muscle. antioxidant activities were evaluated based on reducing power, metal chelation, ABTS, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. SPH exhibited good ABTS radical scavenging activities of 96.50±0.90%, superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of 96.4±0.89%, reducing powers of 0.71±0.02, moderate hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of 64.03±2.11%, and metal chelating activities of 52.04±1.02%. antioxidant activities determined using a sardine minced model system showed 42% reduction in formation of secondary oxidative products as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), almost equivalent to reduction by ascorbic acid of 41.42% at 400 ppm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-016-0117-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6049156PMC
June 2016

Effect of additives in the shelflife extension of chilled and frozen stored Indian octopus (Cistopus indicus).

J Food Sci Technol 2016 Feb 14;53(2):1348-54. Epub 2015 Nov 14.

Department of Fish Quality Assurance and Management, Fish Quality Monitoring and Certification Centre, Fisheries College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Fisheries University, Tuticorin, 628 008 India.

In this study, the effect of commercial additives viz. cafodos and altesa employed to treat Indian octopus (Cistopus indicus) was examined during chilled and frozen storage. Shelf lives of treated and untreated octopus in ice were 6 and 8 days, respectively in ice. Treated and untreated frozen octopus had a shelf life of 40 days. Autolytic and microbiological changes were not controlled by the additives, as evidenced through rapid reduction in non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and α-amino nitrogen (α-AN) compounds; as well as accumulation of water soluble ammoniacal nitrogen and total volatile base- nitrogen (TVB-N) compounds. Loss of texture and colour were the major quality defects noticed in treated octopus as a result of enhanced protein solubility. Therefore, the additives approved for use in octopus neither enhanced the shelf life nor improved the sensory quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1930-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4837716PMC
February 2016

The role of proteases and inflammatory molecules in triggering neovascular age-related macular degeneration: basic science to clinical relevance.

Transl Res 2014 Sep 15;164(3):179-92. Epub 2014 Apr 15.

Centre for Eye Research Australia, The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes severe vision impairment in aged individuals. The health impact and cost of the disease will dramatically increase over the years, with the increase in the aging population. Currently, antivascular endothelial growth factor agents are routinely used for managing late-stage AMD, and recent data have shown that up to 15%-33% of patients do not respond to this treatment. Henceforth, there is a need to develop better treatment options. One avenue is to investigate the role proteases and inflammatory molecules might have in regulating and being regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor. Moreover, emerging data indicate that proteases and inflammatory molecules might be critical in the development and progression of AMD. This article reviews recent literature that investigates proteases and inflammatory molecules involved in the development of AMD. Gaining insights into the proteolytic and inflammatory pathways associated with the pathophysiology of AMD could enable the development of additional or alternative drug strategies for the treatment of AMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2014.04.005DOI Listing
September 2014

Hypothermia and low body temperature are common and associated with high mortality in hip fracture patients.

Hip Int 2014 May-Jun;24(3):237-42. Epub 2014 Feb 20.

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester - UK.

Hip fractures remain one of the commonest injuries treated by orthopaedic surgeons. Despite recent initiatives, the fracture engenders a very high mortality. The UK National Hip Fracture Database reports a 30-day mortality of 8%. The pathophysiology that results in such high mortality remains imperfectly understood. The significance of thermal dysregulation in polytrauma is becoming increasingly recognised. Hypothermia is a common feature of polytrauma and is associated with adverse outcomes. No previous studies have explored the prevalence and outcomes of hip fracture patients with hypothermia and/or low body temperature. We sought to evaluate this. We prospectively collected the demographic details and admission tympanic temperature of all patients presenting to our institution with hip fracture. Patient mortality was also recorded. Seven hundred and eighty-one patients were included. The mean age was 80 years. 38% (300) had a temperature below 36.5°C. 4% (30) presented with a tympanic temperature greater than 37.5°C. The 30-day mortality for patients with a normal admission temperature (between 36.5° and 37.5°C) was 5.1%. This value was 15.3% for those whose admission temperature was less than 36.5°C (p<0.0001). Correcting for potential confounders of age and gender, those with an admission temperature of less than 36.5°C had a 2.8 fold increase in the odds of mortality at 30-days compared with those with an admission temperature of between 36.5° and 37.5°C (p<0.0005). Low body temperature is strongly linked to 30-day mortality in hip fracture patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5301/hipint.5000124DOI Listing
January 2015

Preliminary identification of differentially expressed tear proteins in keratoconus.

Mol Vis 2013 30;19:2124-34. Epub 2013 Oct 30.

School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia ; School of Medicine, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Victoria, Australia ; Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Purpose: To examine the proteins differentially expressed in the tear film of people with keratoconus and normal subjects.

Methods: Unstimulated tears from people with keratoconus (KC) and controls (C) were collected using a capillary tube. Tear proteins from people with KC and controls were partitioned using a novel in-solution electrophoresis, Microflow 10 (ProteomeSep), and analyzed using linear ion trap quadrupole fourier transform mass spectrometry. Spectral counting was used to quantify the individual tear proteins.

Results: Elevated levels of cathepsin B (threefold) were evident in the tears of people with KC. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (ninefold), fibrinogen alpha chain (eightfold), cystatin S (twofold), and cystatin SN (twofold) were reduced in tears from people with KC. Keratin type-1 cytoskeletal-14 and keratin type-2 cytoskeletal-5 were present only in the tears of people with KC.

Conclusions: The protein changes in tears, that is, the decrease in protease inhibitors and increase in proteases, found in the present and other previously published studies reflect the pathological events involved in KC corneas. Further investigations into tear proteins may help elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of KC, which could result in better treatment options.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3816990PMC
March 2014

Effects of eye rubbing on the levels of protease, protease activity and cytokines in tears: relevance in keratoconus.

Clin Exp Optom 2013 Mar 18;96(2):214-8. Epub 2013 Feb 18.

Brien Holden Vision Institute, Kensington, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Proteases, protease activity and inflammatory molecules in tears have been found to be relevant in the pathogenesis of keratoconus. We sought to determine the influence of eye rubbing on protease expression, protease activity and concentration of inflammatory molecules in tears.

Methods: Basal tears were collected from normal volunteers before and after 60 seconds of experimental eye rubbing. The total amount of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and inflammatory molecules interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the tear samples were measured using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Tear collagenase activity was investigated using a specific activity assay.

Results: The concentrations of MMP-13 (51.9 ± 34.3 versus 63 ± 36.8 pg/ml, p = 0.006), IL-6 (1.24 ± 0.98 versus 2.02 ± 1.52 pg/ml, p = 0.004) and TNF-α (1.16 ± 0.74 versus 1.44 ± 0.66 pg/ml, p = 0.003) were significantly increased in normal subjects after eye rubbing. The experimental eye rub did not alter significantly the collagenase activity (5.02 ± 3 versus 7.50 ± 3.90 fluorescent intensity units, p = 0.14) of tears.

Conclusion: Eye rubbing for 60 seconds increased the level of tear MMP-13, IL-6 and TNF-α in normal study subjects. This increase in protease, protease activity and inflammatory mediators in tears after eye rubbing may be exacerbated even further during persistent and forceful eye rubbing seen in people with keratoconus and this in turn may contribute to the progression of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cxo.12038DOI Listing
March 2013

Proteases, proteolysis and inflammatory molecules in the tears of people with keratoconus.

Acta Ophthalmol 2012 Jun 13;90(4):e303-9. Epub 2012 Mar 13.

Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Purpose: To investigate the expression of proteases, proteolytic activity and cytokines in the tear film of people with keratoconus.

Methods: Basal tears from people with keratoconus, from individuals who had undergone corneal collagen cross-linking for the treatment of keratoconus, and from normal controls were collected using a capillary tube. Corneal curvature of each subject was mapped. The total protein in tears was estimated. Levels and activity of proteases in the tears were analysed using specific antibody arrays and activity assays.

Results: The total tear protein level was significantly reduced in keratoconus (4.1 ± 0.9 mg/ml) compared with normals (6.7 ± 1.4 mg/ml) (p < 0.0001) or subjects who had undergone corneal collagen cross-linking (5.7 ± 2.3 mg/ml) (p < 0.005). Significantly (p < 0.05) increased tear expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -1, -3, -7, -13, interleukins (IL) -4, -5, -6, -8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) -α, -β were evident in keratoconus. Tear IL-6 was the only cytokine significantly (p < 0.05) increased in tears of keratoconus subjects compared with the collagen cross-linked group. No significant difference in tear proteases were observed between the normal and the cross-linked groups, although the expression of TNF-α was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in the cross-linked group compared with the controls. Elevated gelatinolytic (87.5 ± 33.6 versus 45.8 ± 24.6 FIU, p < 0.0001) and collagenolytic (6.1 ± 3.2 versus 3.6 ± 2.0 FIU, p < 0.05) activities were observed in tears from keratoconus compared with normal subjects. The activity of tear gelatinases (69.6 ± 22.2 FIU) and collagenases (5.7 ± 3.3 FIU) in the collagen cross-linked group was not significantly different compared with either keratoconus or normals.

Conclusion: Tears of people with keratoconus had 1.9 times higher levels of proteolytic activity and over expression of several MMPs and cytokines compared with tears from controls. Further investigations are required to study the possible implications of these changes and whether they can be used to monitor disease progression or determine the success of corneal collagen cross-linking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-3768.2011.02369.xDOI Listing
June 2012

Levels of lactoferrin, secretory IgA and serum albumin in the tear film of people with keratoconus.

Exp Eye Res 2012 Mar 17;96(1):132-7. Epub 2011 Dec 17.

Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

Keratoconus is a degenerating disease of the eye which causes an irregularly shaped cornea leading to severe impairment of vision. Tear proteomics in keratoconus has been a topic of substantial discussion and speculation over many years. This study was designed to examine the levels of total protein, lactoferrin, secretory IgA and serum albumin in the tear film of people with keratoconus. Basal tears were collected using a capillary tube and corneal curvature was mapped using a topographer. Total protein in tears was estimated. The amount of regulated protein lactoferrin, constitutive protein sIgA and serum protein albumin was measured using specific ELISAs. The changes in protein concentrations in tears were correlated to the degree of corneal asphericity. There was a two-fold (p<0.0001) decrease in total protein levels between keratoconus (3.86 ± 1.62 mg/ml) and normal (7.00 ± 1.58 mg/ml) tears. The amount of lactoferrin (0.67 ± 0.28 vs. 1.13 ± 0.29 mg/ml) and secretory IgA (0.78 ± 0.36 vs. 1.70 ± 0.66 mg/ml) were significantly (p<0.0001) reduced in keratoconus tears. Variation in serum albumin levels between keratoconus (8.18 ± 4.72 μg/ml) and normal tears (11.66 ± 8.20 μg/ml) were not significant. The differences in total protein, lactoferrin and secretory IgA were not associated with contact lens wear, age, gender or atopy of subjects. The keratometry reading was negatively correlated to tear levels of total protein (r = -0.59, p < 0.01) lactoferrin (r = -0.40, p < 0.05) and secretory IgA (r = -0.34, p < 0.05). The tears of keratoconus subjects appear to have an altered protein profile, and one that might change with the severity of the disease. These findings may lead the way to understanding or monitoring disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2011.12.010DOI Listing
March 2012

Are proteinases the reason for keratoconus?

Curr Eye Res 2010 Mar;35(3):185-91

School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Purpose: Keratoconus is a degenerating disease of the eye that results in an irregularly-shaped cornea. The etiology of the disease is unknown and the prognosis is difficult due to the variability in outcome. Keratoconus has been associated with eye rubbing, atopy, contact lens wear, as well as genetic conditions, such as Down's syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Marfan's syndrome. Thinning of the cornea in keratoconus has been well studied and is documented to occur as a result of degradation of corneal collagen. The reason for this tissue degradation is unknown but has been hypothesized to be linked with proteases.

Methods: This study used a literature search to review the role of proteases and inflammatory molecules in the aetiology of keratoconus.

Results: Early studies demonstrated elevated levels of collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activities in laboratory cultures of keratoconic corneas. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent proteins that include collagenases and gelatinases. MMPs levels are altered in keratoconus corneas compared to normal corneas and the level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is decreased in keratoconic corneas. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of Cathepsin B, G, and K in keratoconus. Although thought to be a non-inflammatory disease, inflammatory molecules, such as interleukins and tumor necrosis factor have been shown to be elevated in keratoconus, and these inflammatory molecules may mediate production and activation of proteases.

Conclusions: Proteases may be implicated in keratoconus. An in-depth investigation of these proteases may help in better understanding the course of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02713680903477824DOI Listing
March 2010

A contribution to the calculation of a safe deltoid split.

Int J Shoulder Surg 2008 Jul;2(3):52-5

Leicester Medical School and Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, UK.

Purpose: Traditional teaching suggests that a safe deltoid split should extend no more than 5 cm from the lateral edge of the acromion. However, there are reports of nerves lying within this distance. Our aim was to redefine the safe maximum split and also to study the influence of arm length and position.

Materials And Methods: Thirty cadaveric shoulders were dissected using the deltoid-splitting approach and the acromion-axillary nerve distance was measured in the neutral position, in abduction, and in adduction. This was correlated to upper arm length. Deltoid splits were measured at the end of 13 deltoid-splitting shoulder operations.

Results: The mean acromion-axillary nerve distance was 6.0 cm (SD 0.6; range 4.5-6.5). Abduction brought the nerve closer by 1.5 cm. There was a strong correlation with upper arm length (r = 0.82) but the presence of high individual variability did not allow calculation of a safe deltoid split. The mean deltoid split in 13 open shoulder operations was 3.4 cm.

Conclusions: Taking the mean acromion-axillary nerve distance minus three standard deviations as the safe deltoid split would protect 99.7% of nerves. Therefore we recommend that the maximum deltoid split should be 4.2 cm; this distance would be sufficient to preserve all nerves in our study as well as all those reported by other authors. Splitting the deltoid in abduction should be avoided.

Clinical Relevance: The traditional 5-cm deltoid split is probably too generous. We believe 4.2 cm is a safer limit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-6042.42577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2840821PMC
July 2008
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