Publications by authors named "Balasubramanian Sellamuthu"

10 Publications

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Acclimatization of microbial community of submerged membrane bioreactor treating hospital wastewater.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jan 8;319:124223. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Investissement Québec - CRIQ, 333, rue Franquet, Quebec, QC G1P 4C7, Canada.

This study was performed to understand the dynamics of the microbial community of submerged membrane bioreactor during the acclimatization process to treat the hospital wastewater. In this regard, three acclimatization phases were examined using a mixture of synthetic wastewater (SWW) and real hospital wastewater (HWW) in the following proportions; In Phase 1: 75:25 v/v (SWW: HWW); Phase 2: 50:50 v/v (SWW: HWW); and Phase 3: 25:75 v/v (SWW: HWW) of wastewater. The microbial community was analyzed using Illumina high throughput sequencing to identify the bacterial and micro-eukaryotes community in SMBR. The acclimatization study clearly demonstrated that shift in microbial community composition with time. The dominance of pathogenic and degrading bacterial communities such as Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Zoogloea was observed at the phase 3 of acclimatization. This study witnessed the major shift in the micro-eukaryotes community, and the proliferation of fungi Basidiomycota was observed in phase 3 of acclimatization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124223DOI Listing
January 2021

The effect of ultrasound pulse length on microbubble cavitation induced antibody accumulation and distribution in a mouse model of breast cancer.

Nanotheranostics 2020 15;4(4):256-269. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Microbubble Theranostic Laboratory, CHUM Research Center, Montreal, Canada.

In solid tumors, the limited diffusion of therapeutic molecules in the perivascular space is a known limitation impacting treatment efficacy. Ultrasound Targeted Microbubble Cavitation (UTMC) has been shown to increase vascular permeability and improve the delivery of therapeutic compounds including small molecules, antibodies (mAb), nanoparticles and even cells, notably across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). In this study, we hypothesized that UTMC could improve the accumulation and biodistribution of mAb targeting the adenosinergic pathway (i.e. CD73) in mice bearing bilateral subcutaneous 4T1 mammary carcinoma. A bolus of fluorescently labeled mAb was given intravenously, followed by a slow infusion of microbubbles. UTMC therapy (1 MHz, 850 kPa) was given under ultrasound image guidance for 5 minutes to the right side tumor only, using three different pulse lengths with identical ultrasound energy (5000cyc "long", 125x40cyc "mid" and 500x10cyc "short"), and leaving the left tumor as a paired control. Longitudinal accumulation at 0 h, 4 h and 24 h was measured using whole-body biofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Our data support an increase in antibody accumulation and extravasation (# extravasated vessels and extravasated signal intensity) at 0 h for all pulses and at 4 h for the mid and short pulses when compared to the control non treated side. However, this difference was not found at 24 h post UTMC, indicative of the transient nature of UTMC. Interestingly, confocal data supported that the highest extravasation range was obtained at 0 h with the long pulse and that the short pulse caused no increase in the extravasation range. Overall, the mid pulse was the only pulse to increase all our metrics (biofluorescence, fraction of extravasated vessels, amount of extravasated Ab, and extravasation range) at 0 h and 4 h time points. Our results support that UTMC can enhance antibody accumulation in solid tumors at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. This preferential accumulation was evident at early time points (0 h and 4 h) but had started to fade by 24 h, a time dependence that is consistent with the ultrasound blood brain barrier opening literature. Further development and optimization of this theranostic platform, such as repeated UTMC, could help improve antibody based therapies against solid cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ntno.46892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532643PMC
April 2021

Improving aerobic sludge granulation in sequential batch reactor by natural drying: Effluent sludge recovery and feeding back into reactor.

Chemosphere 2020 Mar 21;242:125159. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department de Radiologie, Radio-Ooncologie et Medicine Nuclearize, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Montreal, QC, H2X 0A9, Canada.

One of the main problems in treating high volumes of wastewater is the long startup time required aerobic granular sludge (AGS), and this issue significantly limits the broad application of advanced AGS technology. To promote rapid AGS formation in the startup phase, a method was developed involving the recovery and natural drying of effluent sludge prior to feeding it back into the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). An analysis of the process shows that supplemented naturally dried sludge swiftly promoted sludge aggregation and granular sludge formation in the reactor, and feeding the SBR with naturally dried sludge aggregates (1.75 ± 0.05 g/L seven times) significantly shortened the granulation time in the startup phase by 14 days. In addition, MLSS, SVI, SVI/SVI, and the average granule size of AGS in the reactor were maintained at 4.66 g/L, 47.4 mL/g, 0.93, and 2.8 mm, respectively. When fed back into the bioreactor, the aggregates acted as nuclei/carriers in the rapid granulation and played a significant role in rendering the SBR operation stable. This approach could be used to eliminate the random granules aggregation-disintegration mechanism that occurs in the initial stage of AGS formation. The study results reveal that the removal rate of COD and NH-N were above 95% and 96%, respectively. Furthermore, this approach requires less energy and significantly reduces the amount of sludge produced (as the effluent sludge is reused).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125159DOI Listing
March 2020

WITHDRAWN: Gold coated dual-resonance long-period fiber gratings (DR-LPFG) based Aptasensor for Cyanobacterial toxin detection.

Exp Mol Pathol 2019 May 28:104266. Epub 2019 May 28.

Centre de Recherche du CHUM, Université de Montréal, 900 rue st-Denis, Montréal, QC H2X 0A9, Canada. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2019.104266DOI Listing
May 2019

Label-free cocaine aptasensor based on a long-period fiber grating.

Opt Lett 2019 May;44(10):2482-2485

In this Letter, we combined a promising bioreceptor, a cocaine aptamer MN6, with an ultrasensitive optical platform long-period fiber grating (LPFG) to create a new cocaine biosensor. The cocaine induces a conformational rearrangement of the aptamer which changes the refractive index around the LPFG producing a measurable shift of the transmission spectrum. We were able to track subtle interaction between the receptor and cocaine molecules over a concentration range of 25 to 100 μM. The presented biosensor does not require labeling or signal enhancement, resulting in a simple user-friendly device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.44.002482DOI Listing
May 2019

The bacterial community structure of submerged membrane bioreactor treating synthetic hospital wastewater.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Aug 18;286:121362. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Centre de Recherche Industrielle du Québec (CRIQ), Quebec, QC, Canada.

The pharmaceuticals are biologically active compounds used to prevent and treat diseases. These pharmaceutical compounds were not fully metabolized by the human body and thus excreted out in the wastewater stream. Thus, the study on the treatment of synthetic hospital wastewater containing pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, carbamazepine, estradiol and venlafaxine) was conducted to understand the variation of the bacterial community in a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) at varying hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6, 12 and 18 h. The variation in bacterial community dynamics of SMBR was studied using high throughput sequencing. The removal of pharmaceuticals was uniform at varying HRT. The removal of both ibuprofen and estradiol was accounted for 90%, whereas a lower removal of venlafaxine (<10%) and carbamazepine (>5%) in SMBR was observed. The addition of pharmaceuticals alters the bacterial community structure and result in increased abundance of bacteria (e.g., Flavobacterium, Pedobacter, and Methylibium) reported to degrade toxic pollutant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121362DOI Listing
August 2019

Critical review of EPS production, synthesis and composition for sludge flocculation.

J Environ Sci (China) 2018 Apr 22;66:225-245. Epub 2017 May 22.

Université du Québec, Institut national de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre & Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec G1K 9A9, Canada.

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microorganisms represent biological macromolecules with unfathomable potentials and they are required to be explored further for their potential application as a bioflocculant in various wastewater sludge treatment. Although several studies already exist on biosynthetic pathways of different classical biopolymers like alginate and xanthan, no dedicated studies are available for EPS in sludge. This review highlights the EPS composition, functionality, and biodegradability for its potential use as a carbon source for production of other metabolites. Furthermore, the effect of various extraction methods (physical and chemical) on compositional, structural, physical and functional properties of microbial EPS has been addressed. The vital knowledge of the effect of extraction method on various important attributes of EPS can help to choose the suitable extraction method depending upon the intended use of EPS. The possible use of different molecular biological techniques for enhanced production of desired EPS was summarized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2017.05.020DOI Listing
April 2018

Pilot-scale biopesticide production by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki using starch industry wastewater as raw material.

J Environ Sci Health B 2017 Sep 6;52(9):623-630. Epub 2017 Jun 6.

a INRS-ETE, Université du Québec , Québec , Canada.

Pilot-scale Bacillus thuringiensis based biopesticide production (2000 L bioreactor) was conducted using starch industry wastewater (SIW) as a raw material using optimized operational parameters obtained in 15 L and 150 L fermenters. In pilot scale fermentation process the oxygen transfer rate is a major limiting factor for high product yield. Thus, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (Ka) remains a tool to determine the oxygen transfer capacity [oxygen utilization rate (OUR) and oxygen transfer rate (OTR)] to obtain better bacterial growth rate and entomotoxicity in new bioreactor process optimization and scale-up. This study results demonstrated that the oxygen transfer rate in 2000 L bioreactor was better than 15 L and 150 L fermenters. The better oxygen transfer in 2000 L bioreactor augmented the bacterial growth [total cell (TC) and viable spore count (SC)] and delta-endotoxin yield. Prepared a stable biopesticide formulation for field use and its entomotoxicity was also evaluated. This study result corroborates the feasibility of industrial scale operation of biopesticide production using starch industry wastewater as raw material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2017.1330071DOI Listing
September 2017

Review on fate and mechanism of removal of pharmaceutical pollutants from wastewater using biological approach.

Bioresour Technol 2017 Jan 15;224:1-12. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

Centre de Recherche Industrielle du Québec (CRIQ), Québec (Québec), Canada.

Due to research advancement and discoveries in the field of medical science, maintains and provides better human health and safer life, which lead to high demand for production of pharmaceutical compounds with a concomitant increase in population. These pharmaceutical (biologically active) compounds were not fully metabolized by the body and excreted out in wastewater. This micro-pollutant remains unchanged during wastewater treatment plant operation and enters into the receiving environment via the discharge of treated water. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds in both surface and ground waters becomes a major concern due to their potential eco-toxicity. Pharmaceuticals (emerging micro-pollutants) deteriorate the water quality and impart a toxic effect on living organisms. Therefore, from last two decades, plenty of studies were conducted on the occurrence, impact, and removal of pharmaceutical residues from the environment. This review provides an overview on the fate and removal of pharmaceutical compounds via biological treatment process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.11.042DOI Listing
January 2017

Analysis of bacterial, fungal and archaeal populations from a municipal wastewater treatment plant developing an innovative aerobic granular sludge process.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Jan 24;33(1):14. Epub 2016 Nov 24.

INRS-Institute Armand-Frappier, Laval, QC, H7V 1B7, Canada.

Mature granules and flocs from aerobic sludge were collected from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) treating both municipal and industrial effluents in Haining city China. This plant has been operating under conditions favoring aerobic granular sludge formation, for over 3 years, suggesting that the granules, which stably retained under changing effluent conditions, may contain unique microbial populations. Microbial analysis indicated that the granular sludge was primarily composed of Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes from the bacterial phyla. Interestingly, microbial communities were also observed to be stratified between the structural features of the sludge. For example, Euryarchaeota was found to make up the majority of the archaea found in the granules while Methanosaeta was dominant in the flocs. Additionally, granules were found to contain, 34 phyla and 222 genera of bacteria, 4 phyla and 13 genera of fungi, and 2 phyla and 17 genera of archaea. While flocs contained, 32 phyla and 203 genera of bacteria, 6 phyla and 26 genera of fungi, and 2 phyla and 12 genera of archaea. This biodiversity signifying a preservation of bacterial and archaeal population in granules, and fungal populations in flocs may result from the sedimentary characteristics of the granules. This suggests microbes uniquely associated in the granules are playing a key role in structure formation and stability of the granular ecosystem, which is maintained by the longer sludge retention time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-016-2179-0DOI Listing
January 2017
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