Publications by authors named "Baiyang Chen"

53 Publications

Mixed Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Front Surg 2021 14;8:678853. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Research Center of Digestive Diseases, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Neuroendocrine tumors are heterogeneous malignancies that originate from the neuroendocrine system. Previous studies show that this cancer type mainly localizes in the gastrointestinal tract and often metastasizes to the liver. Primary liver neuroendocrine tumors are very rare and primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors (PHNET) with concurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only few PHNET cases have been identified, making their diagnosis difficult. Here, we report the biggest ever reported and "deceiving" lesion of a mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasm in the liver, aiming to raise awareness and improve treatment of the disease. Here, we report a preoperative misdiagnosed case that presented with hepatocellular carcinoma clinical features and no extrahepatic tumors. Postoperative pathology confirmed that it was a mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasm. The patient was then referred for etoposide and cisplatin-based chemotherapy. No disease recurrence was observed at the 6-month follow-up. We report a very rare and easily misdiagnosed case and we speculate that there were "undifferentiated cells" undergoing neuroendocrine and hepatocellular carcinoma differentiation, during which some hepatocellular carcinoma cells express neuroendocrine features. We recommend proper surgery and postoperative platinum-based chemotherapy in the management of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2021.678853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316597PMC
July 2021

Ecotoxicological effects of DBPs on freshwater phytoplankton communities in co-culture systems.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 17;421:126679. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment of Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055, PR China. Electronic address:

Intensive disinfection of wastewater during the COVID-19 pandemic might elevate the generation of toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs), which has triggered global concerns about their ecological risks to natural aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the toxicity of 17 DBPs typically present in wastewater effluents on three representative microalgae, including Scenedesmus sp. (Chlorophyta), Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyta), and Cyclotella sp. (Bacillariophyta) was investigated. The sensitivities of the three microalgae to DBPs varied greatly from species to species, indicating that DBPs may change the structure of phytoplankton communities. Later, co-cultures of these phytoplankton groups as a proxy of ecological freshwater scenario were conducted to explore the impacts of DBPs on phytoplankton community succession. M. aeruginosa became surprisingly dominant in co-cultures, representing over 50% after dosing with monochloroacetic acid (MCAA, 0.1-10 mg/L). The highest proportion of M. aeruginosa was 70.3% when exposed to 2 mg/L MCAA. Although Scenedesmus sp. dominated in monochloroacetonitrile (MCAN) exposure, M. aeruginosa accounted for no less than 30% even at 40 mg/L MCAN. In this study, DBPs disrupted the original inter-algal relationship in favor of M. aeruginosa, suggesting that DBPs may contribute to the outbreak of cyanobacterial blooms in aquatic ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126679DOI Listing
July 2021

Removing chlorinated haloacetaldehydes from drinking water by household heating devices with and without chlorine: Efficiency, influencing factors, and mechanisms.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 15;284:131202. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control of Shenzhen, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Research Center for Urban Water Recycling and Environmental Safety, Institute of Environment and Ecology, Tsinghua Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Haloacetaldehyde (HAL) is a type of disinfection byproduct (DBP) commonly detected in disinfected drinking water, and concerns toward its cytotoxic effects have promoted numerous efforts to control it. Given that household water treatment (HWT) process is a promising approach to polish drinking water quality and has been widely used by public, we herein evaluated the performances of two household heating devices (electric kettle and microwave oven) on the removals of three types of chlorinated haloacetaldehydes (Cl-HALs) under varying operating and water conditions. Results showed that the removals of HALs by boiling water to 100 °C were not very efficient (<20%) under automatic switch-off mode when chlorine was absent. The key mechanism responsible for Cl-HALs loss was likely volatilization because altering heating or cooling time did not enhance Cl-HALs' attenuations significantly. In contrast, Cl-HALs were readily transformed (>80%) when 1.0 mg/L chlorine was present without prolonging boiling time. Adding chlorine quencher (ascorbic acid) inhibited Cl-HALs' removals substantially, confirming that chlorine played a key role in the transformation process. The reactions between Cl-HALs and chlorine can be accelerated by raising water temperature and chlorine dosage. Stepwisely, monochloroacetaldehyde was transformed into dichloroacetaldehyde (DCAL), then DCAL was converted into trichloroacetaldehyde (TCAL), and eventually the C-C bond of TCAL was cleaved to form trichloromethane and formic acid. The study hence explains the differences on the removals of Cl-HALs between with and without adding chlorine and meanwhile identifies the limits of domestic heating devices in removing Cl-HALs from drinking water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131202DOI Listing
June 2021

Toxicity of 17 Disinfection By-products to Different Trophic Levels of Aquatic Organisms: Ecological Risks and Mechanisms.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 08 16;55(15):10534-10541. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, P. R. China.

Intensified disinfection of wastewater during the COVID-19 pandemic increased the release of toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs). However, studies relating to the ecological impacts of DBPs on the aquatic environment remain insufficient. In this study, we comparatively investigated the toxicities and ecological risks of 17 typical, halogenated DBPs to three trophic levels of organisms in the freshwater ecosystem, including phytoplankton ( sp.), zooplankton (), and fish (). Toxicity of DBPs was found to be species-specific: sp. was the most sensitive to haloacetic acids, while was the most sensitive to haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes. Specific to each DBP, toxicities were also related to their classes and substituted halogen atoms. Damage to photosystems and oxidative stress served as the potential mechanisms for DBPs toxicity to microalgae. The different sensitivities to DBPs indicate that a battery of bioassays with organisms at different trophic levels is necessary to determine the ecotoxicity of DBPs. Furthermore, the ecological risks of DBPs were assessed by calculating the risk quotients (RQs) based on toxicity data from multiple bioassays. The cumulative RQs of DBPs to all the organisms were greater than 1.0, indicating high ecological risks of DBPs in wastewater effluents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c08796DOI Listing
August 2021

Roles and Knowledge Gaps of Point-of-Use Technologies for Mitigating Health Risks from Disinfection Byproducts in Tap Water: A Critical Review.

Water Res 2021 Jul 18;200:117265. Epub 2021 May 18.

NSF Nanosystems Engineering Research Center for Nanotechnology-Enabled Water Treatment, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-3005, United States. Electronic address:

Due to rising concerns about water pollution and affordability, there is a rapidly-growing public acceptance and global market for a variety of point-of-use (POU) devices for domestic uses. However, the efficiencies and mechanisms of POU technologies for removing regulated and emerging disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are still not systematically known. To facilitate the development of this field, we summarized performance trends of four common technologies (i.e., boiling, adsorption, membrane filtration, and advanced oxidation) on mitigating preformed DBPs and identified knowledge gaps. The following highest priority knowledge gaps include: 1) data on DBP levels at the tap or cup in domestic applications; 2) certainty regarding the controls of DBPs by heating processes as DBPs may form and transform simultaneously; 3) standards to evaluate the performance of carbon-based materials on varying types of DBPs; 4) long-term information on the membrane performance in removing DBPs; 5) knowledge of DBPs' susceptibility toward advanced redox processes; 6) tools to monitor/predict the toxicity and diversity of DBPs formed in waters with varying precursors and when implementing different treatment technologies; and 7) social acceptance and regulatory frameworks of incorporating POU as a potential supplement to current centralized-treatment focused DBP control strategies. We conclude by identifying research needs necessary to assure POU systems protect the public against regulated and emerging DBPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117265DOI Listing
July 2021

Long noncoding RNA TP53TG1 suppresses the growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating the PRDX4/β-catenin pathway.

Cancer Lett 2021 Aug 3;513:75-89. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, 300052, PR China. Electronic address:

Emerging evidence has shown that aberrant expression of lncRNA-TP53TG1 plays important roles in various malignancies. However, the biological functions of lncRNA-TP53TG1 in hepatocarcinogenesis, as well as the underlying mechanisms, remain largely unknown. Here, we assessed whether lncRNA-TP53TG1 plays a key role in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression of lncRNA-TP53TG1 was significantly decreased in HCC tissues and cells. Decreased expression of lncRNA-TP53TG1 was associated with aggressive clinical phenotypes and a poor prognosis. Ectopic expression of lncRNA-TP53TG1 inhibited hepatoma cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo, whereas lncRNA-TP53TG1 knockdown exerted the opposite effects. Furthermore, lncRNA-TP53TG1 played an important role in slowing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in HCC. Mechanistically, lncRNA-TP53TG1 physically interacted with PRDX4 and promoted its ubiquitin-mediated degradation, resulting in the inactivation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in hepatoma cells. Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which lncRNA-TP53TG1 exerts its tumor-suppressive effects through the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in a PRDX4-mediated manner in HCC. Based on these results, lncRNA-TP53TG1 potentially represents a prognostic indicator and therapeutic target for patients with HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.04.022DOI Listing
August 2021

Species and formation characteristics of halogenated DBPs in chloramination of tannic acid after biodegradation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 25;781:146690. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China. Electronic address:

Tannic acid is widely found in source water and wastewater, and it is also a typical degradation precursor of natural organic matter. In this study, focused on chloramination, the formation characteristics of halogenated DBPs from tannic acid biodegradation products were examined. Fifty-nine polar emerging DBPs (including four nitrogenous DBPs) were detected and forty of them were identified for the first time; meanwhile, their formation pathways were tentatively proposed. In general, much more polar emerging DBPs were formed at the early biodegradation stage than those at the later stage, while commonly observed aliphatic DBPs presented an exactly inverse trend, because initially-formed emerging DBPs can be transformed to those aliphatic DBPs by residual chloramine. Interestingly, while the relative formation level of brominated species in overall halogenated polar emerging DBPs maintained at high level at the later biodegradation stage during chlorination, it decreased significantly later during chloramination. The discrepancy may be due to that hydrolysis effects became dominant at this period in chloramination, whereas DBP formation from the reactions between slow reactive sites and hypohalous acids prevailed in chlorination. In addition, the calculated toxicity drivers among the 21 aliphatic DBPs were found to be haloacetonitriles, although they contribute mildly to the total concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146690DOI Listing
August 2021

Formation of Nitrite and Hydrogen Peroxide in Water during the Vacuum Ultraviolet Irradiation Process: Impacts of pH, Dissolved Oxygen, and Nitrate Concentration.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 02 20;55(3):1682-1689. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Photolysis via vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation is a robust technology capable of inactivating pathogens and degrading micropollutants, and therefore, its application has recently attracted great interest. However, VUV irradiation of water may yield nitrite (NO, a regulated carcinogenic contaminant) and hydrogen peroxide (HO, a compound linked to aging, inflammation, and cancer), thus motivating us to better understand its risks. By applying a novel HO detection method insensitive to coexisting compounds, this study clearly observed concurrent and substantial formations of NO and HO during VUV irradiation of various synthetic and real waters. Increasing pH and/or decreasing oxygen promoted the conversion of nitrate (NO) into NO but suppressed the HO formation, suggesting that there was a transition of radicals from oxidizing species like hydroxyl radicals to reducing species like hydrogen atoms and hydrated electrons. Under low light dose conditions, both NO and HO were formed concurrently; however, under high radiation dosage conditions, the patterns conducive to NO formation were opposite to those conducive to HO formation. Real water irradiation proved the formation of NO and HO at levels near to or greater than current drinking water regulatory limits. Hence, the study reminds of a holistic view of benefits and disbenefits of a VUV process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c06161DOI Listing
February 2021

Hydrogen peroxide formation in water during the VUV/UV irradiation process: Impacts and mechanisms of selected anions.

Environ Res 2021 04 17;195:110751. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen), 518055, China.

Understanding the formation and transformation of radicals generated by a low pressure mercury lamp emitting both 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) and 185 nm vacuum UV (VUV) is currently challenging due to the complexity of concurrent redox reactions occurring in this complex system. Because hydrogen peroxide (HO) is a common product of both oxidizing and reducing radicals generated during the VUV irradiation process, monitoring the variations in HO levels can help us better understand the presence and relative dominance of different radicals. In this study, we systematically evaluated the effects of several selected anions on the formation of HO under a variety of pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Results show that although addition of these anions inhibited the formation of HO, their HO-inhibition mechanisms are markedly different. At low concentrations (≤1.0 mg/L), chloride reduced the generation of HO primarily by consuming hydroxyl radicals (•OH); however, in high concentrations (11.0 mg/L), its light-screening effect was dominant. In comparison, the presence of bromide (≤1.0 mg/L) inhibited HO formation mainly by reacting rapidly with both •OH and HO. Carbonate and phosphorous species exerted influence mainly by consuming •OH. Along with irradiation, increasing pH significantly decreased HO levels, confirming that HO was formed mainly by •OH. In contrast, raising DO did not raise HO maximum yields, confirming that reducing radicals like aqueous electrons (e) and hydrogen atoms (•H) are not the key precursors of HO in this process. Mathematically, the evolutions of HO can be reliably modeled (R ≥ 0.80) using a kinetics model incorporating HO formation and decomposition kinetics. The results of this study may contribute to better understanding the use of VUV technology in water/wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.110751DOI Listing
April 2021

Rejection of chlorinated, brominated, and iodinated trihalomethanes by multi-stage reverse osmosis: Efficiency and mechanisms.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 15;268:129307. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China. Electronic address:

Reverse osmosis (RO), a promising technology for removing inorganic salts and a wide range of trace organic pollutants, is widely used in water treatment industry. In this study, the rejection of chlorinated, brominated, and iodinated trihalomethanes (THMs) by a multi-stage RO system was investigated. The results showed that the multi-stage RO system is effective in rejecting THMs, and THMs with large size, high hydrophobicity and low polarity were highly rejected. In the first stage, high percentage of THMs was adsorbed on RO membrane, and the THM rejection was dominated by both hydrophobic adsorption and size exclusion. The contribution of hydrophobic adsorption to THM rejection decreased significantly along RO stages due to decreased feed concentration, but the enhancement of size exclusion still ensured high rejection efficiencies for most THMs, indicating a compensation effect between two rejection mechanisms. Finally, to further understand the rejection in the multi-RO system from a perspective of THM property, multiple linear regression models were built. The impact of n-octanol-water partition coefficient (Log K) was slightly higher than that of stokes radius in the first stage, which was consistent with the rejection mechanism. But dipole moment played an increasingly important role in the second and third stage, weakening the impact of Log K on THM rejection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129307DOI Listing
April 2021

Generation of hydroxyl radicals during photodegradation of chloroacetic acids by 254 nm ultraviolet: A special degradation process revealed by a holistic radical determination methodology.

J Hazard Mater 2021 02 3;404(Pt B):124040. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, aqueous contaminants may undergo direct and/or indirect photolysis. Direct photolysis refers to transformation of contaminants by UV photon, and indirect photolysis refers to degradation of contaminants by UV-induced reactive species in the presence of photosensitizers. Because hydroxyl radical (•OH) was unexpectedly observed during chloroacetic acids photolysis without using photosensitizer, a question arises regarding whether direct photolysis-induced indirect photolysis (DPIP) was present and how it originated and evolved along the process. To answer these questions, this study employed multiple different yet complementary •OH detection approaches (i.e., probe, scavenger, electron paramagnetic resonance, and hydroxylation products) to prove the presence and role of •OH. Given that hydrogen peroxide (HO) was produced only in oxygenated water but not in deoxygenated water, we revealed that •OH was mainly generated by reduced oxygen. Meanwhile, several photolysis products like formate, glycolic acid, and glyoxylic acid were able to yield HO too, suggesting that they can all trigger formation of •OH under 254 nm UV. In addition to evidences of DPIP phenomenon, this study is also novel in demonstrating a holistic methodology to prove and identify the presence and sources of radicals, which might help enhance understandings of UV processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124040DOI Listing
February 2021

Removal of disinfection byproducts in drinking water by flexible reverse osmosis: Efficiency comparison, fates, influencing factors, and mechanisms.

J Hazard Mater 2021 01 8;401:123408. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen), Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Flexible reverse osmosis (FLERO) is a newly proposed technology for purifying and saving water simultaneously by recycling brine to inlet water. However, it is unknown if and how much FLERO may compromise micropollutant treatment efficiency. Hence, this study examined FLERO in removing twenty disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from simulated water under a constant 80% water recovery condition. The results achieved ≥ 80.8% removals for most of DBPs while varying ionic strength, methanol content, and water matrix affected only small DBPs. From chemical structure perspective, the removals of DBPs were ranked as tetra- ≥ tri- ≥ di- ≥ mono- DBPs for compounds containing identical functional groups (FGs) and halogen types, iodinated ≥ bromated ≥ chlorinated DBPs for compounds with identical FG and halogenation degrees, and HAAs ≥ HALs ≈ HMs for compounds with identical halogenation types and degrees. From chemical property viewpoint, the rejections of DBPs were modeled well (R = 0.76) by a quantitative structure-activity relationship model that incorporates four parameters (i.e., molecular volume, octanol-water partitioning coefficient, steric and electronic effects). From membrane-pollutant interaction standpoint, we for the first time revealed membrane trapping/sorption as another important mechanism for DBPs removal besides previously-known mechanisms like size exclusion and electrostatic repulsion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123408DOI Listing
January 2021

Heated fennel therapy promotes the recovery of gastrointestinal function in patients after complex abdominal surgery: A single-center prospective randomized controlled trial in China.

Surgery 2020 11 16;168(5):793-799. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of General Surgery, General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction remains a major determinant of the duration of stay after complex abdominal surgery. This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of heated fennel therapy in accelerating the recovery of gastrointestinal function.

Methods: This surgeon-blinded, prospective randomized controlled study included 381 patients with hepatobiliary, pancreatic, and gastric tumors who were divided into 2 groups. The patients in the experimental groups received heated fennel therapy, and those in the control groups received heated rice husk therapy. We compared the baseline characteristics, time to first postoperative flatus and defecation, fasting time, duration of postoperative hospital stay, grading of abdominal pain, classification of abdominal distension, inflammatory markers, and nutritional status indicators.

Results: The time to first flatus and first defecation and the fasting time were statistically significantly less in the heated fennel therapy group than those in the control groups (P < .05 each); and abdominal distension was also relieved in the experimental groups (P < .001). Heated fennel therapy had no obvious beneficial effect on inflammatory markers but improved the serum albumin (ALB) level of the patients at postop day 9 (P < .001). Among the patients with alimentary tract reconstruction, those in the heated fennel therapy group had a clinically important, lesser hospital stay than those in the control group (9.2 5 ± 5.1 versus 11.1 ± 6.4; P < .023).

Conclusion: Heated fennel therapy facilitated the gastrointestinal motility function of patients early postoperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.05.040DOI Listing
November 2020

Identification of 13 Key Genes Correlated With Progression and Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis.

Front Genet 2020 28;11:153. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreas Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains hard to diagnose early and cure due to a lack of accurate biomarkers and effective treatments. Hence, it is necessary to explore the tumorigenesis and tumor progression of HCC to discover new biomarkers for clinical treatment. We performed weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to explore hub genes that have high correlation with clinical information. In this study, we found 13 hub genes (, , , , , , , , , , , , and ) that have high correlation with histologic grade in HCC by analyzing TCGA LIHC dataset. All of these 13 hub genes could be used to effectively distinguish high histologic grade from low histologic grade of HCC through analysis of the ROC curve. The overall survival and disease-free survival information showed that high expression of these 13 hub genes led to poor prognosis. Meanwhile, these 13 hub genes had significantly different expression in HCC tumor and non-tumor tissues. We downloaded GSE6764, which contains corresponding clinical information, to validate the expression of these 13 hub genes. At the same time, we performed quantitative real-time PCR to validate the differences in the expression tendencies of these 13 hub genes between HCC tumor tissues and non-tumor tissues and high histologic grade and low histologic grade. We also explored mutation and methylation information of these 13 hub genes for further study. In summary, 13 hub genes correlated with the progression and prognosis of HCC were discovered by WGCNA in our study, and these hub genes may contribute to the tumorigenesis and tumor progression of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059753PMC
February 2020

Some issues limiting photo(cata)lysis application in water pollutant control: A critical review from chemistry perspectives.

Water Res 2020 May 13;174:115605. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Prevention and Control, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, China. Electronic address:

For decades, photolysis and photocatalysis have been touted as promising environment-benign and robust technologies to degrade refractory pollutants from water. However, extensive, large-scale engineering applications remain limited now. To facilitate the technology transfer process, earlier reviews have advocated to developing more cost-effective and innocuous materials, maximizing efficiency of photon usage, and optimizing photoreactor systems, mostly from material and reactor improvement perspectives. However, there are also some fundamental yet critical chemistry issues in photo(cata)lysis processes demanding more in-depth understanding and more careful consideration. Hence, this review summarizes some of these challenges. Of them, the first and paramount issue is the interference of coexisting compounds, including dissolved organic matter, anions, cations, and spiked additives. Secondly, considerable concerns are pointed to the formation of undesirable reaction by-products, such as halogenated, nitrogenous, and sulfur-containing compounds, which might increase instead of reduce toxicity of water if inadequate fluence and catalyst/additive are supplied due to time and cost constraints. Lastly, a critical issue lies in the uncertainty of current approaches used for identifying and quantifying radicals, especially when multiple radicals coexist together under changing and interconvertible conditions. The review hence highlights the needs to better understand these fundamental chemistry issues and meanwhile calls for more delicate design of experiments in future studies to overcome these barriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115605DOI Listing
May 2020

Photolysis and photocatalysis of haloacetic acids in water: A review of kinetics, influencing factors, products, pathways, and mechanisms.

J Hazard Mater 2020 06 26;391:122143. Epub 2020 Jan 26.

Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, 428 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309, United States.

Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are a group of pollutants ubiquitous in natural environment and anthropogenic systems, and therefore in need of control. Photolysis and photocatalysis techniques via ultraviolet (UV)-based technologies have held promise for decades in degrading organic molecules in water, but their capacities in removing HAAs remain to be explored. To better understand the trends in the existing literature and to identify the knowledge gaps that may merit further exploration, this review compares the HAAs photodegradation kinetics, influencing factors, reaction products, pathways, and mechanisms for a variety of UV technologies. The selected UV processes are classified into three types: UV-only photolysis, photooxidation, and photoreduction. Overall, although trends vary significantly depending upon many factors, the photo-susceptibility of HAAs always increases with rising molecular weight of substituted halogen atom(s), with those chlorinated HAAs being the most refractory species. Notably, while many processes proved hydroxyl radical (OH) as the forcing driver, the patterns of kinetics among HAAs were not consistent among processes, suggesting that OH was not the only driver. Compared to earlier studies focusing on specific technologies to treat numerous contaminants through a material perspective, this review commits to understanding the commonalities and differences among multiple UV-based technologies in treating only one group of compound mainly via a chemistry viewpoint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122143DOI Listing
June 2020

LINC00662 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression via altering genomic methylation profiles.

Cell Death Differ 2020 07 20;27(7):2191-2205. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

The identification of viability-associated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) is a means of uncovering therapeutic approaches for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In addition, aberrant genome-wide hypomethylation has been implicated in HCC initiation and progression. However, the relationship between lncRNA dysregulation and genome-wide hypomethylation in hepatocarcinogenesis has not been fully elucidated. A novel lncRNA named LINC00662 was previously demonstrated to play a role in gastrointestinal cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that this lncRNA was correlated with survival and exhibited oncogenic properties, both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we determined that LINC00662 could lead to genome-wide hypomethylation and alter the genomic methylation profile by synchronously reducing the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) level and enhancing the S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) level. Mechanistically, LINC00662 was determined to regulate the key enzymes influencing SAM and SAH levels, namely, methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (AHCY), by RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions. In addition, we demonstrated that some SAM-dependent HCC-promoting genes could be regulated by LINC00662 by altering the methylation status of their promoters via the LINC00662-coupled axes of MAT1A/SAM and AHCY/SAH. Taken together, the results of this this study indicate that LINC00662 could be a potential biomarker for HCC therapy. More importantly, we proposed a new role of lncRNA in regulating genomic methylation to promote oncogene activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-0494-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308394PMC
July 2020

Understanding and modeling the formation and transformation of hydrogen peroxide in water irradiated by 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) and 185 nm vacuum UV (VUV): Effects of pH and oxygen.

Chemosphere 2020 Apr 2;244:125483. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090, China.

Understanding ultraviolet photolysis induced by low pressure mercury lamp that emits both 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) and 185 nm vacuum UV (VUV) is currently challenging due to the copresence of multiple direct and indirect photochemical processes involving a series of highly-reactive radicals. Herein we examined the formation and transformation of HO in water, which is both a precursor and a product of radicals, under various pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. The trends show that HO increased rapidly at early stage and then remained steady in DO-rich water or declined somewhat in DO-poor water, ultimately leading to higher steady-state HO in DO-rich water. The maximum HO contents nonetheless were similar among waters with different DO, suggesting that HO in this system was mostly generated by hydroxyl radical (OH) recombination, which is an oxygen-independent HO formation pathway, rather than by reduced oxygen via hydrogen atom (H) or hydrated electron (e), which is an oxygen-dependent pathway. Increasing pH (from 6.3 to 10.0) or bicarbonate dosage dramatically decreased HO formation too. Mathematically, the fates of HO as a function of pH, DO, and time were well modeled (R ≥ 0.92), in which the rates of HO formation and destruction were greater in DO-poor water than those in DO-rich water. In addition, we found that the steady-state concentrations of OH used for degradation of p-chlorobenzoic acid, an OH probe, correlated well with the OH levels used for HO formation (R = 0.98). These results hence may help better understand the UV/VUV process via HO evolutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125483DOI Listing
April 2020

Evaluation of Targeted Agents for Advanced and Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Network Meta-Analysis.

J Cancer 2019 19;10(19):4671-4678. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of General Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, P.R. China.

To evaluate different targeted anticancer agents for patients with advanced or unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on network meta-analysis. Literature retrieval was conducted in globally recognized databases, namely, MEDLINE, PMC, EMBASE and Cochrane Central to find relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Relative parametric data, including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and adverse event (AE), were quantitatively pooled and estimated based on the Bayesian theorem. The values of the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) probabilities regarding each parameter were calculated and ranked. Node-splitting analysis was performed to test the inconsistency of the main results, and publication bias was assessed by examining funnel-plot symmetry. After a detailed review, 31 RCTs containing 20 different agents or combinations were finally included for network meta-analysis. For patients without previously systematic treatments, lenvatinib had the best clinical effects on OS (SUCRA, 0.22), and apatinib was superior regarding PFS (SUCRA, 0.41) and AE (SUCRA, 0.15). For patients who received previously targeted agents therapies, regorafenib exhibited the superior clinical effects on OS (SUCRA, 0.42) and PFS (SUCRA, 0.30), while codrituzumab showed the greatest safety benefit on AE (SUCRA, 0.75). Moreover, node-splitting analysis and funnel-plot symmetries illustrated no inconsistency or obvious publication bias in the current study. According to current evidence, lenvatinib and apatinib had superior clinical effects for patients without previously systematic treatments, and regorafenib seemed to be more suitable for patients with previously targeted agent therapies. However, our conclusions still need more statistical validations, and more high-quality trials are expected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.32828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6746130PMC
August 2019

Down-regulation of MARCO associates with tumor progression in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Exp Cell Res 2019 10 2;383(2):111542. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Department of General Surgery, Research Center of Digestive Diseases, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) is a malignant tumor with high mortality due to lack of early diagnostic methods and effective treatments, and the molecular mechanisms are intricate and remain unclear. In the present study, the role of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) in tumor advancement of HCC was investigated. We examined expression level of MARCO in HCC samples, corresponding adjacent nontumor tissues and six hepatoma cell lines by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Clinical information of HCC patients was also analyzed. The role of MARCO involved in HCC progression via multiple functional experiments in vitro and in vivo was investigated. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted to further explore biological functions of MARCO. We found MARCO was suggestively down-regulated in HCC and associated with favorable prognosis, and MARCO upregulation oppressed tumor cell migration and invasion. Besides, overexpression of MARCO not only promoted apoptosis of hepatoma cells but also suppressed proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) analysis suggested that MARCO may be related to the P53 signaling pathway, and this prediction was confirmed in this study as well. In sum, our study indicated that MARCO was involved in HCC progression and it can be defined as a novel probable biomarker as well as treatment target for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2019.111542DOI Listing
October 2019

Lgr5-mediated p53 Repression through PDCD5 leads to doxorubicin resistance in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Theranostics 2019 9;9(10):2967-2983. Epub 2019 May 9.

Department of General Surgery, Research Center of Digestive Diseases, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, P.R. China.

The devastating prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is partially attributed to chemotherapy resistance. Accumulating evidence suggests that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key driving force of carcinoma metastasis and chemoresistance in solid tumors. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5), as an EMT inducer, is involved in the potentiation of Wnt signaling in HCC. This study proposes uncovering the roles of Lgr5 in Doxorubicin (Dox) resistance of HCC to improve treatment efficacy for HCC. We investigated the expression and significance of Lgr5 in HCC tissue and different cell lines. The effect of Lgr5 in EMT and Dox resistance was analyzed in HCC cells and implanted HCC tumor models. A two-hybrid analysis, using the Lgr5 gene as the bait and a HCC cDNA library, was used to screen targeted proteins that interact with Lgr5. The positive clones were identified by coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down. The impact of the interaction on Dox resistance was investigated by a series of assays and . We found that Lgr5 was upregulated and positively correlated with poor prognosis in HCC. Additionally, it functioned as a tumor promoter to increase cell migration and induce EMT in HCC cells and increase the resistance to Dox. We identified programmed cell death protein 5 (PDCD5) as a target gene of Lgr5 and we found that PDCD5 was responsible for Lgr5-mediated Dox resistance. Further analysis with Co-IP and GST pull-down assays showed that the N-terminal extracellular domain of Lgr5 could directly bind to PDCD5. Lgr5 induced p53 degradation by blocking the nuclear translocation of PDCD5 and leading to the loss of p53 stabilization. Lgr5 showed a protection against the inhibition of Dox on the growth of tumor subcutaneously injected. Moreover, Lgr5 suppressed Dox-induced apoptosis via the p53 pathway and attenuated the cytotoxicity of Dox to HCC. Lgr5 induces the EMT and inhibits apoptosis, thus promoting chemoresistance by regulating the PDCD5/p53 signaling axis. Furthermore, Lgr5 may be a potential target gene for overcoming Dox resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.30562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6568175PMC
June 2020

Removal of urea from swimming pool water by UV/VUV: The roles of additives, mechanisms, influencing factors, and reaction products.

Water Res 2019 Sep 1;161:89-97. Epub 2019 Jun 1.

School of Engineering, University of British Columbia Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, BC, V1V1V7, Canada.

To discover an applicable technology for urea abatement from swimming pool water (SPW), this study compared the performances of seven ultraviolet (UV)-based technologies on urea removal, including UV alone, UV coupled with hydrogen peroxide (UV/HO), sulfite (UV/NaSO), potassium persulfate (UV/KSO), a combination of UV and vacuum UV (UV/VUV), and UV/VUV in tandem with either HO (VUV/HO) or potassium persulfate (VUV/KSO). Among them, UV and UV/NaSO showed little removal ability, and UV/HO removed only 12.8% of urea within 3-h experiments, while UV/VUV degraded 71.7% of urea without introducing substantial total dissolved solids (TDS). Therefore, UV/VUV was considered as a promising technology for further exploration. In comparison, although UV/KSO exhibited higher urea removal than UV/VUV, it caused dramatic increases of TDS, which made the regulatory threshold for the TDS increment difficult to maintain. Within UV/VUV studies, some common components in SPW (e.g., cyanuric acid, humic acid, nitrate, and bicarbonate) inhibited the removal process, whereas chloride and sulfate facilitated it, while free chlorine at doses ≤ 3 mg-Cl/L and pH levels from 6.8 to 8.0 imposed little impact on urea degradation. Overall, UV/VUV degraded 40.0% and 22.2% of urea from tap water and SPW, respectively; both were lower than the efficiency observed in ultrapure water. As for reaction byproducts, urea phototransformation via UV/VUV yielded nitrate and ammonia as the key products with the mass balance of nitrogen element being met. However, the contents of organic carbon decreased at a rate slightly lower than urea degradation, suggesting that urea was mostly mineralized and slightly converted to unknown organic compounds. The results hence demonstrate that UV/VUV is an effective alternative for urea removal from SPW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.05.098DOI Listing
September 2019

A one-year long survey of temporal disinfection byproducts variations in a consumer's tap and their removals by a point-of-use facility.

Water Res 2019 Aug 7;159:203-213. Epub 2019 May 7.

La Verne, Calif, USA.

In order to better understand the occurrence of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in tap water and their real impacts on consumers, this study made a one-year long survey of the temporal variations of a series of DBPs before and after a point-of-use (POU) treatment facility installed in a building serving for ∼300 people. Water samples were collected every week at a fixed location and time for 1 year, and frequent samplings were carried out every 6 h a day for 1 month at selected seasons, which ultimately amounted to 322 samples. The results show that the concentrations of DBPs were higher in the summer than other seasons, with the lowest DBP levels being observed in spring. Within one week, higher levels of haloacetic acids (HAAs) were identified on weekdays than those on weekends. Diurnally, trihalomethanes, HAAs, and haloacetaldehydes were found to be higher at noon but lower in the evening. Consistent with other studies, the variations of most DBPs were somewhat positively related to the changes of temperature and organic matter, but negatively related to the quantity of free chlorine. With the use of a POU facility, which equips with two activated carbon cartridges and a boiler in sequence, most of DBPs were dramatically reduced, leading to 62-100% lower cytotoxicity for the measured DBPs. The study hence provides a real-water evidence about the DBP occurrences in a typical distribution system endpoint and the efficiency of a typical POU on mitigating DBP risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.04.062DOI Listing
August 2019

Identifying the superior antibiotic prophylaxis strategy for breast surgery: A network meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Apr;98(17):e15405

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, and Department of General Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan.

Background: The clinical roles of different antibiotic prophylaxis strategies for breast surgery remains large unknowns. The aim of this study is to evaluate different antibiotic prophylaxis strategies based on a network meta-analysis.

Methods: We initially retrieved literature from globally recognized databases, namely, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central, to address relative randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the antibiotic prophylaxis strategies for breast surgery. Relative postoperative infection rates were quantitatively pooled and estimated based on the Bayesian theorem. Values of surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) probabilities were calculated and ranked. Additional pairwise meta-analyses were performed to validate differences between the respective strategies at the statistical level for further explanations.

Results: After a detailed review, a total of 14 RCTs containing 6 different strategies were included for the network meta-analysis. The results indicated that the application of antibiotics administered during pre- plus post- plus intraoperative periods possessed the highest possibility of having the best clinical effects (SUCRA, 0.40), followed by intraoperative administration alone (SUCRA, 0.35) and pre- plus intraoperative administrations (SUCRA, 0.20). Moreover, an additional pairwise meta-analysis determined that pre- and intraoperative-related strategies significantly reduced postoperative infections at a statistical level.

Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, we concluded that application of antibiotics administered during pre- plus post- plus intraoperative periods seemed to reveal superior benefits. However, the essential roles of pure intraoperative and postoperative application were still need to be further validated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000015405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6831324PMC
April 2019

Photolysis of chloral hydrate in water with 254 nm ultraviolet: Kinetics, influencing factors, mechanisms, and products.

Chemosphere 2019 Mar 15;218:104-109. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-153, USA.

Chloral hydrate (CH) is a common disinfection by-product found in treated water, and its effective control is important to human health. This study evaluated the effects of some environmental factors (e.g., pH, CH dosage, typical ions) and operational variables (e.g., lamp power, irradiation time) on CH photolysis efficiency via low-pressure mercury lamp-induced ultraviolet (LPUV) at 254 nm. The results demonstrated that the photolysis rate increased significantly with increasing pH from 7.0 to 10.5 and lamp power from 6 to 12 W. Meanwhile, the presence of nitrate, iodide, or free chlorine facilitated CH photolysis, whereas the existence of natural organic matter hindered the process. Together, these factors may help explain varying CH photolysis in different types of waters: seawater > ultrapure water > tap water > lake water. In addition, the initial CH dosage also played an important role, with higher CH being degraded more slowly. Mechanistically, although no catalyst or oxidant was added, CH photolysis was to some extent inhibited by a hydroxyl radical quencher, tert-butyl alcohol, suggesting that indirect photolysis was also responsible for CH loss. In terms of reaction products, the CH photolysis yielded primarily chloride ions and carbon dioxide, thus supporting mineralization as the key pathway. The results may help better understand the control of CH in water using UV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.11.065DOI Listing
March 2019

A facile and green pretreatment method for nonionic total organic halogen (NTOX) analysis in water - Step I. Using electrodialysis to separate NTOX and halides.

Water Res 2018 11 1;145:631-639. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Prevention and Control, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen), China.

Adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) is a bulk organic parameter conventionally used to indicate all adsorbable halogenated organic disinfection byproducts formed in disinfected water. Analytically, AOX is determined by three sequential steps: 1) concentration and separation of AOX from halides with activated carbon, 2) conversion of AOX into halides with pyrolysis, and 3) quantification of halides via microcoulometry or ion chromatography (IC). Because the approach is relatively costly and cannot effectively recover non-adsorbable compounds, we herein proposed a facile and green pretreatment tool to measure the nonionic portion of total organic halogen (NTOX) with a new three-step approach: 1) separation of NTOX and halides with electrodialysis (ED), 2) conversion of NTOX into halides with ultraviolet, and 3) analysis of halides with IC. To verify this proposal, this study presented the efficiency of ED in separating halides and NTOX under a variety of operational and environmental conditions. The results showed that ED removed ≥98.5% of fluoride, chloride, bromide, and iodide from all tested waters (up to 1000 mg-X/L) within 1.5 h. Meanwhile, ED recovered an average of 87.9% of fourteen small molecular weight model compounds with each at 100 μg/L. By using electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, the whole pictures of high molecular weight compounds in a chlorinated drinking water before and after ED pretreatment were compared, which revealed 79.7% and 83.6% recoveries of overall polar chlorinated and brominated compounds, respectively. In addition, the quantity and property of the dissolved organic matter were largely maintained by ED, and the retained organics may be used for later characterization. The study hence presents a novel use of ED as a pretreatment tool to enable subsequent NTOX measurement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.08.065DOI Listing
November 2018

A facile and green pretreatment method for nonionic total organic halogen (NTOX) analysis in water - Step II. Using photolysis to convert NTOX completely into halides.

Water Res 2018 11 28;145:579-587. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

Adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) is a parameter conventionally used to indicate the sum of organic halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), which are formed from the reactions of disinfectants with dissolved organic matter, bromide and iodide in water. To overcome the issues of the AOX analytical method, we proposed a new facile and green pretreatment method to enable the analysis of nonionic total organic halogen (NTOX) via the following three steps: 1) separation of NTOX and halides with electrodialysis, 2) conversion of NTOX with ultraviolet (UV) photolysis, and 3) analysis of halides with ion chromatography. To verify this proposal, we mainly evaluated the efficiency of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) coupled with UV photolysis (VUV-UV) in converting NTOX into halides. Results showed that by applying VUV irradiation for 60 min and UV irradiation at pH 10-11 for another 30 min, over 85.5% of each halide from 20 representative small molecular weight DBPs (each at 100 μg-X/L level) was recovered. The purpose of UV photolysis under alkaline conditions was to reduce oxyhalides (such as bromate and iodate) formed in the VUV process back to halides. With the aid of electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, we captured the whole pictures of high molecular weight polar DBPs in a chlorinated drinking water before and after VUV-UV, through which averagely 96.4% of dehalogenation with the VUV-UV treatment was observed. An illustrative comparison of the conventional AOX method and the proposed NTOX method indicates that although the detected NTOX was lower (by 2.3-30.6%) than AOX, the results of the two methods were highly correlated (R > 0.97). All these hence verified the photolysis as a mature yet novel tool for sample pretreatment in environmental analytical chemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.08.056DOI Listing
November 2018

Identifying the Best Anticancer Agent Combination in TACE for HCC Patients: A Network Meta-analysis.

J Cancer 2018 23;9(15):2640-2649. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Department of General Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, P.R. China.

We conducted a network meta-analysis to comprehensively compare various anticancer agents used in transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) based on the Bayesian theorem. Globally recognized electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central, were searched to retrieve relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing anticancer agents in TACE for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. The therapeutic response, adverse events and overall survival rate were selected as parametric data to evaluate the clinical efficacy. Quantitative network meta-analysis and pair-wise analysis were conducted to compare the relative parameters. Of the 4242 retrieved articles, 17 RCTs containing 2330 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The network meta-analysis exhibited that the application of anthracycline and mitomycin plus pyrimidine presented the best clinical values regarding all parametric data (probability =0.45, 0.32 and 0.35 regarding comparison of response rate, adverse event and overall survival, respectively). Accordingly, further investigation on specific anticancer agents indicated that the combination of doxorubicin and mitomycin plus gemcitabine was the best agent combination in TACE (probability =0.49, 0.37 and 0.77 regarding comparison of response rate, adverse event and overall survival, respectively). Moreover, an additional study indicated that the single use of an anticancer agent prior to embolism brought no benefit compared with bland embolism without any agent (Test =0.15, 0.84, 1.22 and =0.88, 0.40, 0.22 regarding comparison of response rate, adverse event and overall survival, respectively). However, the combined use of anticancer agents in TACE showed significantly better clinical efficacy than single use (Test =4.40, 3.94, 0.24 and <0.001, <0.001, =0.81 regarding comparison of response rate, adverse event and overall survival, respectively); thus, combination utilization was recommended. The combined use of anticancer agents in TACE was recommended. Application of anthracycline and mitomycin plus pyrimidine seemed to be the best choice for clinical consideration. Additionally, the combination of doxorubicin and mitomycin plus gemcitabine may be the best specific anticancer agent combination in TACE currently, although additional RCTs are expected to support our conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.25056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6072806PMC
June 2018

Graphene oxide in the marine environment: Toxicity to Artemia salina with and without the presence of Phe and Cd.

Chemosphere 2018 Nov 24;211:390-396. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Prevention and Control, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment of Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen), 518055, China. Electronic address:

Given the increasing potential of graphene oxide entering marine environments, it is imperative to assess the risks of GO on marine ecosystem, including its direct toxicity to marine organisms and indirect toxicity brought by co-existing aquatic pollutants, as a result of the remarkable adsorption capacity of GO. In the present study, the acute toxicity of GO, Phe, Cd, GO-Phe, and GO-Cd to Artemia salina were systemically assessed and compared for the first time. Although the lethal effects of GO alone to A. salina only appeared at high GO dose (500 mg/L), its sublethal toxicity (growth inhibition) at concentrations as low as 1 mg/L was observed by microscopy, which was likely closely related to the GO-induced oxidative stress in A. salina. Compared with the toxicity of Phe alone, GO-Phe exhibited a synergistic effect to A. salina at a high GO concentration. For GO-Cd, the toxicity was positively correlated with both GO dose and Cd dose. The increased toxicity of GO-Phe or GO-Cd at high doses might be attributed to the promoted bioaccumulation of toxicants by GO, as the adhesion of GO complexes to intestinal tract of A. salina was observed during the toxicity tests, which probably resulted in further toxicological effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.07.140DOI Listing
November 2018

Rejection of haloacetic acids in water by multi-stage reverse osmosis: Efficiency, mechanisms, and influencing factors.

Water Res 2018 11 20;144:383-392. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Prevention and Control, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen), 518055, China. Electronic address:

Among available technologies to ensure drinking water security, reverse osmosis (RO) has become the gold-standard for purification due to its maturity and reliability. However, high energy consumption and low water recovery are the major impediments for extensive adoption of RO. Multi-stage RO process is an innovative system design that can offer a more effective way to improve energy efficiency and water recovery, but it is rarely employed for disinfection by-product (DBP) treatment in drinking water. Thus, this study applied multi-stage RO to treat water containing haloacetic acids (HAAs), a prevalent class of DBPs with widespread occurrence and high toxicity, under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. Overall, we found that >75% HAAs were rejected and 87% of water was recovered with a five-stage RO process. For compounds with identical number of halogen substitutions, iodinated, brominated, and chlorinated HAAs were almost equally removed; however, highly halogenated species were easier to be rejected than lowly halogenated HAAs. By developing quantitative structure-activity relationship models, the importance of size exclusion, charge repulsion, and hydrophobic interaction effects on multi-stage RO removal was revealed. Environmental and operational variables like pH, operating pressure, water matrix, and membrane age also played important roles in this process. Increasing pH from 6.5 to 8.5 and membrane age apparently enhanced HAA rejections. In contrast, HAA rejection increased only slightly from an operating pressure of 4-6 bars but decreased markedly from 6 to 8 bars. Compared to ultrapure water, equal or higher removal efficiency was observed for HAAs spiked to tap water. Considering the need to balance water quality and quantity, a four-stage RO was preferred under this study's condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.07.045DOI Listing
November 2018
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