Publications by authors named "Bahram Pourghassem Gargari"

66 Publications

Yeast exopolysaccharides and their physiological functions.

Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2021 Apr 18;66(2):171-182. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Nutrition Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Mounting evidence indicated the capability of various microorganisms in biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPSs). A wide range of evidence extensively investigated the ability of bacterial species for EPS synthesis and their favorable effects, so little is known regarding yeast species. Many factors like composition of growth media and fermentation conditions are related to the structural and physical properties of EPSs. The EPS protects the producer yeast strain against extreme environment. Researchers proposed that yeast EPSs have priority over bacterial EPSs because of high yields of EPS biosynthesis and easy separation methods from growth media. Besides, they have drawn increasing attention due to their interesting biological activities, food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics applications. Although a limited number of studies exist, this review aims to highlight the EPS structure and various applications of known yeast species in detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12223-021-00856-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of Vitamin E on Serum Levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Angiopoietin-1 in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Int J Fertil Steril 2021 Jan 19;15(1):44-50. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Women's Reproductive Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Angiogenesis disturbances are common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Vitamin E has antiangiogenic properties. Data on the effects of vitamin E on angiogenesis in PCOS is limited, so the current study was conducted to evaluate its effects on angiogenic indices in PCOS patients.

Materials And Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 43 women aged 20-40 years, diagnosed with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria). It was performed at the referral clinic affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran, from April 2017 to September 2017. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 400 IU/day vitamin E -as alpha tocopheryl acetate- (n=22) or placebo (n=21), for 8 weeks. Anthropometric, and angiogenic parameters including body weight, fat mass and fat free mass, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), and angiopoietin- 2 (Ang-2) were measured by standard methods at the beginning and at the end of study. Statistical Package for Social Science version 25 was used for statistical analysis and P<0.05 were considered significant.

Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed that vitamin E supplementation significantly reduced body weight, fat mass, Ang-1, Ang-1/Ang-2 ratio and VEGF (P<0.01). We did not observe any considerable effect for vitamin E on Ang-2 level or bFGF.

Conclusion: Vitamin E supplementation for 8 weeks in the PCOS women had beneficial effects on body weight, Ang- 1, Ang-1/Ang-2 ratio, and VEGF level (Registration number: IRCT201610193140N18).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/ijfs.2020.45677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838755PMC
January 2021

Daily consumption effects of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 on oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome patients.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 02 2;41:136-142. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Available evidence substantiates a strong association between metabolic syndrome and elevated oxidative stress. This study was aimed to assess the effects of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 on the oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, the association between uric acid levels and insulin resistance indexes was assessed.

Methods: An 8-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study was designed. Forty-four patients, 22 males and 22 females aged 20-65 years, were assigned into two groups. Treatment (n = 22) and control (n = 22) groups consumed 300 g/d of probiotic and regular yogurt, respectively. The serum concentration of uric acid, oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein (oxLDL), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) were measured at the beginning and the end of the trial. This study was recorded at http://www.irct.ir (code: IRCT201608213140N17).

Results: Probiotic yogurt consumption resulted in a significant decrease in the level of serum uric acid and a significant increase in the level of TAC (p < 0.05). A positive significant association between uric acid with insulin concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and an inverse significant relationship with insulin sensitivity (Quicki) were also found (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Probiotic yogurt consumption through improvement in insulin sensitivity may exert positive effects on the oxidative stress and uric acid levels. However, further studies are needed to make concise conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2020.12.003DOI Listing
February 2021

A Comprehensive insight into the effect of chromium supplementation on oxidative stress indices in diabetes mellitus: A systematic review.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2021 03 18;48(3):291-309. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder defined as an increase in blood glucose levels (hyperglycaemia) and insufficient production or action of insulin produced by the pancreas. Chronic hyperglycaemia leads to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress, which consequently results in insulin resistance, beta cell degeneration, dyslipidaemia, and glucose intolerance in diabetic patients. Chromium has an essential role in the metabolism of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates through increasing insulin efficiency. This systematic review aimed to evaluate chromium supplementation's potential roles in oxidative stress indices in diabetes mellitus. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane, and Science Direct databases until November 2020. All clinical trials and animal studies that assessed chromium's effect on oxidative stress indices in diabetes mellitus and were published in English-language journals were included. Finally, only 33 out of 633 articles met the required criteria for further analysis. Among 33 papers, 25 studies were performed on animals, and eight investigations were conducted on humans. Twenty-eight studies of chromium supplementation lead to reducing oxidative stress indices. Also, 23 studies showed that chromium supplementation markedly increased antioxidant enzymes' activity and improved levels of antioxidant indices. In conclusion, chromium supplementation decreased oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. However, further clinical trials are suggested in a bid to determine the exact mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1681.13462DOI Listing
March 2021

A pilot study of the effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on serum fetuin-A, metabolic and inflammatory factors in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Jan 30;63:126659. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Nutrition Research Center, Department of Biochemistry & Diet Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Evaluating the impact of chromium picolinate supplementation on glycemic status, lipid profile, inflammatory markers and fetuin-A in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Methods: In present research, participants (N = 46) were randomized to (400 mcg/day, n = 23) chromium picolinate and placebo (n = 23) for 3 months.

Results: Glucose indices, and lipid profiles, inflammatory biomarker and fetuin-A were measured before and after the intervention. Chromium reduced triglyceride (TG), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin (IL) -6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and fetuin-A significantly compared to placebo group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, chromium significantly increased the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). There were no significant differences in total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), fasting blood sugar (FBS), Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), interleukin (IL)-17 between the two groups (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Chromium picolinate significantly decreased TG, insulin, HOMA-IR, fetuin-A, the number of inflammatory factors, and increased QUICKI without changing FBS, HbA1C, TC, LDL, HDL, IL-17 levels and liver steatosis intensity in patients with NAFLD. Further studies by examining the effect of different doses of chromium and mechanisms of cellular action, would help further clarify the subject.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2020.126659DOI Listing
January 2021

Chromium picolinate balances the metabolic and clinical markers in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Aug 14. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Nutrition Research Center, Department of Biochemistry & Diet Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz.

Objective: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complicated disease and is considered as a severe global health problem affecting 30% of adults worldwide. The present study aimed to evaluate changes in oxidative stress, adipokines, liver enzyme, and body composition following treatment with chromium picolinate (CrPic) among patients with NAFLD.

Participants And Methods: The current randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 46 NAFLD patients with the age range of 20-65 years. Patients were randomly classified into two groups, receiving either 400 µg CrPic tablets in two divided doses of 200 µg (23 patients) or placebo (23 patients) daily for 12 weeks. The participants' body composition and biochemical parameters were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 weeks.

Results: Serum levels of liver enzymes reduced significantly only in the CrPic group (P < 0.05 for all), but not between the groups after the intervention. Besides, there were significant differences between the study groups regarding body weight and body fat mass, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, leptin, and adiponectin post-intervention (P = 0.017, P = 0.032, P = 0.003, P = 0.023, P = 0.012, P = 0.003, and P = 0.042, respectively). However, glutathione peroxidase and resistin levels did not differ significantly between groups (P = 0.127 and P = 0.688, respectively).

Discussion And Conclusion: This study showed that consuming 400 µg/day of CrPic for 12 weeks in patients with NAFLD causes a significant change in leptin, adiponectin, oxidative stress (expect glutathione peroxidase), and body weight, compared to baseline. Nevertheless, it does not affect liver enzymes. Therefore, the CrPic supplementation may improve adipokines, some anthropometric indices, and oxidative stress in patients with NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000001830DOI Listing
August 2020

Effects of MK-7 Supplementation on Glycemic Status, Anthropometric Indices and Lipid Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2020 26;13:2239-2249. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a prevalent disorder which accounts for 90-95% of diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of menaquinone (MK-7) supplementation on glycemic indices, anthropometric indices and lipid profile, among patients with T2DM.

Methods: In this double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 60 men and women with T2DM were allocated equally into either the MK-7 (200 µg/day) or the placebo group. Physical activity level and dietary intake were assessed using the international physical activity questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF) and a 3-day food record, pre- and post-intervention. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, glycemic indices and lipid profile including fasting blood sugar (FBS), hemoglobin A1c (HBA1C), fasting insulin (FI), homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) were measured at baseline and after twelve weeks.

Results: Forty-five patients completed the trial. There were no significant between-group differences for calorie intake, macronutrient intake, physical activity level or anthropometric measures at baseline and at the end of the study. Dietary vitamin K intake increased significantly at the end of the study in the MK-7 (: 0.02) and placebo (: 0.001) groups, but intergroup differences were not significant (: 0.86). FBS (: 0.01), HbA1c (p: 0.002), fasting insulin (: 0.01) and HOMA-IR (: 0.007) decreased significantly in the MK-7 group. Furthermore, after adjustment for the baseline values and changes of vitamin K intake at the end of study, FBS and HbA1C showed significant intergroup changes, and they were significantly lower in the MK-7 group compared to the placebo group. Lipid profile (TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C) did not change significantly within or between groups.

Conclusion: MK-7 supplementation seems to be effective in the improvement of glycemic indices, but not the lipid profile of patients with T2DM.

Clinical Trial Registration: The present study was prospectively registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials on May 2019 (ID: IRCT20100123003140N22).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S253014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326202PMC
June 2020

The effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction markers in overweight/obese polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2021 Jan 16;37(1):26-30. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Nutrition Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: This study aimed at determining the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on the inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction indices among overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Methods: This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among overweight and obese women diagnosed with PCOS. Forty three PCOS women were randomly assigned to two groups: one group received 200 mg CoQ10 capsules per day ( = 22) and the other received placebo ( = 21) for 8 weeks. Biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin were measured and compared before and after the intervention.

Results: At the end of study, compared with pldacebo, CoQ10 supplementation resulted in significant decreases in serum levels of TNF-α ( = 0.009), hs-CRP and IL-6 ( = 0.001,  = 0.007, respectively). In addition, supplementation with CoQ10 resulted in a significant reduction in serum VCAM-1 ( = .002) and E-selectin ( = .006) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences for serum ICAM-1.

Conclusions: The present study showed that CoQ10 supplementation for 8 weeks had a beneficial effect on inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction markers in overweight and obese patients with PCOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09513590.2020.1779689DOI Listing
January 2021

Erratum to "Effects of probiotic yogurt on glycemic indexes and endothelial dysfunction markers in patients with metabolic syndrome [Nutrition" (2019) 162-168].

Nutrition 2020 Jan 23;69:110530. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2019.06.011DOI Listing
January 2020

A systematic review on the mechanisms of vitamin K effects on the complications of diabetes and pre-diabetes.

Biofactors 2020 Jan 1;46(1):21-37. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes are prevalent endocrine disorders associated with substantial morbidity and premature mortality. Vitamin K is known to have several beneficial effects on complications of diabetes and pre-diabetes. However, systematic consolidation of evidence is required to quantify these effects in order to inform clinical practice and research. A systematic search in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ProQuest, and Google Scholar databases was undertaken from database inception up to October 2018 to evaluate functional roles of different forms of vitamin K on diabetes and pre-diabetes. From 3,734 identified records, nine articles met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Vitamin K supplementation was found to be associated with significant reductions in blood glucose (six studies), increased fasting serum insulin (four studies), reduced hemoglobin A1c (three studies), reduced homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) (two studies), and increased ß-cell function (two studies) in diabetic animal studies. Following 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test, vitamin K supplementation was observed to be effective in reducing blood glucose and insulin levels in the pre-diabetic population. However, no evidence of effect was observed for fasting blood sugar, insulin, HOMA-IR, and homeostatic model assessment-β-cell function index (two studies). A statistically significant effect was also noted with vitamin K in improving dyslipidemia (three studies) as well as oxidative stress and inflammatory markers (five studies) in diabetic animals. In conclusion, clinical trials and animal studies confirm that vitamin K supplementation may improve both clinical features and complications of diabetes and pre-diabetes. However, quantification of clinical efficacy in the pre-diabetic population and among individuals with comorbidities requires further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biof.1569DOI Listing
January 2020

Effects of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) essential oil supplementation on metabolic syndrome components: A randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Phytother Res 2019 Dec 2;33(12):3261-3269. Epub 2019 Sep 2.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), as a major health problem, is increasing. Very limited data exist on the effect of Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil (CuEO) on MetS components. Accordingly, this study aimed to examine the effect of CuEO supplementation on anthropometric indices, glycemic control, blood pressure, lipid profile, and insulin resistance in patients with MetS. In a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 56 patients with MetS aged 18-60 years received either 75 mg CuEO or placebo soft gel thrice daily for 8 weeks. Anthropometric indices and biochemical measurements were assessed at baseline and end of the study. At the end of study, except for diastolic blood pressure (DBP), the other assessed variables were not significantly different between two groups. In intra group analysis, placebo and CuEO groups both had nonsignificant decrements in DBP (mean difference [MD] with 95% CI: -3.31 [-7.11, 0.47] and -1.77 [-5.95, 2.40] mmHg, respectively). However, DBP was significantly lower in CuEO compared with the placebo group at the end of study (81.41 ± 5.88 vs. 84.09 ± 5.54 mmHg, MD with 95% CI: -3.98 [-7.60, -0.35] mmHg, p < .05). The results indicated that CuEO does not have any effect on MetS components, except for DBP in patients with MetS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6500DOI Listing
December 2019

Independent and Additive Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin E on Cardiometabolic Outcomes and Visceral Adiposity in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Arch Med Res 2019 02 21;50(2):1-10. Epub 2019 May 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive age women.

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of CoQ10 and/or vitamin E on cardiometabolic outcomes in patients with PCOS.

Methods: This randomized clinical trial was carried out among 86 women with PCOS. Patients were assigned to take CoQ10, vitamin E, CoQ10 plus vitamin E or placebo for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning and end of the study.

Results: A significant decrease in serum triglycerides (TG) (p <0.001) was found following the administration of CoQ10 and/or vitamin E supplements compared with the placebo group. Supplementation with CoQ10 and vitamin E failed to affect total cholesterol levels. However, co-administration of CoQ10 and vitamin E resulted in a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol levels (9.92 [15.11, 4.74]). Additionally, only the combination of supplements was able to significantly reduce low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (‒9.63 [‒15.34, ‒3.92]), increase high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (2.33 [0.51, 4.16), reduce atherogenic coefficient (AC) (‒0.29 [‒0.43, ‒0.16], p = 0.03) and decrease visceral adiposity index (VAI) values. Co-Q10 and vitamin E (alone or in combination) had significant effects on non-HDL-C (p = 0.004), atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) (p = <0.001) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) (p <0.001) and SBP (p = 0.005). However, the reduction in DBP was statistically significant only for patients who received combined supplementations (p = 0.04).

Conclusions: In conclusion, CoQ10, vitamin E (alone or in combination) had beneficial effects on cardiometabolic outcomes among women with PCOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2019.04.004DOI Listing
February 2019

The impact of tumor and gut microbiotas on cancer therapy: Beneficial or detrimental?

Life Sci 2019 Sep 22;233:116680. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Kidney Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Cancer is a globally challenging health problem threatening mankind. Despite therapeutic advances in dealing with this malignancy, heterogeneous response and resistance to chemotherapeutic agents remain the hallmarks of cancer therapy. On the other hand, the involvement of the microbiota in affecting human health is well defined. An ever-growing body of evidence implicates the potential link between the microbiome and the efficacy of cancer therapies. Gut microbiota can modulate the metabolism of drugs in a number of ways. The presence of bacteria within the tumor environment can also impact the responses to cancer therapies; changing the chemical structure of chemotherapeutic drugs, affecting their activity, and local concentration. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut and tumor microbial communities affect the response to cancer therapy are poorly understood and deciphering these mechanisms is of paramount importance. This review provides an overview of how gut and tumor microbiota might affect the efficacy of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy and alleviate the adverse side effects of these therapies for the development of personalized and effective anticancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116680DOI Listing
September 2019

Potential roles of chromium on inflammatory biomarkers in diabetes: A Systematic.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2019 11 16;46(11):975-983. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Nutrition Research Centre, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Diabetes, as a low-grade chronic inflammatory disease, causes disruption in proper function of immune and metabolic system. Chromium is an important element required for normal lipid and glucose metabolism. Chromium deficiency is correlated with elevation in cardiometabolic risk, which results from increased inflammation. This systematic review was conducted to discover the potential roles of chromium on inflammatory biomarkers. Eligible studies were all in vitro, animal and human studies published in English-language journals from inception until October 2018. PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ProQuest and Google Scholar databases were searched to fined interventional studies from the effects of chromium on inflammatory biomarkers such as tumour necrosis factor a (TNF-a), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukins, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and adipocytokines in hyperglycaemia and diabetes. Out of 647 articles found in the search, only 14 articles were eligible for analysis, three in vitro studies, eight animal studies and three human studies. Twelve of the 14 studies included in this review, chromium significantly decreased inflammatory factors. The findings of this review indicate, based on in vitro and in vivo studies, that chromium might have potential anti-inflammatory properties, but some of the studies did not show anti-inflammatory effects for chromium (two studies). There are only three studies in humans with controversial results. Therefore, more consistent randomized double-blind controlled trials are needed to reach relevant clinical recommendations, as well as to determine the precise mechanism, of chromium on inflammation in diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1681.13144DOI Listing
November 2019

A comprehensive review of anticancer, immunomodulatory and health beneficial effects of the lactic acid bacteria exopolysaccharides.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Aug 20;217:79-89. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Nutrition Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Several scientific evidences have revealed probiotics implications on human health. A wide range of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been extensively studied for their ability to produce extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs), which are repeating units of mono/oligosaccharides with various chemical compositions and properties. Despite the conventional belief regarding probiotics that states bacteria must be alive to exert their beneficial effects, mounting evidence opened up new perspectives on health-promoting effects of bacterial-derived molecules/metabolites. Employing EPSs seems safer alternative in complicated disorders like cancer and immune related diseases. EPSs have potential applications in textiles, cosmetology, wastewater treatment, food, and pharmaceutical industries, but little is known about their function therefore the present review aims to discuss the health-promoting properties of EPSs produced by LAB. Antioxidant, antiviral, antitumor and immunomodulating activity, with focus on the mechanisms involved, are discussed in the study. Ever-growing number of researches indicate that EPSs beneficiary effects have a promising future ahead.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.04.025DOI Listing
August 2019

Strong association between serum Vitamin D and Vaspin Levels, AIP, VAI and liver enzymes in NAFLD patients.

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2020 Jan 1;90(1-2):59-66. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Master of Nutrition, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Motahari hospital, Jahrom, Iran.

Some studies indicated poor vitamin D level in NAFLD which is independently correlated with severity of steatosis. Low 25(OH) D3 levels are associated with an impaired lipid profile. Impaired levels and function of vaspin and omentin, which are adipokines, have been demonstrated in NAFLD patients. This study determined the relationship between vitamin D and serum liver enzymes, ultrasound findings, some adipokines, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) in patients with NAFLD in a cross-sectional study. This study was a cross-sectional study in eighty-three NAFLD patients (57 males and 26 females). Plasma levels of omentin-1e-1, vaspin were measured. Anthropometric indices metabolic status was assessed. Visceral adiposity index and atherogenic index of plasma were calculated according to suggested formula. Anthropometric indices, lipid profiles, liver enzymes as well as abdominal ultrasonography and the status of vitamin D were assessed. The results showed that aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (44.22 ± 8.5 IU/L vs. 40.19 ± 8.75 IU/L, p-value = 0.039) AIP (0.767 ± 0.142 vs. 0.6417 ± 0.139, p < 0.001) and VAI (9.28 ± 3.25 vs. 7.048 ± 2.415, p = 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency compared to those with vitamin D sufficiency. The positive correlations between Vaspin levels and vitamin D were found to be remarkably significant in both males and females (r = 0.437; P = 0.004; P < 0.001, r = -0.709, respectively. In both males and females serum vitamin D concentrations were negatively associated with AIP. Partial correlations controlling for age and sex showed that vitamin D is significantly and inversely associated with AIP, VAI, AST, and ALT. Additionally, vitamin D levels correlated directly with vaspin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000443DOI Listing
January 2020

Ramadan fasting improves liver function and total cholesterol in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2020 Jan 1;90(1-2):95-102. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Science, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a serious global health problem, thus the prevention and management of the disease is necessary. This study aimed to determine the effects of Ramadan Fasting (RF) on liver function, Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) in these patients.

Methods: Eighty-three NAFLD patients (57 males and 26 females) were enrolled in the study, 42 patients who practiced RF, between Jun 18 through July 17, 2015 and 41 patients in non-fasting groups. Anthropometric parameters and Ultrasound grading were measured before and after Ramadan. The biochemical parameters including lipid profiles (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides), liver enzymes (Aspartate aminotransferase, SGOT and Alanine aminotransferase, SGPT) were evaluated before and after Ramadan. AIP and VAI were calculated based on formula.

Results: The mean decreases in anthropometric indices were significantly different between groups. Similarly, the mean decrease in the total cholesterol values in the fasting group was remarkably greater than in the control group (p = 0.02). The values of AIP and VAI decreased at the end of the study in both group and the mean of changes showed no differences between groups (p = 0.79 and p = 0.65 for AIP and VAI, respectively). The changes in the concentrations of liver enzymes, as well as the severity of hepatic steatosis, showed remarkable differences between groups (p = 0.03, p = 0.05, and p = 0.02 for SGOT and SGPT, and Liver steatosis, respectively).

Conclusion: RF improved liver steatosis in NAFLD patients and might be useful in the management of NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000442DOI Listing
January 2020

Effects of probiotic yogurt on glycemic indexes and endothelial dysfunction markers in patients with metabolic syndrome.

Nutrition 2019 06 2;62:162-168. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Objectives: The relationship between gut microflora and metabolic syndrome components such as obesity, low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, dyslipidemia, and altered glucose metabolism is now acknowledged. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of probiotic yogurt on glycemic indexes and endothelial dysfunction markers in patients with metabolic syndrome.

Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 44 patients with metabolic syndrome (22 men and 22 women), who were 20 to 65 y of age. The patients were assigned to either a treatment or control group and consumed 300g/d of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 or a regular yogurt for 2 mo, respectively. Each group contained 22 participants. Fasting blood glucose and serum insulin was performed to derive homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin sensitivity (Quicki), and HOMA of β-cell function (HOMA- β). In addition, markers of vascular cell adhesion molecule cell (VCAM)-1, intercellular adhesion molecule cell (ICAM)-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 were measured to evaluate endothelial function at the beginning and at the end of the study.

Results: Consumption of probiotic yogurt resulted in a significant reduction in the level of blood glucose and VCAM-1. Significant changes in PAI-1, VCAM-1, insulin, HOMA-IR, and Quicki were observed in the probiotic yogurt group after intervention compared with baseline.

Conclusion: Consumption of probiotic yogurt improved fasting blood glucose and partly modified serum endothelial function markers. These results suggest that regular intake of probiotic yogurt may exert positive effects on the treatment of metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2018.12.011DOI Listing
June 2019

Vitamin D supplementation has no effect on matrix metalloproteinases-2, -9, and tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A pilot study.

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2019 Nov 4;89(5-6):227-237. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Ph.D. of Nutrition, Nutrition Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The present randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on matrix metalloproteinases-2, -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Forty-six eligible subjects were randomly assigned to either vitamin D or placebo groups for 16 weeks. The participants were asked to take 50,000 IU vitamin D or matching placebo every week. Metabolic and anthropometric indices, serum MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were assessed before and after intervention. Moreover, dietary intake, sun exposure and physical activity were also determined. The trial was registered at http://www.irct.ir (No. IRCT201409033140N14). Participants were 40.20 ± 4.60 y and 45.50% males. Compared to the baseline values, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 concentrations were decreased after 16 weeks in the intervention group (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively). However, the changes of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and hsCRP in the intervention group were not significant compared to the placebo group (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the metabolic or anthropometric indices between two study groups remained unchanged (p > 0.05). The findings of the present study demonstrated no effect of vitamin D supplementation on MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 concentrations in subjects with metabolic syndrome. However, there is a need for more longitudinal trials to investigate the role of vitamin D on atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases in subjects with metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000559DOI Listing
November 2019

Vitamin K Supplementation Did Not Alter Inflammatory Markers and Clinical Status in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2018 Dec 21;88(5-6):251-257. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

1 Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Student Research Committee, Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disorder in which the disease severity might be decreased by anti-inflammatory agents. There are several lines of evidence which support anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin K. The aim of this study was to examine whether vitamin K is a useful strategy for reducing inflammation in RA subjects. In this double-blind placebo controlled trial, 58 patients with definitive RA were randomly allocated into two groups to receive vitamin K as phylloquinone [10 mg/day] or placebo pills for 8 weeks. Clinical status using disease activity score-28 (DAS-28) and serum concentrations of some inflammatory markers (IL-6, hs-CRP, TNFα) were assessed at baseline and at the end of intervention. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding any of the baseline characteristics. In the vitamin K group, a 27 % decrease in serum levels of IL-6 (P = 0.006) and a 13 % decrease in DAS-28 (P = 0.041) were observed. However, after adjusting for relevant confounders, i. e.; duration of RA, intake of folic acid supplements, energy intake, weight and baseline values of each variable, by comparing the two groups, we found no significant reduction in these markers. Vitamin K supplementation at 10 mg/day for 8 weeks had no significant effects on blood biomarkers of inflammation and disease severity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with the placebo group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000276DOI Listing
December 2018

The effect of cumin supplementation on metabolic profiles in patients with metabolic syndrome: A randomized, triple blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Phytother Res 2019 Apr 14;33(4):1182-1190. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Student Research Committee, Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of interconnected serious disorders, which is a major health problem whose prevalence is increasing. Oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to the disease pathogenesis and its complications. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cuminum cyminum L. (which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties) essential oil (CuEO) supplementation on inflammatory and antioxidant status in patients with MetS. In this clinical trial, 56 patients with MetS aged 18-60 years received either 75-mg CuEO or placebo soft gel, thrice daily, for 8 weeks. Data on anthropometric parameters, food consumption, tumor necrosis factor alpha, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, catalase, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the study. Compared with the placebo group, CuEO increased SOD (149.17; 95% CI, [67.93, 230.42]), TAC (0.24; 95% CI, [0.09, 0.38]) and decreased MDA (-0.36; 95% CI, [-0.66, 0.06]), (p < 0.01). In within-group analysis, CuEO led to 13.3% decrease in MDA and 6.7% increase in TAC levels (p < 0.04). The results indicated that CuEO supplementation can improve some antioxidative indices, as SOD and TAC, while decreasing MDA in patients with MetS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6313DOI Listing
April 2019

The effects of vitamin D supplementation on lipid profiles and oxidative indices among diabetic nephropathy patients with marginal vitamin D status.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 Jan - Feb;13(1):542-547. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Nutrition Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Aims: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes which insufficient vitamin D might -have a role in it's incidence. This study evaluated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on lipid profiles and oxidative/anti-oxidative indices in marginal vitamin D status patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Methods: For the current paralleled, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 50 diabetic nephropathy patients with marginal serum vitamin D were selected. Intervention group received 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (50000 IU/week, n = 25), and placebo group (n = 25) received an identical placebo, for 8 weeks. Lipid profiles (LDL, HDL, TG and TC) and oxidative/anti-oxidative markers (TAC, SOD, CAT, GPX and MDA) were measured.

Results: Vitamin D supplementation significantly increased vitamin D status in the intervention group, compared to the control group (P = 0.001). The reductions in the serum levels of TG, LDL and TC were significant (P = 0.04, P = 0.006 and P = 0.02, respectively) in the intervention group. The changes in oxidative/anti-oxidative markers and HDL levels were not significant after intervention.

Conclusion: In conclusion, vitamin D supplementation for 8 weeks among diabetic nephropathy patients has beneficial effects on serum vitamin D status and dyslipidemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2018.11.008DOI Listing
April 2019

Are Vaspin and Omentin-1 Related to Insulin Resistance, Blood Pressure and Inflammation in NAFLD Patients?

J Med Biochem 2018 Dec 1;37(4):470-475. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

School of Exercise and Nutrition Science, Faculty of Health Science, Deakin University, Melbourne Australia.

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of insulin resistance, is the most common cause of chronic liver. The present study aimed to investigate the roles of vaspin and omentin-1 in the NAFLD-related pathology including IR, inflammation and elevated blood pressure.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 83 NAFLD patients in Jahrom, Iran. Plasma levels of omentin-1, vaspin, hs-CRP and IL-6 were measured. Anthropometric indices, lipid profiles, liver enzymes as well as abdominal ultrasonography were assessed.

Results: Partial correlations controlling for age and sex showed significant positive correlation between vaspin and fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, HOMA-IR, and hs-CRP. It has been observed that omentin negatively correlated with glucose levels. Moreover, a marginally significant association has been found between omentin levels and systolic blood pressure (SBP).

Conclusions: This study shows that vaspin and omentin-1 are associated with inflammation, insulin resistance and serum glucose levels in patients with NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jomb-2018-0006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6298482PMC
December 2018

Pro- and prebiotic effects on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018;27(5):1031-1039

Nutrition Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related to inflammation and oxidative stress. Probiotics and prebiotics are considered anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors. In this study, we evaluated the effects of probiotic and/or prebiotic on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in patients with NAFLD.

Methods And Study Design: Seventy-five NAFLD subjects were divided into four groups. The first group received a pro-biotic capsule of Bifidobacterium longum (B.L) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L.A) (2 × 107 CFU/day), the second group received prebiotic (10 g/day inulin), the third group received pro-biotic and prebiotic, and the fourth group received placebo, for three months. Anthropometric, inflammatory and oxidative/ anti-oxidative indices were measured in all patients before and after the intervention.

Results: We showed that consumption of pro- and/or prebiotic compared to placebo is able to significantly decrease body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, tumour necrosis factor-α and increase serum levels of total antioxidant capacity in patients with NAFLD (p<0.01). There were not any significant differences between probiotic, prebiotic and co-administration of them on the mentioned parameters. Co-administration of pro- and prebiotic caused significant decrease of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) compared to the placebo and other groups (p<0.01). Interlekin-6 and malondialdehyde were not significantly different among groups at the end of study.

Conclusions: Probiotic or/and prebiotic supplementation can be effective for improvement of some anthropometric, inflammatory and oxidative indices in patients with NAFLD. Co-administration of pro- and prebiotic is more effective than probiotic and prebiotic alone in modifying hs-CRP in patients with NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.042018.05DOI Listing
September 2019

Hormonal and Metabolic Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and/or Vitamin E in Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 02;104(2):319-327

Nutrition Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive-age women. The hormonal and metabolic effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and/or vitamin E in patients with PCOS have not been studied, to our knowledge.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of CoQ10 and/or vitamin E on glucose homeostasis parameters and reproductive hormones in women with PCOS.

Design, Setting, Participants: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial among 86 women with PCOS.

Intervention: CoQ10 or vitamin E or combination for 8 weeks.

Main Outcome Measures: Glucose homeostasis parameters and sex hormone concentrations.

Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, supplementation with CoQ10 alone or in combination with vitamin E, compared with placebo, had significant effects on fasting blood sugar (FBS); vitamin E's effect on FBS was not significant. A significant reduction in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was observed in the CoQ10 and combined groups. CoQ10, vitamin E, and cosupplementation led to decreased serum total testosterone levels (P < 0.001) compared with those of the placebo group. CoQ10 supplementation in combination with vitamin E significantly improved in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels compared with other groups (P = 0.008). Linear regression analysis revealed that changes in FBS, insulin, and HOMA-IR were predictors of change in free androgen index (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: CoQ10 with or without vitamin E supplementation among women with PCOS had beneficial effects on serum FBS and insulin levels, as well as HOMA-IR and total testosterone levels. However, only cosupplementation affected SHBG concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-01221DOI Listing
February 2019

Lower glycemic indices and lipid profile among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who received novel dose of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) extract supplement: A Triple-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial.

Phytomedicine 2018 May 19;44:39-44. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Objective: This randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of silymarin supplementation on glycemic indices and serum lipid profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.

Methods: 40 T2DM patients (twenty male and twenty female), 25-50 years of age and on stable medication, were recruited for the present paralleled, randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The participants were randomly assigned to the silymarin or placebo groups, in which the patients either received 140 mg of silymarin, thrice daily (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) for 45 days. Anthropometric and dietary intake data were collected at the baseline and end of the trial. Fasting blood samples were collected, and glycemic indices and lipid profile were determined at baseline, as well as the end of the study.

Results: Silymarin supplementation led to significant reduction in fasting blood sugar, serum insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, serum triglyceride and triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio as compared to the placebo, by 11.01, 14.35, 25.92, 23.7 and 27.67% respectively. There was significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index in the silymarin group as compared to the placebo group, by 6.88 and 5.64% respectively, (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased in the silymarin group as compared to the baseline, by 7.93 (p = 0.001) and 7.15% (p = 0.02), respectively.

Conclusion: Silymarin supplementation may improve the glycemic indices and lipid profiles of T2DM patients. More studies are needed to validate the adjunct use of silymarin for metabolic control of T2DM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2018.03.050DOI Listing
May 2018

The Investigation of the Diversity of Spp. and Assessment Their Some Probiotic Properties in Traditional Dairy Products in East Azerbaijan Province in Iran.

Iran J Pharm Res 2017 ;16(4):1538-1545

Drug Applied Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the production of functional foods, particularly probiotic foods. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) particularly strains of are important bacteria in food microbiology and human nutrition due to their ability to fermented food production and have received considerable attention as probiotics. The traditional fermented dairy foods as a rich source of wild LAB can introduce new strain with probiotic properties into food products. So, the present study was aimed to isolate and identify . in traditional dairy products and to assess some of their probiotic properties. For this study, fifty samples including homemade yogurt and cheese were purchased from several rural areas and the intragenic transcribed spacer-PCR (16-23s rDNA) was used for identification of . Some probiotic properties were assayed including resistant to acid and bile, antimicrobial activity, and antibiotic susceptibility. The isolates were characterized as , , and . Out of the fifty-six isolates identified phenotypically as lactobacillus, twenty-four strains were tolerant to pH 2.5 and 0.3% bile salt after 3 h of incubation and only 6 strains showed antimicrobial activity and antibiotic susceptibility. In conclusion, six strains showed potentially probiotic properties including resistant to acid and bile, antimicrobial activity and antibiotic susceptibility. So, we can consider these strains as native probiotic but extra examinations were required for introduction into food products.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5843315PMC
January 2017

The effects of synbiotic supplementation on insulin resistance/sensitivity, lipid profile and total antioxidant capacity in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2018 Apr 10;138:149-157. Epub 2018 Feb 10.

Nutrition Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Aims: The role of gut microbiota in the management of diabetes is shown. In this randomized clinical trial we assessed the effects of synbiotic supplementation on insulin, lipid profile and antioxidative status among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Methods: Ninety pregnant women with GDM were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either a daily synbiotic capsule - consisting of L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. gasseri (1.5-7.0 × 10 CFU/g) - with fructooligosaccharide (38.5 mg), or placebo for 6 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), high- and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DSP) were assessed before and after the intervention.

Results: No significant changes in FPG, insulin resistance/sensitivity, lipid profile and TAC indices were seen in synbiotic group compared to the placebo one (p > 0.05). Significant within group increases for HDL-C and TAC levels in synbiotic group were observed (p < 0.05). LDL-C showed significant increment in the placebo group compared to the baseline of the study (6.9 mg/dL, p < 0.05). Between group comparison showed significant decrease in SBP and DBP in synbiotic group compared to placebo (-2.5 vs. 8.6 mmHg, and -1.8 vs. 2.1 mmHg, p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The results showed that, in women with GDM, synbiotic supplementation had no effect on FPG and insulin resistance/sensitivity indices. Lipid profile and TAC status may be affected by synbiotic supplementation. Synbiotic is effective in reducing of blood pressure in women with GDM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2018.02.008DOI Listing
April 2018

The Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Body Composition, Blood Pressure, Glucose Metabolism, and Markers of Inflammation in NAFLD Patients: An Observational Trial.

J Am Coll Nutr 2017 Nov-Dec;36(8):640-645. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

c Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Motahari Hospital , Jahrom , Iran.

Background And Aim: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease and is a serious global health problem. Regarding the increasing prevalence of NAFLD, finding various strategies to prevent and manage the disease is of great importance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of caloric restriction during Ramadan fasting on anthropometric indices, fasting glucose, plasma insulin, insulin resistance, and inflammatory cytokines (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6) in patients with NAFLD.

Methods: We conducted this study with 83 patients with NAFLD, 42 of whom decided to fast and 41 controls who decided not to fast for Ramadan, between June 18 and July 17, 2015. Anthropometric parameters were measured and a sample of venous blood was obtained for biochemical assays before and after Ramadan.

Results: There was a significant decrease in all anthropometric parameters as well as fasting glucose, plasma insulin, and insulin resistance. Relative to the nonfasting group, fasting significantly reduced circulating inflammatory, but changes in blood pressure after Ramadan were not significant.

Conclusions: This study shows significant effects on parameters during Ramadan fasting such as anthropometric indices, fasting glucose, plasma insulin, and inflammatory cytokines in patients with NAFLD. The results of this study suggest that Ramadan fasting may be useful to improve NAFLD, so further studies are needed in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2017.1339644DOI Listing
July 2018

Prophylactic effects of secretion metabolites of dairy lactobacilli through downregulation of ErbB-2 and ErbB-3 genes on colon cancer cells.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2020 05;29(3):201-209

Drug Applied Research Center.

Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers, and intestinal microbial community plays a pivotal role in colorectal tumor genesis. Probiotics as live microorganisms may be able to exert an anticancer effect in colon cancer. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify Lactobacillus spp. from traditional dairy products with probiotic properties and to investigate their anticancer effects through ErbB-2 and ErbB-3 gene expression in colon cancer cells. The isolated lactobacilli from yogurt and cheese samples were molecularly identified by blasting of 16-23s rDNA region PCR sequenced products. The probiotic properties, including acid and bile tolerance, antimicrobial activity, and antibiotic susceptibility, were assayed. The proliferation inhibition effects of lactobacilli secretion metabolites with probiotic potential on colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and caco-2) were analyzed using MTT assay. The real-time PCR was used for assessment of ErbB-2 and ErbB-3 gene expression after being treated with probiotics. Four species of bacteria with the most probiotic properties, including Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum, were characterized and their effects on different human cell lines were taken into consideration. Total bacterial secretions significantly reduced the viability of HT-29 and caco-2 cancer cells compared with untreated controls. The metabolites secreted by bacteria downregulated the expression of ErbB-2 and ErbB-3 genes in colon cancer cells. The present study indicated that probiotic bacteria isolated from traditional dairy products exert anticancer effect on colon cancer cells through the downregulation of ErbB-2 and ErbB-3 gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000393DOI Listing
May 2020
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