Publications by authors named "Badrul Amini Abd-Rashid"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

In vitro effect of important herbal active constituents on human cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity.

Phytomedicine 2014 Oct 16;21(12):1645-50. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Electronic address:

This study was designed to investigate eight herbal active constituents (andrographolide, asiaticoside, asiatic acid, madecassic acid, eupatorin, sinensetin, caffeic acid, and rosmarinic acid) on their potential inhibitory effects on human cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity. A fluorescence-based enzyme assay was performed by co-incubating human cDNA-expressed CYP1A2 with its selective probe substrate, 3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin (CEC), in the absence or presence of various concentrations of herbal active constituents. The metabolite (cyano-hydroxycoumarin) formed was subsequently measured in order to obtain IC50 values. The results indicated that only eupatorin and sinensetin moderately inhibited CYP1A2 with IC50 values of 50.8 and 40.2 μM, while the other active compounds did not significantly affect CYP1A2 activity with IC50 values more than 100 μM. Ki values further determined for eupatorin and sinensetin were 46.4 and 35.2 μM, respectively. Our data indicated that most of the investigated herbal constituents have negligible CYP1A2 inhibitory effect. In vivo studies however may be warranted to ascertain the inhibitory effect of eupatorin and sinensetin on CYP1A2 activity in clinical situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2014.08.003DOI Listing
October 2014

Effect of eurycomanone on cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in vitro.

J Nat Med 2014 Apr 24;68(2):402-6. Epub 2013 Jul 24.

School of Medical Sciences, International Medical University, 126 Jalan 19/155B, Bukit Jalil, 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Eurycomanone, an active constituent isolated from Eurycoma longifolia Jack, was examined for modulatory effects on cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 using in vitro assays. The IC50 value was determined to assess the potencies of modulation for each CYP isoform. Our results indicated that eurycomanone did not potently inhibit any of the CYP isoforms investigated, with IC50 values greater than 250 μg/ml. Hence there appears to be little likelihood of drug-herb interaction between eurycomanone or herbal products with high content of this compound and CYP drug substrates via CYP inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11418-013-0794-8DOI Listing
April 2014

Inhibitory effects of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 by Labisia pumila extracts.

J Ethnopharmacol 2012 Sep 31;143(2):586-91. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, International Medical University, 126, Jalan 19/155B, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Labisa pumila (LP), popularly known with its local name, Kacip Fatimah, is a well known herb grown in Indochina and Southeast Asia and is traditionally used to regain energy after giving birth in women. The propensity of LP to cause drug-herb interaction via cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system has not been investigated.

Aim Of The Study: To evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effects of various LP extracts (aqueous, ethanol, dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane) on cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8), CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 activities.

Materials And Methods: Probe substrate-based high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were established for CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 whereas a fluorescence-based enzyme assay was established for CYP2C8. The metabolite formations were examined after incubation of probe substrate with respective CYP isoform in the present or absent of LP extracts. The inhibitory effect of LP was characterized with kinetic parameters IC(50) and K(i) values.

Results: LP extracts showed differential effect of CYP activities with the order of inhibitory potency as follows: dichloromethane>hexane>ethanol>aqueous. This differential effect was only observed in CYP2C isoforms but not CYP3A4. Both the hexane and DCM extracts exhibited moderate to potent inhibition towards CYP2C activities in different modes including non-competitive, competive and mixed-type. The DCM effect was notably strong for CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 showing K(i) values of below 1 μg/ml. The selectivity of LP for CYP2C isoforms rather than CYP3A4 may be attributed to the presence of relatively small, lipophilic yet slightly polar compounds within the LP extracts.

Conclusions: The results of our study revealed that phytoconstituents contained in LP, particularly in hexane and dichloromethane extracts, were able to selectively inhibit CYP2C isoforms. The inactivation was characterized by low K(i) values, in particular, in CYP2C8 and CYP2C9. These in vitro data indicate that LB preparations contain constituents that can potently inhibit CYP2C activities and suggest that this herb should be examined for potential pharmacokinetic drug interactions in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.07.024DOI Listing
September 2012

Heterologous expression of human cytochromes P450 2D6 and CYP3A4 in Escherichia coli and their functional characterization.

Protein J 2011 Dec;30(8):581-91

School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, International Medical University, 126 Jalan 19/155B, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

This study aimed to express two major drug-metabolizing human hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYPs), CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, together with NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (OxR) in Escherichia coli and to evaluate their catalytic activities. Full length cDNA clones of both isoforms in which the N-terminus was modified to incorporate bovine CYP17α sequence were inserted into a pCWori(+) vector. The modified CYP cDNAs were subsequently expressed individually, each together with OxR by means of separate, compatible plasmids with different antibiotic selection markers. The expressed proteins were evaluated by immunoblotting and reduced CO difference spectral scanning. Enzyme activities were examined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assays with probe substrates dextromethorphan and testosterone for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, respectively. Results from immunoblotting demonstrated the presence of both CYP proteins in bacterial membranes and reduced CO difference spectra of the cell preparations exhibited the characteristic absorbance peak at 450 nm. Co-expressed OxR also demonstrated an activity level comparable to literature values. Kinetic parameters, K(m) and V(max) values determined from the HPLC assays also agreed well with literature values. As a conclusion, the procedures described in this study provide a relatively convenient and reliable means of producing catalytically active CYP isoforms suitable for drug metabolism and interaction studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10930-011-9365-6DOI Listing
December 2011

In vitro determination of the effect of Andrographis paniculata extracts and andrographolide on human hepatic cytochrome P450 activities.

J Nat Med 2011 Jul 3;65(3-4):440-7. Epub 2011 Mar 3.

School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, International Medical University, 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

We investigated the effects of Andrographis paniculata (AP) extracts and andrographolide on the catalytic activity of three human cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes: CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. In vitro probe-based high performance liquid chromatography assays were developed to determine CYP2C9-dependent tolbutamide methylhydroxylation, CYP2D6-dependent dextromethorphan O-demethylation and CYP3A4-dependent testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activities in the presence and absence of AP extracts and andrographolide. Our results indicate that AP ethanol and methanol extracts inhibited CYP activities more potently than aqueous and hexane extracts across the three isoforms. Potent inhibitory effects were observed on CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 activities (K (i) values below 20 μg/ml). Andrographolide was found to exclusively but weakly inhibit CYP3A4 activity. In conclusion, data presented in this study suggest that AP extracts have the potential to inhibit CYP isoforms in vitro. There was, however, variation in the potency of inhibition depending on the extracts and the isoforms investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11418-011-0516-zDOI Listing
July 2011

In vitro effects of active constituents and extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus on the activities of three major human cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes.

Chem Biol Interact 2011 Mar 27;190(1):1-8. Epub 2011 Jan 27.

School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, International Medical University, 126, Jalan 19/155B, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) has been traditionally used to treat diabetes, kidney and urinary disorders, high blood pressure and bone or muscular pain. To assess the possibility of drug-herb interaction via interference of metabolism, effects of four OS extracts of different polarity and three active constituents (sinensetin, eupatorin and rosmarinic acid) on major human cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes were investigated. Three substrate-probe based high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assays were established to serve as activity markers for CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. Our results indicate that OS extracts and constituents exhibited differential modulatory effects on different CYPs. While none of the OS components showed significant inhibition on CYP2C9, eupatorin strongly and uncompetitively inhibited CYP2D6 activity with a K(i) value of 10.2μM. CYP3A4 appeared to be the most susceptible enzyme to OS inhibitory effects. It was moderately inhibited by OS dichloromethane and petroleum ether extract with mixed-type and noncompetitive inhibitions (K(i)=93.7 and 44.9μg/mL), respectively. Correlation study indicated that the inhibition was accounted for by the presence of eupatorin in the extracts. When IC(50) values of these extracts were expressed in volume per dose unit to reflect inhibitory effect at recommended human doses from commercially available products, moderate inhibition was also observed. In addition, CYP3A4 was strongly and noncompetitively inhibited by eupatorin alone, with a K(i) value of 9.3μM. These findings suggest that co-administration of OS products, especially those with high eupatorin content, with conventional drugs may have the potential to cause drug-herb interactions involving inhibition of major CYP enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2011.01.022DOI Listing
March 2011

In vitro modulatory effects of Andrographis paniculata, Centella asiatica and Orthosiphon stamineus on cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19).

J Ethnopharmacol 2011 Jan 18;133(2):881-7. Epub 2010 Nov 18.

School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, International Medical University, 126 Jalan 19/155B, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Ethno Pharmacological Relevance: Andrographis paniculata (AP), Centella asiatica (CA) and Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) are three popular herbs traditionally used worldwide. AP is known for the treatment of infections and diabetes and CA is good for wound healing and healthy skin while OS is usually consumed as tea to treat kidney and urinary disorders. Interaction of these herbs with human cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19), a major hepatic CYP isoform involved in metabolism of many clinical drugs has not been investigated to date.

Aim Of The Study: In this study, the modulatory effects of various extracts and major active constituents of AP, CA and OS on CYP2C19 activities were evaluated.

Materials And Methods: S-mephenytoin, the CYP2C19 substrate probe, was incubated in the presence or absence of AP, CA and OS components. The changes in the rate of metabolite (hydroxymephenytoin) formation were subsequently determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based enzyme assay to characterize the modulatory effects.

Results: Among the herbal extracts studied, AP ethanol extract and CA dichloromethane extract exhibited mixed type inhibition towards CYP2C19 with K(i) values of 67.1 and 16.4 μg/ml respectively; CA ethanol extract and OS petroleum ether extract competitively inhibited CYP2C19 activity (K(i)=39.6 and 41.5 μg/ml respectively). Eupatorin (a major active constituent of OS) was found to significantly inhibit CYP2C19 by mixed type inhibition (K(i)=7.1 μg/ml or 20.6 μM).

Conclusions: It was observed that AP, CA and OS inhibited CYP2C19 activity with varying potency. While weak inhibitory effect was observed with AP, moderate to strong inhibition was observed with CA dichloromethane extract and eupatorin, the major OS constituent. Therefore care should be taken when these CA and OS components are co-administered with CYP2C19 substrates (such as omeprazole, proguanil, barbiturates, citalopram, and diazepam).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.026DOI Listing
January 2011

In vitro modulatory effects on three major human cytochrome P450 enzymes by multiple active constituents and extracts of Centella asiatica.

J Ethnopharmacol 2010 Jul 8;130(2):275-83. Epub 2010 May 8.

School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Centella asiatica (CA) has been widely cultivated as a vegetable or spice in China, Southeast Asia, India, Sri Lanka, Africa, and Oceanic countries and traditionally used for wound healing and maintaining normal blood pressure.

Aim Of The Study: The present study was carried out to examine the potential modulatory effects of three commercially available active components (asiaticoside, asiatic acid and madecassic acid) and four extracts (aqueous, ethanol, dichloromethane and hexane) of CA on three major cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms.

Materials And Methods: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based enzyme assays, namely tolbutamide 4-methyhydroxylase, dextromethorphan O-demethylase and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase assays were developed to probe activities of CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, respectively. Probe substrates were incubated with or without each active component and extract for each isoform, followed by examination of the kinetics parameters, IC(50) and K(i), to characterize modulatory effects.

Results: CYP2C9 was more susceptible to inhibitory effects by CA extracts compared to CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. Moderate degree of inhibition was observed in ethanol (K(i)=39.1 microg/ml) and dichloromethane (K(i)=26.6 microg/ml) extracts implying potential risk of interaction when CYP2C9 substrates are consumed with CA products. The two extracts however showed negligible inhibition towards CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 (IC(50)'s of 123.3 microg/ml and above). Similarly CA aqueous and hexane extracts did not significantly inhibit all three isoforms investigated (IC(50)'s of 117.9 microg/ml and above). Among the active constituents investigated, asiatic acid and madecassic acid appeared to selectively inhibit CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 more than CYP3A4. Of particular interest is the potent inhibitory effect of asiatic acid on CYP2C9 (K(i)=9.1 microg/ml). This signifies potential risk of interaction when substrates for this isoform are taken together with CA products with high asiatic acid content. Inhibitions of asiatic acid with the other isoforms and that of madecassic acid with all isoforms were only moderate (K(i)'s ranged from 17.2 to 84.4 microg/ml). On the other hand, the IC(50) values for asiaticoside were high (1070.2 microg/ml or above) for all three isoforms, indicating negligible or low potential of this compound to modulate CYP enzymatic activity.

Conclusion: Centella asiatica extracts and active constituents inhibited CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activities with varying potency with CYP2C9 being the most susceptible isoform to inhibition. Significant inhibition was observed for asiatic acid and CA ethanol and dichloromethane extracts, implying involvement of semipolar constituents from CA in the effect. This study suggested that CA could cause drug-herb interactions through CYP2C9 inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.002DOI Listing
July 2010

Combined xanthorrhizol-curcumin exhibits synergistic growth inhibitory activity via apoptosis induction in human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231.

Cancer Cell Int 2009 Jan 2;9. Epub 2009 Jan 2.

Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Center, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: It has been suggested that combined effect of natural products may improve the treatment effectiveness in combating proliferation of cancer cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility that the combination of xanthorrhizol and curcumin might show synergistic growth inhibitory effect towards MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells via apoptosis induction. The effective dose that produced 50% growth inhibition (GI50) was calculated from the log dose-response curve of fixed-combinations of xanthorrhizol and curcumin generated from the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The experimental GI50 value was used to determine the synergistic activity of the combination treatment by isobolographic analysis and combination-index method. Further investigation of mode of cell death induced by the combination treatment was conducted in the present study.

Results: Isobole analysis revealed that substances interaction was synergistic when xanthorrhizol and curcumin were added concurrently to the cultures but merely additive when they were added sequentially. The synergistic combination treatment was then applied to the cultures to investigate the mode of cell death induced by the treatment. Immunofluorescence staining using antibody MitoCapturetrade mark revealed the possibility of altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential, which is one of the hallmark of apoptosis. Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining assay showed the rate of apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells to increase in response to the treatment. Apoptotic cell death was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay, where internucleosomal excision of DNA was induced upon treatment with xanthorrhizol-curcumin.

Conclusion: This is the first time the combined cytotoxic effect of xanthorrhizol and curcumin on MDA-MB-231 cells has been documented and our findings provide experimental support to the hypothesis that combined xanthorrhizol-curcumin showed synergistic growth inhibitory activity on MDA-MB-231 cells via apoptosis induction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2867-9-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2630298PMC
January 2009