Publications by authors named "Babiker H Mohammed"

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Anopheles arabiensis in Sudan: a noticeable tolerance to urban polluted larval habitats associated with resistance to Temephos.

Malar J 2018 May 18;17(1):204. Epub 2018 May 18.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.

Background: It has been documented that unplanned urbanization leads to the exposure of members of the Anopheles vectors to a range of water pollution in urban settings. Many surveys from African and Asian countries reported the presence of Anopheles larvae in polluted urban habitats. The present study documents an obvious tolerance of the melanic and normal forms of Anopheles arabiensis to urban polluted larval habitats accompanied by resistance to Temephos larvicide.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out to inspect apparently polluted An. arabiensis larval habitats during the hot dry season of 2015. Larval specimens were collected from only apparently polluted habitats after visual inspection from 5 localities in Khartoum State. After morphological and molecular identification of random samples of larvae the magnitude of water pollution was determined using nine abiotic factors. The susceptibility status of An. arabiensis larval forms from normal and polluted habitats to Temephos was tested using the WHO standard diagnostic concentration doses.

Results: Morphological and PCR analysis of anopheline larvae revealed the presence of An. arabiensis, a member of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Seven out of 9 physiochemical parameters showed higher concentrations in polluted larval habitats in comparison to control site. Anopheles arabiensis larvae were found in water bodies characterized by high mean of conductivity (1857.8 ± 443.3 uS/cm), turbidity (189.4 ± 69.1 NTU) and nitrate (19.7 ± 16.7 mg/l). The range of mortality rates of An. arabiensis larvae collected from polluted habitats in comparison to An. arabiensis larvae collected from non-polluted habitats was 6.7-64% (LD = 1.682) and 67.6-96% (LD = 0.806), respectively.

Conclusions: The present study reveals that minor populations of An. arabiensis larval forms are adapted to breed in polluted urban habitats, which further influenced susceptibility to Temephos, especially for the melanic larval forms. This could have further implications on the biology of the malaria vector and on the transmission and epidemiology of urban malaria in Sudan.
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May 2018