Publications by authors named "Babak Mansourafshar"

5 Publications

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Neurological Manifestations of COVID-19: A Case Report.

Tanaffos 2020 Nov;19(2):160-164

Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

A novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and spread rapidly around the world, causing high rates of mortality and morbidity. This disease is known for its respiratory manifestations. Also, there have been several reports of neurological involvement in patients with COVID-19. In this study, we present a 55-year-old Iranian male patient, who was referred from another medical center with a decreased level of consciousness. Upon admission, only respiratory signs of COVID-19 were observed, but later, some neurological manifestations were also observed, such as an alteration in mental status, disorientation, stupor, and finally coma. In radiological studies, a hemorrhagic encephalopathy pattern was detected. Despite improved oxygenation and alleviation of respiratory symptoms with antiviral and anti-inflammatory therapies, cerebral injuries progressed, and the patient died due to severe brain damage.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680512PMC
November 2020

Clinical Manifestations of Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a Referral Center in Iran.

Tanaffos 2020 Nov;19(2):122-128

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Following the recent epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, a novel betacoronavirus was isolated from two patients in Iran on February 19, 2020. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical manifestations and outcomes of the first confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection (n=127).

Materials And Methods: This prospective study was conducted on all COVID-19-suspected cases, admitted to Masih Daneshvari Hospital (a designated hospital for COVID-19), Tehran, Iran, since February 19, 2020. All patients were tested for COVID-19, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Data of confirmed cases, including demographic characteristics, clinical features, and outcomes, were collected and compared between three groups of patients, requiring different types of admission (requiring ICU admission, admission to the general ward, and transfer to ICU).

Results: Of 412 suspected cases, with the mean age of 54.1 years (SD=13.4), 127 (31%) were positive for COVID-19. Following the patients' first visit to the clinic, 115 cases were admitted to the general ward, while ten patients required ICU admission. Due to clinical deterioration in the condition of 25 patients (out of 115 patients), ICU admission was essential. Based on the results, the baseline characteristics of the groups were similar. Patients requiring ICU admission were more likely to have multiorgan involvement (liver involvement, P<0.001; renal involvement, P<0.001; and cardiac involvement, P=0.02), low O saturation (P<0.001), and lymphopenia (P=0.05). During hospital admission, 21 (16.5%) patients died, while the rest (83.5%) were discharged and followed-up until March 26, 2020. Also, the survival rate of patients, who received immunoglobulin, was higher than other patients (60.87% vs. 39.13%).

Conclusion: The mortality rate of COVID-19 patients was considerable in our study. Based on the present results, this infection can cause multiorgan damage. Therefore, intensive monitoring of these patients needs to be considered.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680520PMC
November 2020

Reply to: Psychophysical olfactory testing in COVID-19: is smell function really impaired in nearly all patients?

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2020 08 3;10(8):953-954. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Smell & Taste Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck, Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alr.22638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300808PMC
August 2020

Smell dysfunction: a biomarker for COVID-19.

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2020 08 18;10(8):944-950. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Smell & Taste Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is responsible for the largest pandemic since the 1918 influenza A virus subtype H1N1 influenza outbreak. The symptoms presently recognized by the World Health Organization are cough, fever, tiredness, and difficulty breathing. Patient-reported smell and taste loss has been associated with COVID-19 infection, yet no empirical olfactory testing on a cohort of COVID-19 patients has been performed.

Methods: The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), a well-validated 40-odorant test, was administered to 60 confirmed COVID-19 inpatients and 60 age- and sex-matched controls to assess the magnitude and frequency of their olfactory dysfunction. A mixed effects analysis of variance determined whether meaningful differences in test scores existed between the 2 groups and if the test scores were differentially influenced by sex.

Results: Fifty-nine (98%) of the 60 patients exhibited some smell dysfunction (mean [95% CI] UPSIT score: 20.98 [19.47, 22.48]; controls: 34.10 [33.31, 34.88]; p < 0.0001). Thirty-five of the 60 patients (58%) were either anosmic (15/60; 25%) or severely microsmic (20/60; 33%); 16 exhibited moderate microsmia (16/60; 27%), 8 mild microsmia (8/60; 13%), and 1 normosmia (1/60; 2%). Deficits were evident for all 40 UPSIT odorants. No meaningful relationships between the test scores and sex, disease severity, or comorbidities were found.

Conclusion: Quantitative smell testing demonstrates that decreased smell function, but not always anosmia, is a major marker for SARS-CoV-2 infection and suggests the possibility that smell testing may help, in some cases, to identify COVID-19 patients in need of early treatment or quarantine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alr.22587DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262123PMC
August 2020