Publications by authors named "Babak Farzinnia"

4 Publications

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Mapping and Spatial Pattern Analysis of COVID-19 in Central Iran Using the Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA).

BMC Public Health 2021 12 8;21(1):2227. Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Student Research Committee, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

Background: Using geographical analysis to identify geographical factors related to the prevalence of COVID-19 infection can affect public health policies aiming at controlling the virus. This study aimed to determine the spatial analysis of COVID-19 in Qom Province, using the local indicators of spatial association (LISA).

Methods: In a primary descriptive-analytical study, all individuals infected with COVID-19 in Qom Province from February 19, 2020 to September 30, 2020 were identified and included in the study. The spatial distribution in urban areas was determined using the Moran coefficient in geographic information systems (GIS); in addition, the spatial autocorrelation of the coronavirus in different urban districts of the province was calculated using the LISA method.

Results: The prevalence of COVID-19 in Qom Province was estimated to be 356.75 per 100,000 populations. The pattern of spatial distribution of the prevalence of COVID-19 in Qom was clustered. District 3 (Imam Khomeini St.) and District 6 (Imamzadeh Ebrahim St.) were set in the High-High category of LISA: a high-value area surrounded by high-value areas as the two foci of COVID-19 in Qom Province. District 1 (Bajak) of urban districts was set in the Low-High category: a low-value area surrounded by high values. This district is located in a low-value area surrounded by high values.

Conclusions: According to the results, district 3 (Imam Khomeini St.) and district 6 (Imamzadeh Ebrahim St.) areas are key areas for preventing and controlling interventional measures. In addition, considering the location of District 1 (Bajak) as an urban district in the Low-High category surrounded by high values, it seems that distance and spatial proximity play a major role in the spread of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-12267-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8651275PMC
December 2021

Challenges to manage pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Iran with a special situation: a qualitative multi-method study.

BMC Public Health 2021 10 22;21(1):1919. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Surgery Department, University of Tubingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: With the unprecedented expansion of COVID-19 in the world since December 2019, Iran's health system, like other countries, faced various challenges in managing the disease, which led to numerous experiences and lessons learned. This study was conducted to identify these challenges regarding unique political, economic, and cultural issues, which could help other countries with similar situations.

Methods: The present study was performed using a qualitative multi-method approach with a content analysis method. The data were collected through in-depth and semi-structured interviews and focused group discussions with 60 key persons who were selected purposefully, including policymakers, health care workers, and affected people by the disease, and the review of all available national reports between February 21, 2020, and March 22, 2021. The data collection and analysis were done simultaneously.

Results: Identified critical challenges for the management of COVID-19 in the health system were limited evidence and scientific controversies, poor social prevention and social inequalities, burnout and sustained workload among healthcare workers, improper management of resources and equipment, the lack of a guideline for contact tracing, and patient flow management, and mental health problems in the community.

Conclusions: According to our results, measures should be taken to conduct a continuous comprehensive risk assessment and develop a national response plan with an emphasis on precise contact tracing, active screening, patient flow, paying attention to the psychological and social dimensions of the disease, and also transparency of social inequalities in the face of risk factors of the COVID-19. Also, the social protection programs should become a vital tool for policymakers and supporting the vulnerable groups using the capacity of the community and international cooperation to develop a vaccine, which is difficult to procure due to the sanctions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11973-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8532398PMC
October 2021

Bidirectional association between COVID-19 and the environment: A systematic review.

Environ Res 2021 03 29;194:110692. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Medical, Surgical and Advanced Technologies "G.F. Ingrassia", University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

The global crisis caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) affected economics, social affairs, and the environment, not to mention public health. It is estimated that near 82% of the SARS-CoV-2 genome is similar to the severe acute respiratory syndrome. The purpose of the review is to highlight how the virus is impacted by the environment and how the virus has impacted the environment. This review was based on an electronic search of the literature in the Scopus, Science Direct, and PubMed database published from December 2019 to July 2020 using combinations of the following keywords: SARS-CoV-2 transmission, COVID-19 transmission, coronavirus transmission, waterborne, wastewater, airborne, solid waste, fomites, and fecal-oral transmission. Studies suggest the thermal properties of ambient air, as well as relative humidity, may affect the transmissibility and viability of the virus. Samples taken from the wastewater collection network were detected contaminated with the novel coronavirus; consequently, there is a concern of its transmission via an urban sewer system. There are concerns about the efficacy of the wastewater treatment plant disinfection process as the last chance to inactivate the virus. Handling solid waste also requires an utmost caution as it may contain infectious masks, etc. Following the PRISMA approach, among all reviewed studies, more than 36% of them were directly or indirectly related to the indoor and outdoor environment, 16% to meteorological factors, 11% to wastewater, 14% to fomites, 8% to water, 9% to solid waste, and 6% to the secondary environment. The still growing body of literature on COVID-19 and air, suggests the importance of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via air and indoor air quality, especially during lockdown interventions. Environmental conditions are found to be a factor in transmitting the virus beyond geographical borders. Accordingly, countries need to pay extra attention to sustainable development themes and goals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833965PMC
March 2021

Phlebotomus papatasi and Meriones libycus as the vector and reservoir host of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Qomrood District, Qom Province, central Iran.

Asian Pac J Trop Med 2011 Feb;4(2):97-100

Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Objective: To determine the sand flies species responsible for most transmission of Leishmania major (L. major) to human, as well as to determine the main reservoir hosts of the disease.

Methods: Sand flies were collected using sticky papers and mounted in Puri's medium for species identification. Rodents were trapped by live Sherman traps. Both sand flies and rodents were subjected to molecular methods for detection of leishmanial parasite.

Results: Phlebotomus papatasi (P. papatasi) was the common species in outdoor and indoor resting places. Employing PCR technique only three specimens of 150 P. papatasi (2%) were found naturally infected by parasites with a band of 350 bp which is equal to the L. major parasite. Forty six rodents were captured by Sherman traps and identified. Microscopic investigation on blood smear of the animals for amastigote parasites revealed 1 (3.22%) infected Meriones libycus (M. libycus). Infection of this animal to L. major was confirmed by PCR against rDNA loci of the parasite.

Conclusions: This is the first molecular report of parasite infection of both vector (P. papatasi) and reservoir (M. libycus) to L. major in the region. The results indicated that P. papatasi was the primary vector of the disease and circulating the parasite between human and reservoirs and M. libycus was the most important host reservoir for maintenance of the parasite source in the area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60045-XDOI Listing
February 2011
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