Publications by authors named "Babak Djahed"

10 Publications

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Exposure to heavy metal contamination and probabilistic health risk assessment using Monte Carlo simulation: a study in the Southeast Iran.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 17;18(2):1217-1226. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Research Center for Environmental Health Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The rice contamination to heavy metals and its associated health risks have been less addressed in the southeast of Iran. In the present study, in the mentioned region, we assessed the concentration of nine elements in rice, and the health risk related to the measured elements was determined using the data which were gathered by a questionnaire. For this purpose, 36 samples of the 12 most widely consumed rice brands were collected. Using ICP-MS, the concentrations of Ni, Cr, Hg, Sr, Mn, Fe, Se, Ba, and Zn were measured in the studied samples as 0.599 ± 0.124, 0.483 ± 0.28, 0.0157 ± 0.005, 0.85 ± 1.307, 11.5 ± 1.97, 178.46 ± 67.27, 0.212 ± 0.083, 0.845 ± 0.62, and 8.416 ± 1.611 mg/kg, respectively. We found that, regarding the other studies, the levels of Ni, Cr, Hg, Fe, and Ba were higher. Besides, using 258 distributed questionnaires among citizens, the daily rice consumption was determined to be 295.66 ± 171.005 g/person/ day. Based on this consumption rate and Monto Carlo uncertainty simulation, Fe (0.741 ± 0.54 mg/kg/day) and Se (8.95E-04 ± 6.33E-04 mg/kg/day) showed the highest and lowest daily intake, respectively. Also, using Hazard Quotient (HQ), the non-carcinogenic risk effects of the surveyed elements were estimated. The obtained results of HQ revealed that Fe (2.48) and Mn (1.06) could pose non-carcinogenic health risks to consumers. Moreover, the calculated hazard Index showed that the overall health risk of the surveyed elements is in an unsafe range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00539-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721777PMC
December 2020

Health Risk Assessment of Dermal Exposure to Heavy Metals Content of Chemical Hair Dyes.

Iran J Public Health 2019 May;48(5):902-911

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Iranshahr University of Medical Sciences, Iranshahr, Iran.

Background: Contamination of hair dyes to heavy metals can threaten consumer's health. We investigated the concentrations of some important heavy metals in hair dyes and evaluates their non-carcinogenic effects.

Methods: The most commonly used hair dyes were determined through questioners and 32 samples were collected from the market of Tehran in 2014. The concentration of 10 heavy metals (Fe, Ag, Co, Cr, Mn, Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Al) was determined using ICP-MS. Based on the obtained data from distributed questionnaires and Monte Carlo simulation, the exposure to the evaluated heavy metals was estimated. Besides, using hazard quotient (HQ) and chronic hazard (HI), the risk of non-carcinogenic effects of investigated hair dyes consumption was specified.

Results: Results indicated the average concentrations of Al, Ba, and Fe as 0.54, 0.86, and 1.19 mg kg and those of Cd, Cu, and Pb as 0.45, 61.32, and 185.34 μg kg, respectively. Pb with HQ of 7.46e-4 had the highest risk and Fe with HQ of 3.4e-6 had the lowest level of risk. Among the investigated dyes, the ones made by Iran (HI=2.8e-4) and the dark brown color (HI=1.93e-4) had the highest level of risk among all the studied samples.

Conclusion: Two indices of HI and HQ showed that heavy metal contents in the investigated samples had not probable non-carcinogenic risks for the consumers of these products.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6717416PMC
May 2019

Seroepidemiology of in Children under 14 Years Referring to Laboratories of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in Southeast of Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2019 Jan-Mar;14(1):89-94

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iranshahr University of Medical Sciences, Iranshahr, Iran.

Background: The aim of the present survey was to assess thr seroepidemiologic and parasitological aspects of infection in children under 14 yr old.

Methods: Overall, 963 sera were collected from children in the Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Southeast of Iran during the period from Sep 2015 to Jun 2016. IgG antibody against in the subjects' sera was evaluated using the commercial ELISA kit.

Results: Anti- IgG were detected in the serum of 17 (1.7%) of the participants. In the examined children, the highest presence of anti- antibodies was 2.1% (9/418) in 6-10-yr olds, which was higher than other age groups (<0.05). Anti- antibodies were significantly higher in males (2.4% or 12/492) than in females (1.1% or 5/471) (<0.03). Highest serological prevalence of occurred in tribes (5.5% or 4/69), followed by rural areas (0.9% or 7/757), while in the urban area it was 0.1% (6/163) (<0.01). A significant association was seen between the serological prevalence of and laboratory findings such as eosinophilia (=0.001) and red blood cell count (=0.02).

Conclusion: Seroprevalence of infection is high among children living in the poor regions of southeast Iran.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6511586PMC
May 2019

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of dental clinics waste in Zabol city, Iran.

Data Brief 2018 Aug 22;19:1865-1870. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

Dental clinics are one of the sources of waste production that are important due to producing infectious and potentially infectious waste, chemical and pharmaceutical waste, and toxic waste. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze dental clinics in Zabol quantitatively and qualitatively. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 on waste produced in dental clinics in Zabol. Sampling of 25 dental clinics was performed three times per week. At the end of the working day, the samples were transferred to a suitable site and weighed carefully after separation of the components. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Excel software. 5457 kg of waste is annually produced in the dental clinics of Zabol that the amount of infectious and potentially infectious waste, household-like waste, chemical and pharmaceutical waste, and toxic wastes are approximately 48.08, 43.75, 7.82 and 0.35%, respectively. Given that proper management of waste produced is not performed in dental clinics in Zabol, special attention to waste produced in this sector through programs of reduction in source, separation and recycling can reduce the waste volume significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.06.041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6141271PMC
August 2018

An overview report on the application of heteropoly acids on supporting materials in the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants from aqueous solutions.

PeerJ 2018 12;6:e5501. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

Organic pollutants contaminate water resources and the environment when discharged into water streams. Also, the presence of these materials in incompletely treated or untreated wastewater leads to serious environmental hazards. The hydroxyl radicals and holes are regarded as the most oxidant species in the degradation of organic pollutants using the studied composites. The results of this review show that heteropoly acids on supporting materials could be considered as appropriate photocatalysts in the removal of organic pollutant from aqueous solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6139020PMC
September 2018

Stochastic exposure and health risk assessment of rice contamination to the heavy metals in the market of Iranshahr, Iran.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 May 30;115:405-412. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran. Electronic address:

An investigation of some heavy metals content in rice (Oryza sativa) and associated health risks was carried out for residents of Iranshahr city, Iran. Average daily rice consumption of the citizens and most widely used rice brands in the market of Iranshahr were determined using a questionnaire. Besides, the concentration of heavy metals in the gathered rice samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Monte Carlo uncertainty simulation was utilized in conducting exposure assessment and investigating the non-carcinogenic effects of the studied elements as well as the carcinogenic effect of As. Concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, Al, and Mo were 0.369 ± 0.094, 0.0337 ± 0.039, 0.123 ± 0.14, 3.095 ± 439.42, 39.6 ± 14.73, and 1.106 ± 0.133 mg kg, respectively. Al (0.18 ± 0.15 mg kg d) and Cd (0.00015 ± 0.00034 mg kg d) were the highest and lowest estimated daily intake, respectively. Except As (5.23 ± 4.01), the calculated hazard quotient for investigated elements showed no non-carcinogenic health risk. Besides, the simulation of the carcinogenic risk effect for As (2.37E-3) revealed that the ingestion of the studied rice brands would cause cancer risk due to lifetime consumption. Results show that consumption of rice in the Iranshahr city is a potential source of exposure to the studied elements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.03.040DOI Listing
May 2018

Degradation of Penicillin G by heat activated persulfate in aqueous solution.

J Environ Manage 2018 Jun;215:316-323

Health Promotion Research Center, Faculty of Health, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran. Electronic address:

We used Heat Activated of Persulfate (HAP) to decompose Penicillin G (PEN G) in aqueous solution. The effect of pH (3-11), temperature (313-353 K), and initial concentration of Sodium Persulfate (SPS) (0.05-0.5 mM) on the decomposition level of PEN G were investigated. The residue of PEN G was determined by spectrophotometry at the wavelength of 290 nm. Also, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was measured in each experiment. The Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analysis was utilized for surveying the mineralization of PEN G. In addition, based on Arrhenius equation, the activation energy of PEN G decomposition was calculated. The results indicated that the maximum PEN G removal rate was obtained at pH 5 and by increasing the doses of SPS from 0.05 to 0.5 mM, the PEN G decomposition was enhanced. It was found that an increase in temperature is accompanied by an increase in removal efficiency of PEN G. The activation energy of the studied process was determined to be 94.8 kJ mol, suggesting that a moderate activation energy is required for PEN G decomposition. The TOC measurements indicate that the HAP can efficiently mineralize PEN G. Besides, the presence of the scavengers significantly suppressed the HAP process to remove the PEN G. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that using HAP process can be a suitable method for decomposing of PEN G in aqueous solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.03.038DOI Listing
June 2018

UV Activation of Persulfate for Removal of Penicillin G Antibiotics in Aqueous Solution.

ScientificWorldJournal 2017 8;2017:3519487. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Penicillin G (PG) is one of the most widely consumed antibiotics around the world. Release of PG in environment may lead to contamination of water resources. The aim of the present work is to assess feasibility of applying UV-activated persulfate process in removal of PG from aquatic environments. The study examined the effect of pH (3-11), persulfate initial concentration (0.5-3 mM), reaction time (15-90 minutes), and initial concentration of PG (0.02-0.14 mM) on PG decomposition. Also, the pseudo-first-order kinetic model was used for kinetic analysis of PG removal. The results indicated that UV-activated persulfate process can effectively eliminate PG from water. The highest PG removal efficiency was obtained as 94.28% at pH 5, and the decomposition percentage was raised by increasing persulfate dose from 0.5 to 3 mM and the reaction time from 15 to 90 minutes. Besides, the removal efficiency decreased through increasing the initial concentration of PG. UV-activated persulfate process effectively decomposes PG and eliminates it from water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/3519487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5591921PMC
August 2018

Spatio-temporal evaluation of Yamchi Dam basin water quality using Canadian water quality index.

Environ Monit Assess 2015 Apr 7;187(4):168. Epub 2015 Mar 7.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In recent years, the growth of population and increase of the industries around the tributaries of Yamchi Dam basin have led to deterioration of dam water quality. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the Yamchi Dam basin water, which is used for drinking and irrigation consumptions using Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI) model, and to determine the main water pollution sources of this basin. Initially, nine sampling stations were selected in the sensitive locations of the mentioned basin's tributaries, and 12 physico-chemical parameters and 2 biological parameters were measured. The CWQI for drinking consumptions was under 40 at all the stations indicating a poor water quality for drinking consumptions. On the other hand, the CWQI was 62-100 for irrigation at different stations; thus, the water had an excellent to fair quality for irrigation consumptions. Almost in all the stations, the quality of irrigation and drinking water in cold season was better. Besides, for drinking use, total coliform and fecal coliform had the highest frequency of failure, and total coliform had the maximum deviation from the specified objective. For irrigation use, total suspended solids had the highest frequency of failure and deviation from the objective in most of the stations. The pisciculture center, aquaculture center, and the Nir City wastewater discharge were determined as the main pollution sources of the Yamchi Dam basin. Therefore, to improve the water quality in this important surface water resource, urban and industrial wastewater treatment prior to disposal and more stringent environmental legislations are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4379-8DOI Listing
April 2015

Evaluation of Shiraz wastewater treatment plant effluent quality for agricultural irrigation by Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI).

Iranian J Environ Health Sci Eng 2013 Apr 8;10(1):27. Epub 2013 Apr 8.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health and Nutrition, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Using treated wastewater in agriculture irrigation could be a realistic solution for the shortage of fresh water in Iran, however, it is associated with environmental and health threats; therefore, effluent quality assessment is quite necessary before use. The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical and microbial quality of Shiraz wastewater treatment plant effluent for being used in agricultural irrigation. In this study, 20 physicochemical and 3 microbial parameters were measured during warm (April to September) and cold months (October to march). Using the measured parameters and the Canadian Water Quality Index, the quality of the effluent was determined in both warm and cold seasons and in all the seasons together.

Results: The calculated index for the physicochemical parameters in the effluent was equal (87) in warm and cold months and it was obtained as 85 for the seasons all together. When the microbial parameters were used in order to calculate the index, it declined to 67 in warm and cold seasons and 64 in all the seasons together. Also, it was found that three physicochemical parameters (TDS, EC, and NO3) and three microbial parameters (Fecal coliform, Helminthes egg, and Total coliform) had the most contribution to the reduction of the index value.

Conclusions: The results showed that the physicochemical quality of Shiraz Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent was good for irrigation in the warm, cold, and total of the two kinds of seasons. However, by applying the microbial parameter, the index value declined dramatically and the quality of the effluent was marginal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1735-2746-10-27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3627627PMC
April 2013