Publications by authors named "B S Chandrashekhar"

9 Publications

Evaluation of biogas production potential of kitchen waste in the presence of spices.

Waste Manag 2017 Dec 19;70:236-246. Epub 2017 Sep 19.

CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute [CSIR-NEERI], Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020, India. Electronic address:

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of kitchen waste (KW) for biogas production is a major challenge to all over the world due to significant compositional variations in KW, such as different types and quantities of spices used for preparing food. Spices may affect the AD process owing to their antimicrobial activity. In this paper, the effect of spices (garlic, red chili, cinnamon, coriander, clove, turmeric, cardamom, black pepper) on AD of KW has been investigated. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the maximum biogas production potential, methane production rate and lag phase for biogas production. Analysis of the results revealed different magnitude of inhibition of the AD process of KW in the presence of different spices. Cinnamon, cardamom and clove resulted >85%, black pepper resulted 75%, while coriander, chili, turmeric and garlic resulted 55-70% reduction in cumulative biogas yield. Elemental analysis showed high concentration of heavy metals in the spices, which along with other bioactive components of the spices could be responsible for the inhibitory effect of the spices on biomethanation. Microbial examination of the digestate also showed a decrease in population of fermentative and methanogenic bacteria in the presence of spices.
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December 2017

A study of the palatal rugae pattern among male female and transgender population of Bhopal city.

J Forensic Dent Sci 2015 May-Aug;7(2):142-7

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, People's Dental Academy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Context: Transgenders are highly disadvantaged people, deprived of adequate opportunities of earning a respectable living. The forensic literature has emphasized on two genders, male and female, the existence of a third gender (Transgenders) is almost negligible in the literature, and this makes it compulsive to determine their identity through forensic approaches at the time of disasters. Previous studies have demonstrated that no two palatal rugae pattern are alike in their configuration and this unique feature has led us to undertake a study to establish individual identities using palatal rugae pattern.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the palatal rugae pattern among male, female, and transgender population of the Bhopal city.

Settings And Design: This study was cross sectional in nature and conducted on a convenience sample of 148 subjects selected from Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh. The study involved 49 males, 51 females, and 48 eunuchs in the age range of 17 to 35 years.

Materials And Methods: Maxillary impression using alginate impression material was made and the cast was prepared using die stone on palatal area and dental stone as a base. The palatal rugae pattern was assessed on the basis of number, length, shape, direction, and unification.

Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA was used for comparing the mean values between different genders. The multiple pairwise comparisons were done with the Bonferroni post hoc correction. The statistical significance was fixed at 0.05.

Results: The statistically significant difference with regard to some parameters like number of rugae, fragmentary rugae, wavy rugae, curve rugae, forwardly directed, and backwardly directed rugae between transgender and other gender groups were present.

Conclusion: The difference in the parameters of the palatal rugae pattern among the transgender population and the other gender group is attributed to be the genetic makeup and sexual dimorphism.
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May 2015

Tretinoin Nanogel 0.025% Versus Conventional Gel 0.025% in Patients with Acne Vulgaris: A Randomized, Active Controlled, Multicentre, Parallel Group, Phase IV Clinical Trial.

J Clin Diagn Res 2015 Jan 1;9(1):WC04-9. Epub 2015 Jan 1.

Clinical Research Department, Cadila Healthcare Ltd ., Ahmedabad, India .

Background: Conventional topical tretinoin formulation is often associated with local adverse events. Nanogel formulation of tretinoin has good physical stability and enables good penetration of tretinoin into the pilo-sebaceous glands.

Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of a nanogel formulation of tretinoin as compared to its conventional gel formulation in the treatment of acne vulgaris of the face.

Materials And Methods: This randomized, active controlled, multicentric, phase IV clinical trial evaluated the treatment of patients with acne vulgaris of the face by the two gel formulations locally applied once daily at night for 12 wk. Acne lesion counts (inflammatory, non-inflammatory & total) and severity grading were carried out on the monthly scheduled visits along with the tolerability assessments.

Results: A total of 207 patients were randomized in the study. Reductions in the total (72.9% vs. 65.0%; p = 0.03) and inflammatory (78.1% vs. 66.9%; p = 0.02) acne lesions were reported to be significantly greater with the nanogel formulation as compared to the conventional gel formulation. Local adverse events were significantly less (p = 0.04) in the nanogel group (13.3%) as compared to the conventional gel group (24.7%). Dryness was the most common adverse event reported in both the treatment groups while peeling of skin, burning sensation and photosensitivity were reported in patients using the conventional gel only.

Conclusion: In the treatment of acne vulgaris of the face, tretinoin nanogel formulation appears to be more effective and better tolerated than the conventional gel formulation.
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January 2015

Treatment of ferrous-NTA-based NO x scrubber solution by an up-flow anaerobic packed bed bioreactor.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2015 Jun 27;99(12):5281-93. Epub 2015 Jan 27.

Environmental Biotechnology Division, CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur, 440020, Maharashtra, India.

A bench scale system consisting of an up-flow packed bed bioreactor (UAPBR) made of polyurethane foam was used for the treatment and regeneration of aqueous solution of ferrous-NTA scrubbed with nitric oxide (NO). The biomass in the UAPBR was sequentially acclimatized under denitrifying and iron reducing conditions using ethanol as electron donor, after which nitric oxide (NO) gas was loaded continuously to the system by absorption. The system was investigated for different parameters viz. pH, removal efficiency of nitric oxide, biological reduction efficiency of Fe(II)NTA-NO and COD utilization. The Fe(II)NTA-NO reduction efficiency reached 87.8 % at a loading rate of 0.24 mmol L(-1) h(-1), while the scrubber efficiency reached more than 75 % with 250 ppm NO. Stover-Kincannon and a Plug-flow kinetic model based on Michaelis-Menten equation were used to describe the UAPBR performance with respect to Fe(II)NTA-NO and COD removal. The Stover-Kincannon model was found capable of describing the Fe(II)NTA-NO reduction (R m = 8.92 mM h(-1) and K NO = 11.46 mM h(-1)) while plug-flow model provided better fit to the COD utilization (U m = 66.62 mg L(-1) h(-1), K COD = 7.28 mg L(-1)). Analyses for pH, Fe(III)NTA, ammonium, nitrite concentration, and FTIR analysis of the medium samples indicated degradation of NTA, which leads to ammonium and nitrite accumulation in the medium, and affect the regeneration process.
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June 2015

An evaluation of dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs among eunuchs (trans genders) residing in bhopal city, madhya pradesh, India: a cross-sectional study.

Ann Med Health Sci Res 2014 Nov;4(6):943-8

K. M. Shah Dental College and Hospital, Sumandeep University, Vadodara, Gujrat, India.

Background: Eunuchs are considered as the most vulnerable, frustrated, and insecure community. The accessibility to medical and dental facilities for the eunuchs is nearly nonexistent. Due to these reasons, they might be at a high risk of developing severe dental problems like tooth loss.

Aim: The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs among eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Subjects And Methods: On the basis of convenient nonprobability snowball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal along with a matched control consisting of cross section of the general population residing in the same locality was examined to evaluate the prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of the population. All the obtained data were entered into a personal computer on Microsoft excel sheet and analyzed using the software; Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. Data comparison was done by applying Chi-square test.

Results: A total of 639 subjects comprised of 207 eunuchs, 218 males and 214 females. Among all participants, 2.8% (18/639) were having prosthesis. The overall prosthetic status among males was 3.2% (7/218) followed by 2.9% (6/207) eunuchs and 2.3% (5/214) females. However, need for multi-unit and combination of one and more unit prosthesis for upper and lower jaws was higher in males compared to females and eunuchs, but the difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: The findings of this study clearly demonstrate a high unmet need for prosthetic care among the population surveyed.
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November 2014