Publications by authors named "B Rees Smith"

10,335 Publications

High-speed hyperspectral four-wave-mixing microscopy with frequency combs.

Opt Lett 2021 Aug;46(15):3556-3559

A four-wave-mixing, frequency-comb-based, hyperspectral imaging technique that is spectrally precise and potentially rapid, and can in principle be applied to any material, is demonstrated in a near-diffraction-limited microscopy application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.428172DOI Listing
August 2021

Measuring Proximal Tibial Metaphyseal Width and Lateral Epiphyseal Height Improves Determination of Remaining Growth in Children.

J Pediatr Orthop 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Departments of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Cell Biology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT Division of Orthopedics, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Background: Accurate assessments of skeletal maturity is of critical importance to guide type and timing of orthopaedic surgical interventions. Several quantitative markers of the proximal tibia were recently developed using historical knee radiographs. The purpose of the present study was to determine which marker would be most effective in assessment of full-length radiographs in a modern pediatric patient population.

Methods: All full-length radiographs at our institutions between 2013 and 2018 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria for our study required that the child reached final height as defined by 2 consecutive unchanged heights, at least 6 months apart, after age 16 for boys and 14 for girls. Patients with metabolic bone disease, prior surgery such as epiphysiodesis, or previous infections around the knee were excluded. Summary statistics for each of the 3 proximal tibial ratios were calculated and multiple linear regression was performed with percent of growth remaining as a dependent variable. A recommended regression model is presented and evaluated.

Results: A total of 692 full-length radiographs met inclusion criteria. Proximal tibial ratios were calculated and averaged values for each percent of growth remaining was presented. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that using all 3 variables led to overfitting of the model so tibial metaphyseal width/lateral tibial epiphyseal height was selected as the optimal ratio for use by clinicians. The optimal model for determining growth was found to have R2=0.723 in the developmental set and R2=0.762 in an excluded validation set.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the proximal tibial metaphyseal width/lateral tibial epiphyseal height is the ideal measurement for clinicians seeking to determine growth remaining in children. It presents average values between 0% and 25% of growth remaining. This study also develops and validates a multivariable regression model for determining percentage of growth remaining in children that will allow for quantitative determination of growth using full-length radiographs.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001853DOI Listing
July 2021

ESCAPE-Allergy: Evaluating screening for children and adolescents with penicillin allergy.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Women's and Children's Heath, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Aim: Penicillin allergy labels are frequently encountered in children and are associated with significant harms. Most children are falsely labelled and can safely tolerate a penicillin but delabelling strategies are underutilised and paediatric-specific resources are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate an allergy assessment tool for children in hospital.

Methods: We evaluated a paediatric-adapted penicillin allergy assessment tool, using an online survey of clinicians in a tertiary paediatric hospital, with 10 hypothetical potential penicillin allergy or adverse reaction cases (including non-allergy reactions). For each case, respondents were asked to use the tool to assign a reaction phenotype and recommend management. We determined the tool's sensitivity, specificity and acceptability to end users.

Results: We evaluated 30 complete survey responses from senior and junior medical staff, nurses and pharmacists. The tool's overall sensitivity was 80.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 74.2-87.1%) for assigning the correct reaction phenotype and 85.3% (95% CI 79.4-91.3%) for appropriate management. The tool had high sensitivity for identifying immediate hypersensitivity reactions at 95.6% (95% CI 90.2-100%). Most respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they would use the tool in their practice (22/30, 73.3%).

Conclusion: This survey evaluated a paediatric-adapted penicillin allergy assessment tool in a tertiary paediatric hospital among multidisciplinary clinician groups. The tool performed well overall and had high safety in identifying immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Further research to support implementation of allergy assessment and delabelling programmes among children is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.15657DOI Listing
July 2021

Pulmonary fibrosis distal airway epithelia are dynamically and structurally dysfunctional.

Nat Commun 2021 07 27;12(1):4566. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

The airway epithelium serves as the interface between the host and external environment. In many chronic lung diseases, the airway is the site of substantial remodeling after injury. While, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has traditionally been considered a disease of the alveolus and lung matrix, the dominant environmental (cigarette smoking) and genetic (gain of function MUC5B promoter variant) risk factor primarily affect the distal airway epithelium. Moreover, airway-specific pathogenic features of IPF include bronchiolization of the distal airspace with abnormal airway cell-types and honeycomb cystic terminal airway-like structures with concurrent loss of terminal bronchioles in regions of minimal fibrosis. However, the pathogenic role of the airway epithelium in IPF is unknown. Combining biophysical, genetic, and signaling analyses of primary airway epithelial cells, we demonstrate that healthy and IPF airway epithelia are biophysically distinct, identifying pathologic activation of the ERBB-YAP axis as a specific and modifiable driver of prolongation of the unjammed-to-jammed transition in IPF epithelia. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this biophysical state and signaling axis correlates with epithelial-driven activation of the underlying mesenchyme. Our data illustrate the active mechanisms regulating airway epithelial-driven fibrosis and identify targets to modulate disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24853-8DOI Listing
July 2021

Intranasal ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 vaccination reduces viral shedding after SARS-CoV-2 D614G challenge in preclinical models.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Laboratory of Virology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT, 59840, USA.

ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 is an approved adenovirus-based vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) currently being deployed globally. Previous studies in rhesus macaques revealed that intramuscular vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 provided protection against pneumonia but did not reduce shedding of SARS-CoV-2 from the upper respiratory tract. Here, we investigated whether intranasally administered ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 reduces detection of virus in nasal swabs after challenging vaccinated macaques and hamsters with SARS-CoV-2 carrying a D614G mutation in the spike protein. Viral loads in swabs obtained from intranasally vaccinated hamsters were decreased compared to control hamsters, and no viral RNA or infectious virus was found in lung tissue after a direct challenge or after direct contact with infected hamsters. Intranasal vaccination of rhesus macaques resulted in reduced virus concentrations in nasal swabs and a reduction in viral loads in bronchoalveolar lavage and lower respiratory tract tissue. Intranasal vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 reduced virus concentrations in nasal swabs in two different SARS-CoV-2 animal models, warranting further investigation as a potential vaccination route for COVID-19 vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abh0755DOI Listing
July 2021
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