Publications by authors named "B O Olopade"

13 Publications

Clinical Presentation and Intensity of Infection with Intestinal Helminths among School Children in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

West Afr J Med 2022 Jun;39(6):568-572

Department of Internal Medicine, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba, Lagos State, Nigeria.

Background: Intestinal helminthiases are public health problems of children in developing countries of the world and account for significant morbidity as it results in stunted growth, intestinal obstruction, anaemia, cognitive impairment, acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis and rectal prolapse. This study assessed intestinal helminths, infection intensity and symptoms in primary school children in Ile-Ife.

Methods: It was a cross sectional study. Three hundred and eighty-four pupils randomly selected from six public primary schools in Ife Central Local Government were enrolled for the study. Ethical approval was obtained. Stool samples were collected and processed using the Formol-ether concentration method. Questionnaires were administered to obtain relevant information. Data entry and processing were done using Microsoft excel and IBM SPSS Statistics for windows, version 17. Statistical analysis included frequency, proportion and percentages.

Results: Helminthic parasites were recovered from the stool of the schoolchildren and the overall prevalence of helminthic infection was 24%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent (22.1%) with moderate and light intensities of infection, Hookworm (3.4%) with light intensity infection and Hymenolepis nana 0.3%. Symptoms were present in 48.2% of the participants and 31.5% presented with abdominal pain, nausea 22.1%, diarrhoea 21.1%, anorexia 7%. Weight loss, nausea and vomiting were found to be significantly associated with infection with intestinal helminths.

Conclusion: Light to moderate intestinal helminthic infections are still prevalent among school children with weight loss, nausea and vomiting being the most significant symptoms. Continuous studies among school children are needed including those in private schools to better understand the epidemiology of these infections.
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June 2022

Assessment of the utility of a screening tool for COVID-19 diagnosis in an accident and emergency department in Lagos, Nigeria: A pilot study.

Niger Postgrad Med J 2022 Apr-Jun;29(2):96-101

Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria.

The use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the gold standard laboratory test for diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, it has the disadvantage of a long turnaround time and cost. The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) formulated a case definition for COVID-19. We sought to determine the utility of a 14-item, point-weighted clinical screening questionnaire adapted from the NCDC case definition in identifying patients more likely to have the disease. This was to aid prompt clinical decision-making.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 113 non-surgical patients presenting to the Accident and Emergency Department (A and E) of Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Patients were stratified based on screening scores into low (0-2), moderate (3-5) and high (6) pre-test categories. Patients with low and high scores ≥6 were admitted to the A and E and the COVID-19 holding ward, respectively, while the moderate group had chest computed tomography scans to aid further decision-making, pending the outcome of their RT-PCR results. The validity of the triage score as compared to the RT-PCR test result was calculated and the kappa score of agreement was utilised to evaluate the concordance between two triage scores. The optimum cut-off score was also obtained based on the maximal Younden's index.

Results: The frequencies of low, moderate and high pre-test scores were 34 (30%), 43 (38.1%) and 36 (31.9%), respectively. Overall, 38.1% (43/113) were RT-PCR positive. RT-PCR was positive in 26.5% (9/34) with low screening scores, 55.8% (24/43) with moderate scores and 27.8% (10/36) with high scores. The sensitivity and specificity of a high score of 6 were 25% and 92.86%, while the lower score of 3 had sensitivity and specificity of 62.5% and 58.6%, respectively.

Conclusion: The screening tool showed a high specificity in its initial design, which suggests that anyone with a low score using this tool has a high probability of testing negative. We recommend a cut-off score of 4 (score A) or 6 (score B) of the current screening tool be used to increase the chances of identifying persons with COVID-19 for RT-PCR testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/npmj.npmj_779_21DOI Listing
May 2022

Eight-hour versus 24-h urethral catheter removal following elective caesarean section for reducing significant bacteriuria: A randomized controlled trial.

Womens Health (Lond) 2021 Jan-Dec;17:17455065211060637

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Background: There is no consensus on the preferred time to remove urethral catheter post caesarean section.

Aim: To compare rate of significant bacteriuria and urinary retention following 8-h (study) and 24-h urethral catheter removal (control) post elective caesarean section.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial of eligible participants that underwent elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia between March 2019 and November 2019 was conducted. Participants (150 in each arm) were randomly assigned (1:1 ratio) to either 8-h or 24-h group. Primary outcome measures included rates of significant bacteriuria 48-h post-operatively and acute urine retention 6-h post urethral catheter removal. Analysis was by Intention-to-treat. (www.pactr.org:PACTR202105874744483).

Results: There were 150 participants randomized into each arm and data collection was complete. Significant bacteriuria was less in 8-h group (3% versus 6.0%; risk ratio (RR): 0.85 CI: 0.60 to 5.66; p = 0.274), though not significant. Acute urinary retention requiring repeat catheterisation was significantly higher in 8-h group (11(7.3%) versus 0(0.0%); RR: 0.07; CI: 0.87 to 0.97; p = 0.001). Mean time until first voiding was slightly higher in 8-h group (211.4 ± 14.3 min versus 190.0 ± 18.3 min; mean difference (MD): 21.36; CI: -24.36 to 67.08; p = 0.203); but patient in this group had a lower mean time until ambulation (770.0 ± 26.1 min versus 809 ± 26.2 min; MD: -38.8; CI: -111.6 to 34.0; p = 0.300). The 8-h group were significantly more satisfied (82/150 (54.7%) versus 54/150 (36.0%); p = 0.001).

Conclusions: An 8-h group was associated with significant clinical satisfaction and acute urine retention compared to 24-h removal. The timing of urethral catheter removal did not affect rate of significant bacteriuria and other outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17455065211060637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8628312PMC
February 2022

Functional Intricacy and Symmetry of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Parasitic Infections.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 8;11:751523. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Institute of Veterinary Research Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

RNAs are a class of molecules and the majority in eukaryotes are arbitrarily termed non- coding transcripts which are broadly classified as short and long non-coding RNAs. Recently, knowledge of the identification and functions of long non-coding RNAs have continued to accumulate and they are being recognized as important molecules that regulate parasite-host interface, parasite differentiation, host responses, and disease progression. Herein, we present and integrate the functions of host and parasite long non-coding RNAs during infections within the context of epigenetic re-programming and molecular crosstalk in the course of host-parasite interactions. Also, the modular range of parasite and host long non-coding RNAs in coordinated parasite developmental changes and host immune dynamic landscapes are discussed. We equally canvass the prospects of long non-coding RNAs in disease diagnosis and prognosis. Hindsight and suggestions are offered with the aim that it will bolster our understanding for future works on host and parasite long non-coding RNAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.751523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8531492PMC
October 2021

Food safety, food security and genetically modified organisms in Africa: a current perspective.

Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev 2021 Apr 26;37(1):30-63. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, P.O Box 17011, Doornfontein Campus, 2028, Gauteng, South Africa.

Moving forward from 2020, Africa faces an eminent challenge of food safety and security in the coming years. The World Food Programme (WFP) of the United Nations (UN) estimates that 20% of Africa's population of 1.2 billion people face the highest level of undernourishment in the world, likely to worsen due to COVID-19 pandemic that has brought the entire world to its knees. Factors such as insecurity and conflict, poverty, climate change and population growth have been identified as critical contributors to the food security challenges on the continent. Biotechnological research on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) provides a range of opportunities (such as increased crop yields, resistance to pests and diseases, enhanced nutrient composition and food quality) in addressing the hunger, malnutrition and food security issues on the continent. However, the acceptance and adoption of GMOs on the continent has been remarkably slow, perhaps due to contrasting views about the benefits and safety concerns associated with them. With the reality of food insecurity and the booming population in Africa, there is an eminent need for a more pragmatic position to this debate. The present review presents an overview of the current situation of food safety and security and attempts to reconcile major viewpoints on GMOs research considering the current food safety and security crisis in the African continent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02648725.2021.1940735DOI Listing
April 2021
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