Publications by authors named "B M Batengana"

9 Publications

Lymphatic filariasis transmission on Mafia Islands, Tanzania: Evidence from xenomonitoring in mosquito vectors.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 6;11(10):e0005938. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

National Institute for Medical Research, Headquarters, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Introduction: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a chronic nematode infection transmitted by mosquitoes and in sub-Saharan Africa it is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. The disease was targeted for global elimination by 2020 using repeated community-wide mass drug administration (MDA) distributed in endemic areas. However, recently, there has been a growing recognition of the potential role of including vector control as a supplement to MDA to achieve elimination goal. This study was carried out to determine mosquito abundance and transmission of bancroftian filariasis on Mafia Islands in Tanzania as a prerequisite for a search for appropriate vector control methods to complement the ongoing MDA campaign.

Methods: Mosquitoes were collected indoor and outdoor using Centre for Disease Control (CDC) light and gravid traps, respectively. Collected mosquitoes were identified based on their differential morphological features and Anopheles gambiae complex and An. funestus group were further identified to their respective sibling species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Filarial mosquito vectors were then examined for infection with Wuchereria bancrofti by microscopy and PCR technique.

Results: Overall, a total of 35,534 filarial mosquito vectors were collected, of which Anopheles gambiae complex, An. funestus group and Culex quinquefasciatus Say accounted for 1.3, 0.5 and 98.2%, respectively. Based on PCR identification, An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s) and An. funestus s.s sibling species accounted for 88.3% and 99.1% of the identified members of the An. gambiae complex and An. funestus group, respectively. A total of 7,936 mosquitoes were examined for infection with W. bancrofti by microscopy. The infection and infectivity rates were 0.25% and 0.08%, respectively. Using pool screen PCR technique, analysis of 324 mosquito pools (each with 25 mosquitoes) resulted to an estimated infection rate of 1.7%.

Conclusion: The study has shown that Cx. quinquefasciatus is the dominant mosquito on Mafia Islands. By using mosquito infectivity as proxy to human infection, the study indicates that W. bancrofti transmission is still ongoing on Mafia Islands after more than a decade of control activities based on MDA.
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October 2017

Experimental hut evaluation of a novel long-lasting non-pyrethroid durable wall lining for control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus in Tanzania.

Malar J 2017 02 17;16(1):82. Epub 2017 Feb 17.

National Institute for Medical Research, Amani Research Centre, Muheza, Tanzania.

Background: A novel, insecticide-treated, durable wall lining (ITWL), which mimics indoor residual spraying (IRS), has been developed to provide prolonged vector control when fixed to the inner walls of houses. PermaNet ITWL is a polypropylene material containing non-pyrethroids (abamectin and fenpyroximate) which migrate gradually to the surface.

Methods: An experimental hut trial was conducted in an area of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus s.s. to compare the efficacy of non-pyrethroid ITWL, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) (Interceptor), pyrethroid ITWL (ZeroVector), and non-pyrethroid ITWL + LLIN.

Results: The non-pyrethroid ITWL produced relatively low levels of mortality, between 40-50% for An. funestus and An. gambiae, across all treatments. Against An. funestus, the non-pyrethroid ITWL when used without LLIN produced 47% mortality but this level of mortality was not significantly different to that of the LLIN alone (29%, P = 0.306) or ITWL + LLIN (35%, P = 0.385). Mortality levels for An. gambiae were similar to An. funestus with non-pyrethroid ITWL, producing 43% mortality compared with 26% for the LLIN. Exiting rates from ITWL huts were similar to the control and highest when the LLIN was present. An attempt to restrict mosquito access by covering the eave gap with ITWL (one eave open vs four open) had no effect on numbers entering. The LLIN provided personal protection when added to the ITWL with only 30% blood-fed compared with 69 and 56% (P = 0.001) for ITWL alone. Cone bioassays on ITWL with 30 min exposure after the trial produced mortality of >90% using field An. gambiae.

Conclusions: Despite high mortality in bioassays, the hut trial produced only limited mortality which was attributed to pyrethroid resistance against the pyrethroid ITWL and low efficacy in the non-pyrethroid ITWL. Hut ceilings were left uncovered and may have served as a potential untreated refuge. By analogy to IRS campaigns, which also do not routinely treat ceilings, high community coverage with ITWL may still reduce malaria transmission. Restriction of eave gaps by 75% proved an inadequate barrier to mosquito entry. The findings represent the first 2 months after installation and do not necessarily predict long-term efficacy.
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February 2017

Evaluation of collection methods for Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes simpsoni in northeastern Tanzania.

J Vector Ecol 2016 12;41(2):265-270

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, U.K.

In East Africa, significant morbidity and mortality are caused by infections spread by Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. Sticky traps have been shown to be effective tools for sampling populations of Aedes mosquitoes and have been found to catch Cx. quinquefasciatus. Thus, they could potentially be used to sample populations of this species. This study compared Sticky ovitraps (SO) and MosquiTraps (MQT) with the CDC Gravid trap (CDC-GT) for collection of Culex and Aedes mosquito populations in Tanzania. A follow-up experiment was carried out using traps set for a 24-h period to accommodate the oviposition habits of Aedes aegypti and Ae. simpsoni s.l. mosquitoes. The results showed that the CDC-GT caught significantly more Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti than the SO or MQT, but there was no significant difference in the number of mosquitoes caught between the two sticky traps or of Ae. simpsoni s.l. caught among the three trap types. The results suggest that CDC-GTs are the most appropriate in sampling of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Although CDC-GTs collected more Ae. aegypti than the sticky traps, the simplicity and cost benefit of sticky traps facilitates large scale studies. All three trap types should be considered for monitoring Aedes mosquitoes.
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December 2016

The effectiveness of non-pyrethroid insecticide-treated durable wall lining to control malaria in rural Tanzania: study protocol for a two-armed cluster randomized trial.

BMC Public Health 2016 07 25;16:633. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Despite considerable reductions in malaria achieved by scaling-up long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), maintaining sustained community protection remains operationally challenging. Increasing insecticide resistance also threatens to jeopardize the future of both strategies. Non-pyrethroid insecticide-treated wall lining (ITWL) may represent an alternate or complementary control method and a potential tool to manage insecticide resistance. To date no study has demonstrated whether ITWL can reduce malaria transmission nor provide additional protection beyond the current best practice of universal coverage (UC) of LLINs and prompt case management.

Methods/design: A two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial will be conducted in rural Tanzania to assess whether non-pyrethroid ITWL and UC of LLINs provide added protection against malaria infection in children, compared to UC of LLINs alone. Stratified randomization based on malaria prevalence will be used to select 22 village clusters per arm. All 44 clusters will receive LLINs and half will also have ITWL installed on interior house walls. Study children, aged 6 months to 11 years old, will be enrolled from each cluster and followed monthly to estimate cumulative incidence of malaria parasitaemia (primary endpoint), time to first malaria episode and prevalence of anaemia before and after intervention. Entomological inoculation rate will be estimated using indoor CDC light traps and outdoor tent traps followed by detection of Anopheles gambiae species, sporozoite infection, insecticide resistance and blood meal source. ITWL bioefficacy and durability will be monitored using WHO cone bioassays and household surveys, respectively. Social and cultural factors influencing community and household ITWL acceptability will be explored through focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews. Cost-effectiveness, compared between study arms, will be estimated per malaria case averted.

Discussion: This protocol describes the large-scale evaluation of a novel vector control product, designed to overcome some of the known limitations of existing methods. If ITWL is proven to be effective and durable under field conditions, it may warrant consideration for programmatic implementation, particularly in areas with long transmission seasons and where pyrethroid-resistant vectors predominate. Trial findings will provide crucial information for policy makers in Tanzania and other malaria-endemic countries to guide resource allocations for future control efforts.

Trial Registration: NCT02533336 registered on 13 July 2014.
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July 2016