Publications by authors named "B Caputo"

99 Publications

Aedes albopictus bionomics data collection by citizen participation on Procida Island, a promising Mediterranean site for the assessment of innovative and community-based integrated pest management methods.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Sep 16;15(9):e0009698. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

In the last decades, the colonization of Mediterranean Europe and of other temperate regions by Aedes albopictus created an unprecedented nuisance problem in highly infested areas and new public health threats due to the vector competence of the species. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT) are insecticide-free mosquito-control methods, relying on mass release of irradiated/manipulated males, able to complement existing and only partially effective control tools. The validation of these approaches in the field requires appropriate experimental settings, possibly isolated to avoid mosquito immigration from other infested areas, and preliminary ecological and entomological data. We carried out a 4-year study in the island of Procida (Gulf of Naples, Italy) in strict collaboration with local administrators and citizens to estimate the temporal dynamics, spatial distribution, and population size of Ae. albopictus and the dispersal and survival of irradiated males. We applied ovitrap monitoring, geo-spatial analyses, mark-release-recapture technique, and a citizen-science approach. Results allow to predict the seasonal (from April to October, with peaks of 928-9,757 males/ha) and spatial distribution of the species, highlighting the capacity of Ae. albopictus population of Procida to colonize and maintain high frequencies in urban as well as in sylvatic inhabited environments. Irradiated males shown limited ability to disperse (mean daily distance travelled <60m) and daily survival estimates ranging between 0.80 and 0.95. Overall, the ecological characteristics of the island, the acquired knowledge on Ae. albopictus spatial and temporal distribution, the high human and Ae. albopictus densities and the positive attitude of the resident population in being active parts in innovative mosquito control projects provide the ground for evidence-based planning of the interventions and for the assessment of their effectiveness. In addition, the results highlight the value of creating synergies between research groups, local administrators, and citizens for affordable monitoring (and, in the future, control) of mosquito populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8445450PMC
September 2021

Entomological Survey Confirms Changes in Mosquito Composition and Abundance in Senegal and Reveals Discrepancies among Results by Different Host-Seeking Female Traps.

Insects 2021 Jul 31;12(8). Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy.

Mosquitoes-borne diseases are major public health issues particularly in Africa. Vector control interventions and human-made environmental/climatic changes significantly affect the distribution and abundance of vector species. We carried out an entomological survey targeting host-seeking mosquitos in two different ecological contexts-coastal and inland-in Senegal, by CDC-light and BG-sentinel traps. Results show high predominance of (90%) and of within malaria vectors (46%), with mean numbers of females/trap/nights =8 and <1, respectively, reinforcing previous evidence of changes in species composition and abundance, highlighting thus increasing risk of transmission of filariasis and emerging arboviruses in the Senegambia region. From the methodological perspective, results show a higher specificity of BG traps for and of CDC traps for s.l. and highlight that, despite both traps target the host-seeking fraction of the population, they provide different patterns of species abundance, temporal dynamics and host-seeking activity, leading to possible misinterpretation of the species bionomics. This draws attention to the need of taking into account trapping performance, in order to provide realistic quantification of the number of mosquitoes per units of space and time, the crucial parameter for evaluating vector-human contact, and estimating risk of pathogen transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12080692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396443PMC
July 2021

ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA MATURATION: PHYSICAL EXAM vs FLOW STUDY.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Loma Linda University, Veterans Administration Hospital, Loma Linda, CA. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of routine duplex flow study 4-6 weeks after primary AVF creation and to compare physical exam against a duplex flow study in predicting fistula maturation. A surveillance algorithm was established to evaluate the naïve fistula after primary creation.

Methods: This was a single institution retrospective review of 155 veterans with primary autogenous AVF creation from 2016-2018. All patients received a duplex flow study evaluation after primary creation. A comparison was made between physical exam (PE) and flow study at 4-6 weeks post creation. Sensitivities and specificities of physical exam and duplex flow study were compared head-to-head in predicting unassisted fistula maturation. A mature AVF was defined as a fistula that could be repetitively cannulated and provided adequate flow for dialysis. Failure of maturation was defined as an AVF that was never usable for dialysis. An abnormal duplex included thrombosis, stenosis (>50% on gray scale imaging), inadequate vein diameter (<4 mm), inadequate vein length or superficialization, or poor flow (<500 ml/min). Bivariate comparisons were conducted using Pearson's χ², Fishers exact test, and Wilcoxon test depending on distribution. Significance was defined as p<0.05.

Results: There were 53 patients with radiocephalic (RC) fistulas, 41 patients with brachiocephalic (BC) fistulas, and 6 patients with brachiobasilic (BB) fistulas. Of patients with a confirmed abnormal duplex ultrasound, 53% had an abnormal PE (sensitivity 53%; PPV 96.3%, p<0.001). Of the patients with a confirmed normal duplex, 98% had a normal PE (specificity 98%; NPV 68.5%, p<0.001). An abnormal duplex flow study had a 67% sensitivity for predicting AVF failure or need for reintervention while an abnormal physical examination had a 42% sensitivity in predicting AVF failure or need for reintervention (p<0.001). In total, 48 fistulas needed reintervention, however only 20 (42%) were associated with an abnormal physical examination. Of those 48 reinterventions, 20 (42%) fistulas exhibited primary assisted maturation (p<0.001). On duplex flow study alone, 32 patients had hemodynamically significant lesions necessitating reintervention, which went on to afford 9 (28%) primary assisted mature fistulas (p=0.69).

Conclusion: Abnormal duplex flow studies have a better sensitivity for detecting AVF failure or the need for reintervention compared to physical exam alone. An abnormal duplex correlates more with needing a reintervention to achieve maturation than physical exam. Therefore, we advocate routine use of a postoperative duplex flow study to identify potentially correctable issues and optimize fistula maturation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2021.05.022DOI Listing
August 2021

A Case for Systematic Quality Management in Mosquito Control Programmes in Europe.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 27;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Laboratory of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, University of Thessaly, 38446 Volos, Greece.

The recent spread of invasive mosquito species, such as and the seasonal sporadic transmission of autochthonous cases of arboviral diseases (e.g., dengue, chikungunya, Zika) in temperate areas, such as Europe and North America, highlight the importance of effective mosquito-control interventions to reduce not only nuisance, but also major threats for public health. Local, regional, and even national mosquito control programs have been established in many countries and are executed on a seasonal basis by either public or private bodies. In order for these interventions to be worthwhile, funding authorities should ensure that mosquito control is (a) planned by competent scientific institutions addressing the local demands, (b) executed following the plan that is based on recommended and effective methods and strategies, (c) monitored regularly by checking the efficacy of the implemented actions, (d) evaluated against the set of targets, and (e) regularly improved according to the results of the monitoring. Adherence to these conditions can only be assured if a formal quality management system is adopted and enforced that ensures the transparency of effectiveness of the control operation. The current paper aims at defining the two components of this quality management system, quality assurance and quality control for mosquito control programs with special emphasis on Europe, but applicable over temperate areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037277PMC
March 2021

Self-Supervised Learning Across Domains.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Apr 2;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Human adaptability relies crucially on learning and merging knowledge from both supervised and unsupervised tasks: the parents point out few important concepts, but then the children fill in the gaps on their own. This is particularly effective, because supervised learning can never be exhaustive and thus learning autonomously allows to discover invariances and regularities that help to generalize. In this paper we propose to apply a similar approach to the problem of object recognition across domains: our model learns the semantic labels in a supervised fashion, and broadens its understanding of the data by learning from self-supervised signals on the same images. This secondary task helps the network to focus on object shapes, learning concepts like spatial orientation and part correlation, while acting as a regularizer for the classification task over multiple visual domains. Extensive experiments confirm our intuition and show that our multi-task method combining supervised and self-supervised knowledge shows competitive results with respect to more complex domain generalization and adaptation solutions. It also proves its potential in the novel and challenging predictive and partial domain adaptation scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3070791DOI Listing
April 2021
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