Publications by authors named "Błażej Michalski"

45 Publications

EACVI survey on the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Chancellors Building, Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, UK.

Aims: The aim of this study is to analyse how current recommendations on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function assessment have been adopted. Identifying potential discrepancies between recommendations and everyday clinical practice would enable us to better understand and address the remaining challenges in this controversial and complex field.

Methods And Results: A total of 93 centres, mainly from tertiary care settings, responded to the survey. More than three-quarters (77%) of centres follow the 2016 ASE/EACVI recommendations for LV diastolic function evaluation in patients with preserved ejection fraction based upon e', E/e', tricuspid regurgitation velocity, and left atrial (LA) volume. These recommendations were generally preferred to the previous 2009 version. Many centres also consider strain assessments in the LV (48%) and left atrium (53%) as well as diastolic stress echocardiography (33%) to be useful as additional assessments of LV diastolic function. Echocardiographic assessments of LV diastolic function were used frequently to guide therapy in 72% of centres.

Conclusion: There is widespread adoption of current recommendation on the evaluation of LV diastolic function and these are frequently used to guide patient management. Many centres now also consider LV and LA strain assessments useful in the clinical assessment of diastolic function. These may be considered in future recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jeab087DOI Listing
May 2021

Multicentric Atrial Strain COmparison between Two Different Modalities: MASCOT HIT Study.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Nov 13;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department "Gailezers", Riga East Clinical University Hospital, LV-1038 Riga, Latvia.

Two methods are currently available for left atrial (LA) strain measurement by speckle tracking echocardiography, with two different reference timings for starting the analysis: QRS (QRS-LASr) and P wave (P-LASr). The aim of MASCOT HIT study was to define which of the two was more reproducible, more feasible, and less time consuming. In 26 expert centers, LA strain was analyzed by two different echocardiographers (young vs senior) in a blinded fashion. The study population included: healthy subjects, patients with arterial hypertension or aortic stenosis (LA pressure overload, group 2) and patients with mitral regurgitation or heart failure (LA volume-pressure overload, group 3). Difference between the inter-correlation coefficient (ICC) by the two echocardiographers using the two techniques, feasibility and analysis time of both methods were analyzed. A total of 938 subjects were included: 309 controls, 333 patients in group 2, and 296 patients in group 3. The ICC was comparable between QRS-LASr (0.93) and P-LASr (0.90). The young echocardiographers calculated QRS-LASr in 90% of cases, the expert ones in 95%. The feasibility of P-LASr was 85% by young echocardiographers and 88% by senior ones. QRS-LASr young median time was 110 s (interquartile range, IR, 78-149) vs senior 110 s (IR 78-155); for P-LASr, 120 s (IR 80-165) and 120 s (IR 90-161), respectively. LA strain was feasible in the majority of patients with similar reproducibility for both methods. QRS complex guaranteed a slightly higher feasibility and a lower time wasting compared to the use of P wave as the reference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10110946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696899PMC
November 2020

EACVI survey on investigations and imaging modalities in chronic coronary syndromes.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jan;22(1):1-7

BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Department of Cardiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH16 4SB, UK.

Aims: The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Scientific Initiatives Committee performed a global survey to evaluate current practice for the assessment and management of patients with suspected and confirmed chronic coronary syndromes.

Methods And Results: One-hundred and ten imaging centres from 37 countries across the world responded to the survey. Most non-invasive investigations for coronary artery disease were widely available, except cardiovascular magnetic resonance (available 40% centres). Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and nuclear scans were reported by a multi-disciplinary team in only a quarter of centres. In the initial assessment of patients presenting with chest pain, only 32% of respondents indicated that they rely on pre-test probability for selecting the optimal imaging test while 31% proceed directly to CCTA. In patients with established coronary artery disease and recurrent chest pain, respondents opted for stress echocardiography (27%) and nuclear stress perfusion scans (26%). In asymptomatic patients with coronary artery disease and an obstructive (>70%) right coronary artery stenosis, 58% of respondents were happy to pursue medical therapy without further testing or intervention. This proportion fell to 29% with left anterior descending artery stenosis and 1% with left main stem obstruction. In asymptomatic patients with evidence of moderate-to-severe myocardial ischaemia (15%), only 18% of respondents would continue medical therapy without further investigation.

Conclusion: Despite guidelines recommendations pre-test probability is used to assess patients with suspected coronary artery in a minority of centres, one-third of centres moving directly to CCTA. Clinicians remain reticent to pursue a strategy of optimal medical therapy without further investigation or intervention in patients with controlled symptoms but obstructive coronary artery stenoses or myocardial ischaemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jeaa300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758034PMC
January 2021

On the search for the right definition of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Cardiol J 2020 28;27(5):449-468. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

"Club 30", Polish Cardiac Society, Poland.

The definition of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has evolved from a clinically based "diagnosis of exclusion" to definitions focused on objective evidence of diastolic dysfunction and/or elevated left ventricular filling pressures. Despite advances in our understanding of HFpEF pathophysiology and the development of more sophisticated imaging modalities, the diagnosis of HFpEF remains challenging, especially in the chronic setting, given that symptoms are provoked by exertion and diagnostic evaluation is largely conducted at rest. Invasive hemodynamic study, and in particular - invasive exercise testing, is considered the reference method for HFpEF diagnosis. However, its use is limited as opposed to the high number of patients with suspected HFpEF. Thus, diagnostic criteria for HFpEF should be principally based on non-invasive measurements. As no single non-invasive variable can adequately corroborate or refute the diagnosis, different combinations of clinical, echocardiographic, and/or biochemical parameters have been introduced. Recent years have brought an abundance of HFpEF definitions. Here, we present and compare four of them: 1) the 2016 European Society of Cardiology criteria for HFpEF; 2) the 2016 echocardiographic algorithm for diagnosing diastolic dysfunction; 3) the 2018 evidence-based H2FPEF score; and 4) the most recent, 2019 Heart Failure Association HFA-PEFF algorithm. These definitions vary in their approach to diagnosis, as well as sensitivity and specificity. Further studies to validate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of HFpEF definitions are warranted. Nevertheless, it seems that the best HFpEF definition would originate from a randomized clinical trial showing a favorable effect of an intervention on prognosis in HFpEF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2020.0124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078979PMC
September 2020

The evaluation of aortic stenosis, how the new guidelines are implemented across Europe: a survey by EACVI.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2020 04;21(4):357-362

Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital, Postboks 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway.

Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most prevalent valvular disease in developed countries, with a prevalence that is set to expand further with an ageing population. The most recent guidelines on valvular heart disease published by the European Society of Cardiology and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, aim to standardize the diagnosis and management of valvular heart diseases. The imaging criteria of the current guidelines are mostly based on EACVI Recommendations, with an appropriate diagnostic workflow being of major importance, to ensure streamlined and efficient patient assessment and accurate diagnoses and decisions regarding the timing of surgery. The EACVI Scientific Initiatives Committee, therefore, created a survey on the imaging assessment of patient with AS to investigate the diagnostic patient pathways used in different centres across Europe. In particular, we conducted this survey to better understand the use and access of advanced imaging techniques in AS including 3D transthoracic echocardiography and 3D transoesophageal echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jeaa009DOI Listing
April 2020

EACVI survey on standardization of cardiac chambers quantification by transthoracic echocardiography.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2020 02;21(2):119-123

Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital, Postboks 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway.

Aims: To evaluate standard reporting of cardiac chambers size and function by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), the EACVI Scientific Initiatives Committee performed a survey across European centres. In particular, the routine use of three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and speckle tracking-derived myocardial deformation imaging (STE) was explored.

Methods And Results: A total of 96 European Echocardiography Laboratories from 22 different countries responded to the survey, which consisted of 20 questions. For most of the standard parameters of cardiac chamber size and function, answers from the centres were homogeneous and demonstrated good adherence to current recommendations. In particular, all centres assessed left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) size combining diameter measurements with volumes obtained using the bi-plane Simpson's method. More variability was observed in the measurements of the right heart chambers and thoracic aorta. Interestingly, >90% of centres had access to 3DE and STE; however, the large majority of centres reserved the use of these techniques for selected cases, particularly for the measure of 3D LV volumes and ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain in patients being considered for cardiac device implantation, surgical intervention (valvular heart disease) or screened for cardiotoxicity. Only 10% of centres used 3DE for right ventricular and LA volumes. Also, <30% of the centres used LA strain imaging.

Conclusion: In Europe, a good adherence to current recommendations was observed for most of the standard parameters of cardiac chambers quantification by TTE. Advanced echocardiography modalities, such as 3DE and STE, are widely available but used only in selected cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jez297DOI Listing
February 2020

EACVI survey on multimodality training in ESC countries.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2019 Dec;20(12):1332-1336

Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital, Postboks 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway.

One of the missions of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) is 'to promote excellence in clinical diagnosis, research, technical development, and education in cardiovascular imaging'. The future of imaging involves multimodality so each imager should have the incentive and the possibility to improve its knowledge in other cardiovascular techniques. This article presents the results of a 20 questions survey carried out in cardiovascular imaging (CVI) centres across Europe. The aim of the survey was to assess the situation of experience and training of CVI in Europe, the availability and organization of modalities in each centre and to ask for vision about potential improvements in CVI at national and European level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jez200DOI Listing
December 2019

Criteria for surveys: from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging Scientific Initiatives Committee.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2019 Sep;20(9):963-966

Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital, Postboks 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway.

The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) is committed to maintaining the highest standards of professional excellence in all aspects of cardiovascular imaging. The mission of the EACVI is to promote excellence in clinical diagnosis, research, technical development, and education in cardiovascular imaging with a particular focus on education, training, scientific initiatives, and research. The EACVI established the Scientific Initiatives Committee (SIC) in December 2018. This committee has responsibility for surveys among imagers, patients' surveys and surveys including data from clinical practice. The current document describes the aims of the EACVI SIC and the creation of the international EACVI survey network. This document summarizes the EACVI's standards for the survey questions and standards for writing the papers with the results of the surveys. These are in accordance with previous recommendations and were approved by the EACVI SIC and the EACVI Board in 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jez193DOI Listing
September 2019

Relation of regional myocardial structure and function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and amyloidois: a combined two-dimensional speckle tracking and cardiovascular magnetic resonance analysis.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2019 04;20(4):426-437

Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University Hospital Leuven, Catholic University Leuven, Herestraat 49, Leuven, Belgium.

Aims: We aimed at investigating the relationship between segmental morphology [wall thickness (WT) and WT location (LT: base-mid-apex)], loading conditions and underlying pathological substrate [histology (H), hypertrophy vs. infiltration] with segmental longitudinal (SLS) and circumferential (SCS) strain in a group of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and cardiac amyloidosis (CA).

Methods And Results: We included 30 patients with biopsy-proven CA (65.4 ± 10.7 years, 66% male, 76.7% AL type) and 50 patients with HCM matched for maximum WT (60 ± 16 years, 80% male). SLS and SCS were assessed with speckle-tracking echocardiography in an 18-segment model of left ventricle, while morphological parameters were measured in short-axis cardiovascular magnetic resonance cine loops which corresponded with echo segments. In total, 1440 segments were evaluated of which 198 (36.7%) in CA and 252 (28%) in HCM had WT >12 mm (maximum WT 18.1 ± 3.7 mm in CA vs. 18.6 ± 4.1 in HCM, P = 0.59). SLS showed association with WT [beta 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.6; P < 0.0005], LT and H (P < 0.0005 for both), with CA segments demonstrating 5.94% more impaired SLS compared with HCM segments with the same WT and LT. On the other hand, there was no linear association between SCS and WT, with SCS being dependent on LT, H (P < 0.0005) and preload (P < 0.002).

Conclusion: Our study indicates that regional myocardial mechanics are differentially influenced by local morphological parameters. While SLS is dominated by WT, SCS is more determined by LT and H. These findings may have an important role in diagnosis and prognosis of patients with thickened hearts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jey107DOI Listing
April 2019

Incremental value of left atrial mechanical dispersion over CHA DS -VASc score in predicting risk of thrombus formation.

Echocardiography 2018 05 24;35(5):651-660. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Department of Cardiology, Bieganski Hospital, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Purpose: To assess the potential ability of two-dimensional speckle tracking analysis (STE) during atrial fibrillation (AF) to identify patients with LA appendage thrombi (LAAT).

Methods: This study involved 93 patients with AF (39% female, 67.1 ± 9.5 years) who were referred for a clinical indication for transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). TEE revealed LAAT in 39 (42%) patients. We analyzed standard parameters of the left ventricle (LV) and LA in transthoracic echocardiography. Using STE, we assessed LV global longitudinal strain (LVGLS), peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS), and intra-atrial asynchrony. The PALS was calculated using the global strain curve (GPALS) and as the mean of peaks derived from segmental strain curves (MPALS).

Results: Patients were comparable with regard to the clinical data. A subgroup with LAAT had lower LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and a lower absolute value of the LVGLS, as well as greater impairment in the LA standard parameters, PALS, and asynchrony. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the LVEF of 30% (P < .001), the LVGLS of -7% (P < .0001), the GPALS of 11% (P < .005), and the LA asynchrony of 22% (P < .01) were the optimal cutoff values for distinguishing both subgroups. LA asynchrony, LVEF, and LVGLS were independently associated with the presence of LAAT in multivariate analyses, and PALS had additional significance over the CHA DS -VASc score.

Conclusions: Left ventricular systolic dysfunction characterized by both LVEF and LVGLS is an independent factor for LAAT. LA asynchrony provides additional diagnostic value for discriminating between patients with and without LAAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.13899DOI Listing
May 2018

Bicuspid aortic valve morphology and its impact on aortic diameters-A systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression.

Echocardiography 2018 05 4;35(5):667-677. Epub 2018 Feb 4.

Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Aim: To evaluate the impact of the 2 most common bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) morphology patterns [right-left (RL) vs right-noncoronary (RN) cusp fusion] on the aortic diameters and the impact of gender, aortic stenosis (AS), aortic regurgitation (AR), and age on the observed effects.

Methods: The PubMed databases was searched up to December 31, 2016 to identify studies investigating the morphology of BAV and aortic diameters. Inclusion criteria were as follows: the data on diameter of sinuses of Valsalva (SVD) and/or ascending aorta (AAD) and BAV morphology. The additional characteristics [gender, AS and AR (% of patients with moderate or severe AS/AR) and mean age] were collected to perform a meta-regression analysis.

Results: A total of 12 studies with 2192 patients with indexed AAD, 15 studies with 3104 patients with nonindexed AAD and 8 studies with 1271 patients with indexed SVD, and 16 studies with 3454 patients with nonindexed SVD were included. There was no difference between RL and RN group in indexed/nonindexed AAD-mean difference (MD): 0.06 mm/m (95% CI: -0.65 to 0.77 mm/m , P = .87) and -0.06 mm (95% CI: 1.10-0.97 mm, P = .91). Differently, the RL BAV was associated with larger indexed/nonindexed SVD than RN phenotype-MD: 1.66 mm/m (95% CI: 0.83-2.49 mm/m , P < .001) and 2.03 mm (95% CI: 0.97-3.09 mm, P < .001). Age, gender, AS, and AR had no influence on observed differences.

Conclusions: RL BAV phenotype is associated with larger SVD than RN BAV, and the observed differences are independent from aortic valve dysfunction degree, age, and gender.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.13818DOI Listing
May 2018

Timing of myocardial shortening determines left ventricular regional myocardial work and regional remodelling in hearts with conduction delays.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 08;19(8):941-949

Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University Hospital Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Aims: The interaction between asynchronous regional myocardial activation and left ventricular (LV) wall remodelling has not been well established. We investigated the relationship between time of onset of longitudinal shortening (Tonset), regional myocardial work, and segmental LV wall thickness (SWT) in patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).

Methods And Results: We analysed 26 patients with sinus rhythm, non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy (63 ± 9 years, 69% male, QRS duration 174 ± 18 ms) and positive response to CRT (15% reduction in end-systolic volume). Longitudinal strain was obtained by 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography before and after [14.5 (7-29) months] CRT. Tonset and SWT were measured in 18 segments per LV. Segmental myocardial work was calculated from non-invasive segmental stress-strain loop area. Before CRT, Tonset was the shortest in septal and anteroseptal and the longest in lateral and posterior walls (P < 0.001) and not different after CRT (P = 0.733). Before CRT, septal and anteroseptal walls were significantly thinner than lateral and posterior. After CRT, reverse remodelling increased thickness in septal and anteroseptal and thinned lateral and posterior segments (P < 0.001). Before CRT, non-uniformity in work distribution with reduced work in septal and anteroseptal and increased work in lateral and posterior walls (P < 0.001) was observed. After CRT, distribution of myocardial work was uniform (P = 0.215).

Conclusion: Dys-synchronous myocardial shortening is related to thinning of early and thickening of late activated segments in heart failure with conduction delay. Correction of dys-synchrony leads to regression of inhomogeneity towards more evenly distributed wall thickness. Regional differences in myocardial work load that are homogenized by successful CRT are considered as the underlying pathophysiological mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jex325DOI Listing
August 2018

The impact of the latest echocardiographic chamber quantification recommendations on the prediction of left atrial appendage thrombus presence by transthoracic echocardiography.

Acta Cardiol 2018 Feb 11;73(1):91-95. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

a Chair and Department of Cardiology , Medical University of Lodz , Lodz , Poland.

Introduction: The latest recommendations for echocardiographic chamber quantification have implemented updated normal values for all cardiac chambers.

Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of normal and abnormal values of routine echocardiographic parameters such as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left atrial volume indexed to body surface area (LAVi) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and to determine the influence of LVEF and LAVi reclassification on the prediction of LAAT by transthoracic echocardiography.

Methods: We retrospectively analysed the database of 1674 transesophageal echocardiograms performed between 2012 and 2015 in our echo lab. The study involved patients (mean age 70 ± 7 years, 80% men) with paroxysmal or persistent AF (35 patients with left atrial appendage thrombus [LAAT] and 35 sex- and age-matched controls without LAAT). LVEF and LAVi were categorised in two ways: semi-quantitative using four-degree scale (normal or abnormal graded from mild and moderate to severe) and qualitative (normal vs. abnormal).

Results: We reclassified 6 (9%) and 4 (6%) patients with regard to LVEF as well as 38 (54%) and 16 (23%) with regard to LAVi on semi-quantitative and qualitative scale, respectively. After adjustment for effective anticoagulation and approved risk factors in the multivariate models, we identified LVEF categorised in semi-quantitative manner according to both documents, LAVi categorised in a binary manner by new guidelines and semi-quantitative scale by both recommendations as independently associated with LAAT.

Conclusions: Differentiation between normal and abnormal value enhanced the diagnostic meaning of LAVi in the aspect of higher LAAT risk. LVEF reclassification had no significant influence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00015385.2017.1351241DOI Listing
February 2018

The role of selected adipokines and ghrelin in the prognosis after myocardial infarction in a 12-month follow-up in the presence of metabolic syndrome.

Arch Med Sci 2017 Jun 31;13(4):785-794. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of selected adipokines in the improvement in the ejection fraction and in the development of adverse cardiac remodeling during 12 months of follow-up among patients with an ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the presence of metabolic syndrome (MeS).

Material And Methods: The study population consisted of 69 patients (49 male; mean age: 59 ±10 years) with a first STEMI that was treated with a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). In this group, 36 patients (18 male; mean age: 60 ±15 years) had MeS according to the definition of the International Diabetes Federation. The baseline clinical evaluation included a clinical examination and evaluation of the blood levels of C-reactive protein, ghrelin, resistin, and fasting glucose. Within 72 h after the STEMI, an echocardiographic examination was performed. A complete clinical evaluation was repeated after 12 months. Adverse cardiac remodeling was defined as an increase in the left ventricular end-diastolic volume of ≥ 8%. An improvement of the ejection fraction (EF) was defined as an increase of more than 5% in the EF.

Results: A concentration of ghrelin ≤ 160.46 pg/ml (AUC = 0.71, = 0.032) had a good predictive value for the occurrence of adverse left ventricular remodeling but only in the patients without MeS. Among the patients with MeS, a concentration of resistin ≤ 5196 pg/ml (AUC = 0.073, = 0.024) had a good predictive value for the occurrence of left ventricular remodeling. A concentration of leptin > 52.18 pg/ml (AUC = 0.81, < 0.0001) and resistin > 4419.27 ng/ml (AUC = 0.67, = 0.049) had a good predictive value for improvement of the LVEF in the patients without MeS.

Conclusions: The selected adipokines had a good predictive value for the development of adverse cardiac remodeling and for improvement of the ejection fraction among patients after a STEMI in the presence of metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2017.65659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5510508PMC
June 2017

Association between left atrial function assessed by speckle-tracking echocardiography and the presence of left atrial appendage thrombus in patients with atrial fibrillation.

Anatol J Cardiol 2017 Jul 30;18(1):15-22. Epub 2017 May 30.

Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Lodz, Bieganski Hospital; Lodz-Poland.

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the deformation of left atrium (LA) measured by speckle-tracking analysis (STE) is associated with the presence of LA appendage thrombus (LAAT) during non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF).

Methods: Eighty-seven patients (mean age 67 years, 59% men) were included to retrospective cross-sectional study. On top of standard echocardiography we assessed: LA longitudinal systolic strain (LS), systolic (LSSR) and early diastolic strain rate (LESR) in four-chamber and twochamber apical views. All patients underwent transesophageal echocardiography disclosing LAAT in 36 (41%) patients.

Results: Subgroups with and without thrombi did not differ with regard to clinical characteristics. Univariate factors associated with LAAT were as follows: CH2ADS2-VASc Score, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), LV mass, and STE measurements. In a multivariate model only LVEF (p=0.002), LS (p=0.02), LESR (p=0.008), and LSSR (p=0.045) were independently associated with LAAT presence. Moreover, LVEF and LA STE measurements provided incremental value over the CH2ADS2-VASc Score.

Conclusion: Speckle-tracking TTE may be used to describe LA reservoir and conduit function during AF, allowing the identification of patients with higher risk of LAAT and providing incremental value over the CH2ADS2-VASc Score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2017.7613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5512193PMC
July 2017

Recurrent endocarditis causing severe obstruction of bioprosthetic tricuspid valve.

Kardiol Pol 2017 ;75(2):182

Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/KP.2017.0026DOI Listing
July 2017

The differences in the relationship between diastolic dysfunction, selected biomarkers and collagen turn-over in heart failure patients with preserved and reduced ejection fraction.

Cardiol J 2017 17;24(1):35-42. Epub 2016 Oct 17.

Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland.

Background: The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of the selected biomarkers and collagen turn-over indices with advanced echocardiographic parameters among patients with preserved and reduced ejection fraction (EF).

Methods: We included 62 patients with the symptomatic heart failure. The patients were divided in to two groups according to the evaluated ejection fraction (EF - Simpson method): heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) group - 30 patients with low EF - 35-50% (16 male, mean age 54.9 ± 12.6), heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) group - 32 patients with EF > 50% (16 male, mean age 62.3 ± 7.6). Clinical evaluation included 6-min walk test, biochemistry, procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), procollagen type III N-terminal propetide (PIIINP), matrix metaloproteinase-2 (MMP2), ghrelin, and galectin-3 levels measurements. Echocardiographic examination was performed with analysis of diastolic function and global longitudinal strain (GLS).

Results: The GLS in the HFrEF group was significantly lower than in the HFpEF group at the baseline (GLS: 9.56 vs. 16.03, p < 0.01). There was a strong negative correlation of the PIIINP and GLS in HFrEF group (r = -0.74, p = 0.005), but only a moderate negative correlation in HFpEF (r = -0.55, p = 0.02). In the HFrEF group, there was a moderate negative correlation between the baseline level of galectin-3 and GLS (r = -0.59, p = 0.03). The correlation of ghrelin and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 with EF in the HFrEF group was moderate and statistically significant (r = 0.62, p = 0.02 and r = -0.63, p = 0.02, respectively).

Conclusions: Procollagen type III peptide has a strong negative correlation with left ventricular GLS. Galectin-3 relationship with strain may indicate novel pathophysiological pathways and requires further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2016.0098DOI Listing
March 2017

A study to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of stress coping strategies in heart failure patients in Poland (CAPS-LOCK-HF sub-study).

Kardiol Pol 2016 8;74(11):1327-1331. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

I Katedra i Klinika Kardiologii Śląski Uniwersytet Medyczny w Katowicach.

Background And Aim: We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of different stress coping strategies in Polish patients suffering from heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF).

Methods: This manuscript is a sub-study of the CAPS-LOCK-HF multicentre psychological status assessment of patients with HFREF. Patients with > six-month history of HFREF and clinical stability for ≥ three months and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 45% were enrolled in the study. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained from medical records, while a standardised Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) was applied to all subjects.

Results: The study comprised 758 patients (599 men; 79%) with a median age of 64 years (IQR 58-71). Median LVEF was 33% (25-40). Subjects most commonly used task-oriented coping strategies (median CISS score 55 points; IQR 49-61), followed by avoidance (45 points; 39-50) and emotion-oriented coping strategies (41 points; 34-48). Distraction-based avoidance coping strategies (20 points; 16-23) were more pronounced than social diversion strategies (16 points; 14-19). Multiple regression analysis showed that higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and lower systolic blood pressure were independent predictors of task-oriented style. Emotion-oriented coping was more common among females and higher NYHA classes, and in patients who did not take angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Patients who used avoidance-oriented strategies were more frequently those in sinus rhythm on assessment and those who had less history of neoplastic disease.

Conclusions: Patients with HFREF most commonly use favourable task-oriented coping strategies. However, female patients and those with higher NYHA classes tend to use potentially detrimental emotion-oriented coping strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/KP.a2016.0109DOI Listing
April 2017

Differences of psychological features in patients with heart failure with regard to gender and aetiology - Results of a CAPS-LOCK-HF (Complex Assessment of Psychological Status Located in Heart Failure) study.

Int J Cardiol 2016 Sep 15;219:380-6. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Laboratory for Applied Research on Cardiovascular System, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland; Department of Cardiology, Center for Heart Diseases, Military Hospital in Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland;

Objective: Objective of the study was to assess the psychological state of HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with regard to gender and aetiology.

Methods: 758 patients with HFrEF (mean age - 64±11years, men - 79%, NYHA class III-IV - 40%, ischemic aetiology - 61%) in a prospective Polish multicenter Caps-Lock-HF study. Scores on five different self-report inventories: CISS, MHLC, GSES, BDI and modified Mini-MAC were compared between the sexes taking into account the aetiology of HFrEF.

Results: There were differences in the CISS and BDI score between the genders - women had higher CISS (emotion- and avoidance-oriented) and BDI (general score - 14.2±8.7 vs 12.3±8.6, P<0.05; subscale - somatic score - 7.3±3.7 vs 6.1±3.7, P<0.05). In the ischemic subpopulation, women had higher BDI (general and subscales) than men. In the non-ischemic subpopulation the differences between genders were limited to CISS scale. In a multivariable analysis with demographic and clinical data female sex, NYHA class, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus determined BDI score. Similarly, in the ischemic subpopulation, the female sex, NYHA class and atrial fibrillation determined the BDI, while in the non-ischemic population NYHA class was the only factor that influenced the BDI score. Adding the psychological data made a significant additional contribution to the prediction of depression status.

Conclusions: There are distinct differences in psychological features with regard to gender in patients with HFrEF. Women demonstrate less favourable psychological characteristics. Gender-related differences in BDI score are especially explicit in patients with ischemic aetiology of HF. The BDI score is related to psychological predisposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.06.036DOI Listing
September 2016

Association between microRNA-21 concentration and lipid profile in patients with acute coronary syndrome without persistent ST-segment elevation.

Pol Arch Med Wewn 2016 ;126(1-2):48-57

Introduction: MicroRNA (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression. Certain miRNAs, especially miRNA-21 (miR-21), may be involved in lipid metabolism.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between plasma free circulating miR-21 levels and lipid fractions: total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, and triglycerides (TG), as well as their atherogenic profile expressed as the ratio of individual lipid fractions (TC:LDL-C, TC:non-HDL-C, TG:HDL-C, and HDL-C:LDL-C) in patients with acute coronary syndromes without persistent ST -segment elevation (NSTE ACS).

Patients And Methods: The study group consisted of 34 patients diagnosed with NSTE ACS on admission to the emergency department. Plasma miRNA levels were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and the ΔΔCt method. Serum lipid fractions were assessed after a minimum of 12-hour fasting during the first day of hospitalization.

Results: MiR-21 levels showed a significant inverse correlation with TC (r = -0.5; P = 0.002), LDLC (r = -0.5; P = 0.001), and non-HDL-C (r = -0.6; P <0.001) levels. Moreover, they were inversely correlated with TC:HDL-Cratio (r = -0.6; P <0.001), LDL-C:HDL-Cratio (r = -0.6; P <0.001), TG:HDL-Cratio (r = -0.4; P = 0.037), and TC:non-HDLratio (r = 0.6; P <0.001). In a multivariate analysis, miR-21 levels (β = -0.41; P = 0.018) and the need for revascularization (β = 0.35; P = 0.027) were independent predictors of non-HDL-C levels.

Conclusions: Free circulating miR-21 levels inversely correlate with TC, LDL-C, and non-HDL-C and are an independent predictor of non-HDL-C levels in patients with NSTE ACS. Thus, the overexpression of miR-21 is associated with a less atherogenic lipid profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20452/pamw.3267DOI Listing
February 2017

Perception of health control and self-efficacy in heart failure.

Kardiol Pol 2016 ;74(2):168-178

Department of Heart Diseases, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Department of Physiology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Department of Cardiology, Centre for Heart Disease, Military Hospital, Wroclaw, Poland.

Background: The issue of self-perceived health control and related sense of self-efficacy has not received any attention in patients with heart failure (HF), although these psychological features have been established to determine the patients' approach towards healthcare professionals and their recommendations, which strongly affects compliance.

Methods: A total of 758 patients with systolic HF (age: 64 ± 11 years, men: 79%, NYHA class III–IV: 40%, ischaemic aetiology: 61%) were included in a prospective Polish multicentre Caps-Lock-HF study. A Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scale was used to assess subjective perception of health control in three dimensions (internal control, external control by the others, and by chance); the Generalised Self Efficacy scale (GSES) was used to estimate subjective sense of self-efficacy; and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to determine depressive symptoms.

Results: The majority of patients perceived the external control (by the others) and internal control of their health as high (77% and 63%, respectively) or moderate (22% and 36%, respectively), whereas self-efficacy was perceived as high or moderate (63% and 27%), which was homogenous across the whole spectrum of the HF cohort, being unrelated to HF severity, HF duration, the presence of co-morbidities, and the applied treatment. The stronger the perception of internal health control, the higher the self-efficacy (p < 0.05); both features were related to less pronounced depressive symptoms (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The established pattern of self-perceived control of own health and self-efficacy indicates that patients with HF acknowledge the role of others (i.e. healthcare providers) and themselves in the process of the management of HF, and are convinced about the high efficacy of their undertaken efforts. Such evidence supports implementation of a partnership model of specialists’ care of patients with HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/KP.a2015.0137DOI Listing
February 2017

Left Atrial Dysfunction Assessed by Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Patients with Impaired Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Sleep-Disordered Breathing.

Echocardiography 2016 Jan 8;33(1):38-45. Epub 2015 Jun 8.

Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Aims: To evaluate the relationship between left atrial (LA) structure and deformation obtained by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE): peak longitudinal systolic strain (LAs), peak longitudinal systolic strain rate (LAS-SR), peak longitudinal early diastolic strain rate (LAE-SR), peak longitudinal late diastolic strain rate (LAA-SR), and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) estimated by means of apnea-hypopnea index (eAHI).

Methods: Thirty-two individuals with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (EF < 50%) were included in the study. LA function was assessed using 2DSTE. eAHI index was calculated by means of the 24-hour ambulatory Holter electrocardiogram monitoring. Patients were categorized into two subgroups: SDB group (eAHI ≥ 15; n = 15) and non-SDB group (eAHI < 15; n = 17).

Results: All 2DSTE parameters were decreased in the SDB group: LAS-SR (0.90 [0.60-1.25] 1/sec vs. 1.25 [1.00-1.27] 1/sec, P = 0.043), LAE-SR (-0.76 ± 0.49 1/sec vs. -1.18 ± 0.55 1/sec, P = 0.033), and LAA-SR (-1.26 ± 0.71 1/sec vs. -1.48 ± 0.75 1/sec, P = 0.049). The eAHI was negatively correlated with LA reservoir function: LAS (r = -0.53, P = 0.002) and LAS-SR (r = -0.47, P = 0.006), while it is positively correlated with LAE-SR (r = 0.67, P < 0.001) and LAA-SR (r = 0.46, P = 0.009). Moreover, SDB severity was an independent predictor of impaired LA compliance (P = 0.016) and conduit function (P = 0.002) in multivariate linear regression model, even after adjustment for age, BMI, gender, LV systolic (EF), and diastolic (E/e') function and comorbidities.

Conclusions: LA dysfunction and remodeling assessed using 2DSTE in patients with impaired systolic LV function, and IHD is influenced by the severity of sleep apnea independently from LV function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.12987DOI Listing
January 2016

Pocket-size imaging devices allow for reliable bedside screening for femoral artery access site complications.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2014 Dec 11;40(12):2753-8. Epub 2014 Oct 11.

Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

The aim of this study was to validate pocket-size imaging devices (PSIDs) as a fast screening tool for detecting complications after femoral artery puncture. Forty patients undergoing femoral artery puncture for arterial access related to percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled. Twenty-four hours after percutaneous coronary intervention, the involved inguinal region was assessed with PSIDs enabling 2-D gray-scale and color Doppler imaging. Subsequently, examination with a stationary high-end ultrasound system was performed to verify the findings of bedside examination in all patients. In 37 patients, PSID imaging had good diagnostic quality. False aneurysms (one asymptomatic) occurred in four patients, and all were recognized during bedside screening with PSID. One case of femoral artery thrombosis was confirmed with PSID and during standard ultrasonographic examination. Physical examination augmented with the quick bedside PSID examination had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 91%. PSID facilitated rapid bedside detection of serious access site complications in the vast majority of patients, including asymptomatic cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2014.06.022DOI Listing
December 2014