Publications by authors named "Børge Sivertsen"

179 Publications

Sexual harassment and assault predict sleep disturbances and is partly mediated by nightmares: Findings from a national survey of all university students in Norway.

J Sleep Res 2021 Jun 15:e13338. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.

Sexual harassment and assault is common in most domains of society, and has been linked to several adverse outcomes, including reduced sleep quality. However, less is known about the possible impact of sexual harassment and assault on various sleep problems among university students. In a sample of 49,051 students in Norway (69.2% women), we examined i) the associations of varying extents of sexual harassment (unwanted sexual comments, looks or gestures, photographs, indecent exposure, and physical harassment) and sexual assault (attempted or completed rape), with meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria of insomnia and with sleep duration, ii) the association of cumulative exposure to sexual harassment/assault with insomnia and sleep duration, and iii) to what extent nightmares could explain the association between sexual harassment and insomnia and sleep duration. For both genders, all forms of harassments with the exception of "indecent exposure" and "unwanted sexual photographs" for men were negatively associated with sleep duration, with the strongest associations being found for "rape" and "attempted rape". For both genders, the odds of insomnia increased as a function of cumulative harassment exposure. Similarly, a graded, negative association was found between cumulative harassment and sleep duration for both genders. Mediation analyses showed that 28% of the observed association between cumulative harassment and insomnia, and 15% of the association between cumulative harassment and sleep duration, was mediated by frequency of nightmares.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13338DOI Listing
June 2021

Physical and mental health in young adults with heart disease - a national survey of Norwegian university students.

Cardiol Young 2021 Jun 8:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Young adults with heart disease constitute a growing group with the risk of cognitive and physical impairment. The knowledge of their academic performance and mental and physical health is, however, scant. This study aimed to compare young adults with CHDs or arrhythmia with their peers.

Methods: Information on physical health (Somatic Symptom Scale-8), mental health problems (Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25), quality of life (Satisfaction With Life Scale), physical activity, and academic performance was collected online in a national cross-sectional survey in Norway among students in higher education (the SHoT2018 study).

Results: Among 50,054 students, 172 (0.34%) reported CHD and 132 (0.26%) arrhythmias. Students reporting arrhythmias scored significantly higher than the control group on somatic symptoms (OR = 2.3 (95% CI: 1.62-3.27)), anxiety (OR = 1.60 (1.08-2.37)), depression (OR = 1.49 (1.05-2.11)), self-harm, and suicide attempt (OR = 2.72 (1.56-4.75)), and lower quality of life (OR 1.64 (1.16-2.32)) and more loneliness (OR = 1.99 (1.28-3.10)) compared to participants without heart disease. Participants with CHD reported an increased somatic symptom burden (OR = 1.58 (1.16-2.16)). Despite a tendency to a higher score, this group did not differ significantly from the control group on anxiety or depression, quality of life, or loneliness. However, the risk of self-harm thoughts and suicidality was significantly increased (OR for suicide attempt 2.22 (1.3-3.77)). There was no difference between the groups on academic performance.

Conclusions: Although Norwegian students with heart disease reported more somatic symptoms, their academic progress was not reduced compared to students without heart disease. Students with CHD or arrhythmias showed an increased risk of self-harm thoughts and suicidality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1047951121001815DOI Listing
June 2021

Study protocol: the Norwegian Triple-S Cohort Study - establishing a longitudinal health survey of children and adolescents with experiences of maltreatment.

BMC Public Health 2021 06 5;21(1):1082. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Postboks 973 Sentrum, 5808, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Child maltreatment is prevalent and associated with both short- and long-term health problems. Previous studies have established child maltreatment as a risk factor for a wide range of problems over the life course such as mental- and somatic health problems, self-harm, alcohol- and drug abuse and decreased work-life participation. Still, there are few large and well-conducted longitudinal studies focusing on describing prevalence and identifying risk factors and long-term consequences of child maltreatment. The purpose of the current study is to recruit a large number of children and adolescents exposed to maltreatment and follow them long-term.

Methods/design: The current study is a longitudinal cohort study and will use a multi-informant design (child/adolescent, caregiver, and administrative data). Participants will be recruited from the Stine Sofie Centre (SSC), a learning and coping centre for children and adolescents (≤18 years) exposed to maltreatment, which includes physical and emotional abuse, neglect and/or sexual abuse. Questionnaire-based assessments from self-reports (as well as parent-reports) will be carried out at regular time intervals throughout their lives, on topics such as abuse, negative life events, mental and somatic health problems, resilience and coping, satisfaction with health services, social-, family-, and school function, as well as self-harm and substance abuse. Participants will be assessed upon entry to the centre and followed up annually until they reach 18 years and bi-annually after. Given written consent, participants' responses will be linked to relevant national registries in order to examine predictive factors and important outcomes in terms of subsequent health, education, criminal records and work affiliation.

Discussion: This study will examine short- and long-term consequences of child maltreatment across a range of health-related outcomes in a longitudinal perspective. Results from the current study might have implications for the development of preventive and intervention programs related to child maltreatment and the organization and follow-up of the services these children receive. The current study will hopefully contribute with knowledge of risk-factors, short- and long-term health-related and other issues that can contribute to practices aimed at improving the overall life-course for children and adolescents who have experienced childhood maltreatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11125-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179690PMC
June 2021

Circadian typology and implications for adolescent sleep health. Results from a large, cross-sectional, school-based study.

Sleep Med 2021 Jul 22;83:63-70. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Norwegian Competence Center for Sleep Disorders, Haukeland University Hospital, Norway; Centre for Sleep Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Norway; Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Norway.

Study Objectives: To investigate circadian typology in a large, representative sample of Norwegian adolescents, and its implications for sleep health.

Methods: The sample included 3920 1 year high school students aged 16-17 years. Respondents completed a web-based survey, including the short version of the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (rMEQ), the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and items on sleep-related behaviors (eg electronic media usage in bed, consumption of caffeinated beverages), sleep beliefs and daytime sleepiness. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVAs and Chi-squared tests.

Results: In all, 7.8% were categorized as morning, 52.3% as intermediate and 39.9% as evening types, respectively. Evening types had later sleep timing, longer sleep latency, more social jetlag and shorter school day sleep duration than morning types, with intermediate types displaying a sleep pattern between these two extremes. None of the circadian types met the minimum recommended amount of sleep on school nights (ie 8+ hours), and only morning types had a mean sleep duration of 7+ hours (7:19 h, nearly 1 h more than evening types who slept 6:20 h, p < 0.001). Evening types reported more use of electronic media in bed, more consumption of caffeinated beverages and more daytime sleepiness than the other circadian types. They were also less satisfied with their school day sleep duration and perceived it more difficult to change their sleep pattern.

Conclusions: Results from this study suggest that eveningness represents a sleep health challenge for older adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2021.04.020DOI Listing
July 2021

The effect of sleep-wake intraindividial variability in digital cognitive behaviour therapy for insomnia: A mediation analysis of a large-scale RCT.

Sleep 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Mental Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Study Objectives: Digital Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia (dCBT-I) is an effective treatment for insomnia. However, less is known about mediators of its benefits. The aim of the present study was to test if intraindividual variability in sleep (IIV) was reduced with dCBT-I, and whether any identified reduction was a mediator of dCBT-I on insomnia severity and psychological distress.

Methods: In a two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT), 1720 adults with insomnia (dCBT-I = 867; patient education about sleep = 853) completed the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and sleep diaries, at baseline and 9-week follow-up. Changes in IIV were analysed using linear mixed modelling followed by mediation analyses of ISI, HADS, and IIV in singular sleep metrics and composite measures (Behavioural Indices (BI-Z) and Sleep-disturbance Indices (SI-Z)).

Results: dCBT-I was associated with reduced IIV across all singular sleep metrics, with the largest between-group effect sizes observed for sleep onset latency (SOL). Reduced IIV for SOL and wake after sleep onset had the overall greatest singular mediating effect. For composite measures, SI-Z mediated change in ISI (b = -0.74; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) -1.04 to -0.52; 13.3%) and HADS (b = -0.40; 95% CI -0.73 to -0.18; 29.2%), whilst BI-Z mediated minor changes.

Conclusion: Reductions in IIV in key sleep metrics mediate significant changes in insomnia severity and especially psychological distress when using dCBT-I. These findings offer important evidence regarding the therapeutic action of dCBT-I and may guide the future development of this intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsab118DOI Listing
May 2021

Work-related violence and depressive disorder among 955,573 employees followed for 6.99 million person-years. The Danish Work Life Course Cohort study: Work-related violence and depression.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jun 26;288:136-144. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Section of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: We examined the association between probability of work-related violence and first diagnosis of depressive disorder whilst accounting for the potential selection of individuals vulnerable to depression into occupations with high probability of work-related violence.

Methods: Based on a pre-published study protocol, we analysed nationwide register data from the Danish Work Life Course Cohort study, encompassing 955,573 individuals followed from their entry into the workforce, and free from depressive disorder before work-force entry. Depressive disorder was measured from psychiatric in- and outpatient admissions. We measured work-related violence throughout the worklife by the annual average occupational risk of violence exposure. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the longitudinal association between work-related violence (both past year and cumulative life-long exposure) and first depressive disorder diagnosis, whilst adjusting for numerous confounders including parental psychiatric and somatic diagnoses, childhood socioeconomic position, and health services use before workforce entry.

Results: The risk of depressive disorder was higher in individuals with high probability of past year work-related violence (hazard ratio: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.06-1.16) compared to employees with low probability of exposure, after adjustment for confounders. Among women, associations were robust across industries, whereas among men, associations were limited to certain industries.

Limitations: Violence was measured on the job group and not the individual level, likely resulting in some misclassification of the exposure.

Conclusions: Work-related violence may increase the risk of depressive disorder, independent of pre-existing risk factors for depressive disorder. These findings underline the importance of preventing work-related violence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.03.065DOI Listing
June 2021

Mental and somatic health in university students with type 1 diabetes: new results from DiaSHoT18, a cross sectional national health and well-being survey.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jun 12;34(6):697-705. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.

Objectives: To explore mental and somatic health, quality of life, alcohol-related problems, sleep problems, and diabetes related distress in university students with type 1 diabetes (T1D), compared to students without T1D. Further, we evaluated associations with gender, treatment modalities, and achieved metabolic control.

Methods: All fulltime Norwegian students aged 18-35 years pursuing higher education in 2018 (n=162.512) were invited into a comprehensive national survey on health and well-being. Students that stated having diabetes was asked further questions about their diabetes care.

Results: Of 49,684 participating students, 324 participants stated having T1D. Students with T1D did not show more mental or somatic health symptoms, or report a higher level of loneliness. However, T1D was significantly associated with lower quality of life (QoL). Students with good metabolic control reached the same QoL as students without T1D. Mental disorders and suicidality were associated with lacking metabolic control. The proportion of unhealthy drinking habits was generally low, and even lower in students with T1D. Sleeping patterns were generally good, but students using continuous glucose measurement were awakening more often during sleep. Females with T1D showed higher levels of diabetes related problems and distress, but good metabolic control was associated with lower diabetes distress level.

Conclusions: Students with T1D scored equally on most mental and somatic health scales. Their quality of life was significantly worse compared to their healthy peers. Knowledge on the impact of metabolic control, gender and the use of CSII and CGM can be valuable for the caretakers of young adults with T1D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2021-0041DOI Listing
June 2021

Weekday time in bed and obesity risk in adolescence.

Obes Sci Pract 2021 Feb 21;7(1):45-52. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Psychosocial Science University of Bergen Bergen Norway.

Introduction: Sleep curtailment is associated with obesity in children, but few studies have investigated this relationship in a longitudinal sample of adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine the longitudinal association between weekday time in bed (TIB) at age 10-13 and overweight at age 16-19.

Methods: Adolescents and their parents ( = 3025 families), participating in a longitudinal population-based study, completed questionnaires assessing habitual bedtime and wake time on weekdays, weight and height, socioeconomic status (SES), internalizing mental health problems and disturbed eating. Two surveys were administered with a 6-year interval (T1 and T2). A one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed examining the association between TIB and weight category 6 years later, with SES, internalizing problems and disturbed eating at baseline entered as covariates. Hierarchical and logistic regression analyses were used to assess TIB at age 10-13 years to as a predictor of body mass index (BMI) standardized deviation scores (SDS) and overweight status at age 16-19 adjusting for the same confounders and baseline BMI.

Results: A linear inverse relationship between TIB at age 10-13 and BMI category at age 16-19 was demonstrated by the ANCOVA,  < 0.001. Shorter TIB was related to higher weight, but the effect size was small (partial eta squared = 0.01). When adjusting for the included baseline confounders in the hierarchical regression model TIB significantly predicted later BMI SDS ( = -0.039,  = 0.02). The adjusted logistic regression model showed that for each hour reduction of TIB at T1 the odds of being overweight/obese at T2 increased with a factor of 1.6.

Conclusion: Shorter TIB was found to be a significant, yet modest, independent predictor of later weight gain in adolescence. The findings implicate that establishing healthy sleep habits should be addressed in prevention and treatment strategies for adolescent obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/osp4.455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7909586PMC
February 2021

Satisfaction With Life, Mental Health Problems and Potential Alcohol-Related Problems Among Norwegian University Students.

Front Psychiatry 2021 9;12:578180. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.

Recent studies have shown that today's college students more than ever are struggling with mental health and alcohol problems. While poor satisfaction with life and mental health problems have been linked to higher alcohol consumption, there is still a lack of studies examining in detail the shape and nature of the relationship between mental health and alcohol consumption. To investigate the associations between satisfaction with life, mental health problems and potential alcohol-related problems among Norwegian university students. The shape of the associations was also examined. Data were drawn from a 2018 national survey of students in higher education in Norway (the SHoT-study). Associations between satisfaction with life, mental health problems and potential alcohol-related problems (AUDIT; risky and harmful alcohol use) were investigated using logistic regression. Both crude models and models adjusted for age, gender and marital status were conducted. To investigate the shape of the associations, logistic regression with quadric and cubic terms was tested. Decreased satisfaction with life and increased mental health problems were associated with potential alcohol-related problems. For satisfaction with life, a curvilinear association with risky alcohol use and a linear association with harmful alcohol use was identified. For mental health problems, curvilinear associations were found for both risky and harmful alcohol use. Many students report potential alcohol-related problems. Students with harmful alcohol use seem to be more at risk of reduced satisfaction with life and increased mental health problems than students with risky alcohol use. Educational institutions may be an ideal setting for raising awareness of mental health issues and responsible alcohol consumption among students. The present study contributes with important information about the shape of the associations between satisfaction with life, mental health problems and potential alcohol-related problems in the student population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.578180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900511PMC
February 2021

Cannabis use among Norwegian university students: Gender differences, legalization support and use intentions, risk perceptions, and use disorder.

Addict Behav Rep 2021 Jun 15;13:100339. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.

Aims: We explored past-year cannabis use and associated characteristics, focusing on legalization attitudes, use intentions, risk perceptions, and possible dependence among Norwegian university/college students.

Methods: We examined a nation-wide sample of Norwegian university/college students (N = 49,688; 67% female) who participated in the Students' Health and Wellbeing Study (SHoT-study) in 2018. Participants reported past-year substance use, support for cannabis legalization, intent to use cannabis if legal, and perceived risks of weekly use. Past-year cannabis use (including use frequency) was examined in relation to these indicators. Legalization support, use intentions, and risk perceptions were examined in relation to use and gender. Potential cannabis use disorder was assessed with the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) and examined in relation to use frequency and gender.

Findings: Past-year use was reported by 15.3% (11.8% women; 22.9% men). Majority of current users (roughly 90%) used no more than 50 times past year, and 6% (3.8% women; 8.5% men) met CAST use disorder criteria. Legalization support, use intentions, and no/low risk perceptions were significantly associated with greater odds of use, and greater use frequency among current users in both crude and adjusted models. Legalization support (23.0%), use intentions (14.0%), and perceptions of no/low risk (29.2%) were also relatively common even among current non-users, especially men. Male gender and more frequent use were associated with greater CAST scores and greater odds of use disorder.

Conclusions: Cannabis use was relatively common in this student sample. In addition to targeting frequent use, interventions may focus on cannabis-related attitudes and risk perceptions among uncertain/uninformed students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2021.100339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873627PMC
June 2021

Sleep disturbances and first onset of major mental disorders in adolescence and early adulthood: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Jun 19;57:101429. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Universite de Paris, Paris, France; AP-HP Paris Nord, GH Saint-Louis-Lariboisiere-Fernand-Widal, Departement de Psychiatrie et de Medicine Addictologique, DMU Neurosciences, Paris, France; Inserm UMRS 1144, Paris, France.

Despite several high-quality reviews of insomnia and incidence of mental disorders, prospective longitudinal relationships between a wider range of sleep disturbances and first onset of a depressive, bipolar, or psychotic disorders during the peak age range for onset of these conditions has not been addressed. Database searches were undertaken to identify publications on insomnia, but also on other sleep problems such as hypersomnia, short sleep duration, self-identified and/or generic 'sleep problems' and circadian sleep-wake cycle dysrhythmias. We discovered 36 studies that were eligible for systematic review and from these publications, we identified 25 unique datasets that were suitable for meta-analysis (Number>45,000; age ∼17). Individuals with a history of any type of sleep disturbance (however defined) had an increased odds of developing a mood or psychotic disorder in adolescence or early adulthood (Odds ratio [OR]:1.88; 95% Confidence Intervals:1.67, 2.25) with similar odds for onset of bipolar disorders (OR:1.72) or depressive disorders (OR:1.62). The magnitude of associations differed according to type of exposure and was greatest for sleep disturbances that met established diagnostic criteria for a sleep disorder (OR: 2.53). However, studies that examined observer or self-rated symptoms, also reported a significant association between hypersomnia symptoms and the onset of a major mental disorder (OR:1.39). Overall study quality was moderate with evidence of publication bias and meta-regression identified confounders such as year of publication. We conclude that evidence indicates that subjective, observer and objective studies demonstrate a modest but significant increase in the likelihood of first onset of mood and psychotic disorders in adolescence and early adulthood in individuals with broadly defined sleep disturbances. Although findings support proposals for interventions for sleep problems in youth, we suggest a need for greater consensus on screening strategies and for more longitudinal, prospective studies of circadian sleep-wake cycle dysrhythmias in youth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2021.101429DOI Listing
June 2021

Self-Reported Illicit Drug Use Among Norwegian University and College Students. Associations With Age, Gender, and Geography.

Front Psychiatry 2020 10;11:543507. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.

Several studies have pointed to relatively high levels of illicit drug use among students in higher education compared to the general population. The aim of the present study was to provide an updated examination of self-reported illicit drug use among Norwegian University and college students. Data stem from the SHoT study (Students' Health and Well-being Study), a nationwide cross-sectional survey for higher education in Norway including Norwegian full-time students aged 18-35. Self-reported illicit drug use across a range of specified drugs comprised the outcome variables. Information on gender, age, and study location (geographical area) was also collected and used as stratification variables. The SHoT-survey from 2018 ( = 50,054) was used for the analyses of associations between demographical variables and illicit drug use, while trends in illicit drug use were estimated by comparing the 2018-results with data from the SHoT-surveys conducted in 2010 and 2014. The proportion of students reporting having ever tried illicit drugs increased from 2014 to 2018, for both males (30.8 vs. 36.7%) and females (17.5 vs. 24.0%, both < 0.001), while only minimal changes occurred between 2010 and 2014. The most commonly used illicit drugs during the past 12 months in 2018 were cannabis (15.2%), followed by MDMA (4.0%), cocaine (3.0%), and LSD/psilocybin (2.1%). Illicit drug use showed both linear increase with age, and inverted U-shaped relationships that peaked in the age span from 23 to 28 years of age. Males reported higher illicit drug use compared with females for all drugs. Proportions of illicit drug use varied across geographical areas within the country, with the highest use being reported in the Oslo area (the largest city and capital of Norway). The present study reports an increase from 2010 to 2018 among Norwegian University and college students in the proportion of those reporting to have tried illicit drugs. Despite varying proportions of use across type of drug, age, gender, and geographical location, the overall high levels of illicit drug use past 12 months confirm the need to address illicit drug use in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.543507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758438PMC
December 2020

Sleep in older adolescents. Results from a large cross-sectional, population-based study.

J Sleep Res 2020 Dec 21:e13263. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Norwegian Competence Center for Sleep Disorders, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

The aim of the present study was to describe sleep patterns in a large and representative sample of Norwegian adolescents. The sample included 4,010 first-year high school students, aged 16-17 years (54% female), who completed a web-based survey on sleep patterns. The process of going to sleep was addressed as a two-step sequence of (a) shuteye latency (interval from bedtime to shuteye time) and (b) sleep onset latency (interval from shuteye time to sleep onset). Results showed that 84.8% of the adolescents failed to obtain the recommended amount of sleep (8+ h) on schooldays, and 49.4% obtained less than 7 h. Mean bedtime on schooldays was 10:33 PM, with rise time 8:19 h later (time in bed). The adolescents reported long school-day shuteye latency (43 min), limiting sleep opportunity to 7:36 h. Sleep onset latency was 32 min and mean school-day sleep duration was only 6:43 h. On free days, 26.3% of the adolescents obtained less than 8 h of sleep, and 11.7% obtained less than 7 h. Mean bedtime was 00:33 AM, time in bed was 10:35 h, shuteye latency was 39 min and sleep onset latency was 24 min. Mean free-day sleep duration was 8:38 h. There were sex differences in several sleep parameters, including shuteye latency. The results indicate that the majority of Norwegian adolescents fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep (8+ h) on schooldays. Long shuteye latency appears to be a main driver for short school-day sleep duration in adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13263DOI Listing
December 2020

Effects of digital cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia on insomnia severity: a large-scale randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Digit Health 2020 08;2(8):e397-e406

Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway; Department of Mental Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Research and Innovation, Helse-Fonna HF, Haugesund, Norway.

Background: Although several large-scale randomised controlled trials have shown the efficacy of digital cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (dCBT-I), there is a need to validate widespread dissemination of dCBT-I using recommended key outcomes for insomnia. We investigated the effect of a fully automated dCBT-I programme on insomnia severity, sleep-wake patterns, sleep medication use, and daytime impairment.

Methods: We did a parallel-group superiority randomised controlled trial comparing dCBT-I with online patient education about sleep. The interventions were available through a free-to-access website, publicised throughout Norway, which incorporated automated screening, informed consent, and randomisation procedures, as well as outcome assessments. Adults (age ≥18 years) who had regular internet access and scored 12 or higher on the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were eligible for inclusion, and were allocated (1:1) to receive dCBT-I (consisting of six core interactive sessions to be completed over 9 weeks) or patient education (control group). Participants were masked to group assignment and had no contact with researchers during the intervention period. The primary outcome was the change in ISI score from baseline to 9-week follow-up, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02558647) and is ongoing, with 2-year follow-up assessments planned.

Findings: Between Feb 26, 2016, and July 1, 2018, 5349 individuals commenced the online screening process, of which 1497 were ineligible or declined to participate, 2131 discontinued the screening process, and 1721 were randomly allocated (868 to receive dCBT-I and 853 to receive patient education). At 9-week follow-up, 584 (67%) participants in the dCBT-I group and 534 (63%) in the patient education group completed the ISI assessment. The latent growth model showed that participants in the dCBT-I group had a significantly greater reduction in ISI scores from baseline (mean score 19·2 [SD 3·9]) to 9-week follow-up (10·4 [6·2]) than those in the patient education group (from 19·6 [4·0] to 15·2 [5·3]; estimated mean difference -4·7 (95% CI -5·4 to -4·1; Cohen's d -1·21; p<0·001). Compared with patient education, the number needed to treat with dCBT-I was 2·7 (95% CI 2·4 to 3·2) for treatment response (ISI score reduction ≥8) and 3·2 (2·8 to 3·8) for insomnia remission (ISI score <8). No adverse events were reported to the trial team.

Interpretation: dCBT-I is effective in reducing the severity of symptoms associated with the insomnia disorder. These findings support the widespread dissemination of dCBT-I. Future research is needed to identify the moderators of response and to improve targeting.

Funding: Norwegian Research Council; Liaison Committee for Education, Research and Innovation in Central Norway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(20)30135-7DOI Listing
August 2020

Sleep in the land of the midnight sun and polar night: The Tromsø study.

Chronobiol Int 2021 Mar 29;38(3):334-342. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

While some diseases and human behaviors fluctuate consistently with season, the extent of seasonal variations in sleep, especially at high latitudes, is less consistent. We used data from a geographic region (69º North) with extremely large seasonal differences in daylight that had the participants blinded for the current study's hypotheses. Data were derived from the Tromsø Study (2015-2016), an ongoing population-based study in Northern Norway comprising citizens aged 40 years and older (n = 21,083, participation = 64.7%). The sleep parameters included bedtime, rise time, sleep onset latency (SOL), and total sleep time. Insomnia was defined according to recent diagnostic criteria (International Classification of Sleep Disorders; ICSD-3). We found some evidence of monthly or seasonal variation in sleep problems. Insomnia was most common during the winter months among men, but not women. No seasonal or monthly effects were observed for sleep duration. SOL was slightly longer during the winter months, but the differences were small and hardly of any clinical relevance. The small or non-existing seasonal variation in sleep and sleep difficulties indicate that extreme seasonal variation in daylight is of little influence on sleep status. The city of Tromsø is a modern city with considerable level of artificial light, which may contribute to the observed rather stabile sleep patterns throughout the year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2020.1845191DOI Listing
March 2021

Sleep problems among adolescents within child and adolescent mental health services. An epidemiological study with registry linkage.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2020 Nov 7. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.

Sleep problems are prevalent among adolescents, especially among those diagnosed with mental health disorders. There is insufficient knowledge about sleep among adolescents within child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in comparison to the general population. The data are drawn from the [email protected] study, a large population-based study conducted in 2012, linked to the Norwegian Patient Registry (NPR) (n = 9077). Psychiatric disorders were based on clinical diagnoses from the NPR, while insomnia, delayed sleep-wake-phase disorder (DSWPD), and other sleep problems/patterns were assessed by self-report questionnaires from [email protected] The prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders among adolescents seeking mental health services was 0.6%, yielding an estimated prevalence of 0.07% of the population. However, questionnaire-based measurement of insomnia from the [email protected] study indicated that insomnia was highly prevalent across disorders in comparison to a reference group of adolescents who were not within mental health care. Insomnia ranged from 29% among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (PR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.41-2.29) to 48% among adolescents diagnosed with depression (PR = 2.53, 95% CI 2.19-2.92). All diagnostic groups had a mean sleep efficiency below (85%), indicating poor sleep quality. Insomnia, delayed sleep-phase wake disorder, and poor sleep efficiency were confirmed as transdiagnostic sleep problems across psychiatric disorders. In addition, some disorder-specific patterns emerged, such as a higher prevalence of insomnia among adolescents with depression, and DSWPS among adolescents with conduct disorder. This underscores the need for treating sleep problems in CAMHS, and transdiagnostic treatment approaches are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-020-01676-4DOI Listing
November 2020

Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder in young adults: prevalence and correlates from a national survey of Norwegian university students.

Sleep Med 2021 01 7;77:184-191. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Norway.

Background: Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) during adolescence has been linked to impaired health and poor functioning. However there is a dearth of knowledge about DSWPD in young adulthood. We seek to contribute knowledge on the prevalence and correlates of DSWPD in this age group.

Methods: Data were drawn from a 2018 national survey of students in higher education in Norway (the SHoT-study). All 162,512 fulltime students in Norway were invited to participate and 50,054 students (69.1% women) aged 18-35 years were included (response rate = 30.8%). DSWPD was assessed by self-report, and was operationalized according to the criteria for DSWPD in the most recent edition of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. Correlates of DSWPD were examined by validated self-report instruments covering a wide range of demographic and health domains.

Results: The overall prevalence of DSWPD was 3.3%, and significantly higher in male (4.7%) than female (2.7%) students. DSWPD was associated with being single, having financial difficulties, having divorced parents, being overweight/obese, and physical inactivity. Students with DSWPD had more sleep problems during weekdays, and higher levels of somatic and mental health problems. Students with DSWPD also had an elevated risk of self-harm-related thoughts and behaviors as well as suicidality.

Conclusion: DSWPD remains a significant problem among young adults, and the high symptom load across health domains indicates that suggests a need for existing evidence-based approaches to be scaled for college students who present with DSWPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2020.09.028DOI Listing
January 2021

Increasing similarities between young adults' smoking and snus use in Norway: a study of the trends and stages of smoking and snus epidemic from 2010 to 2018.

BMC Public Health 2020 Oct 6;20(1):1511. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.

Background: The prevalence of smoking has been decreasing in Norway for decades. In contrast, the prevalence of snus use has recently increased substantially, especially among females. While there is a clear social gradient in smoking, with a higher smoking prevalence among individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES), a possible social gradient in snus use has been less studied. The aim of the current study was to investigate the trends of smoking and snus use and to examine whether ongoing changes in snus use are similar to prior smoking epidemic development.

Methods: The study was based on the 2010 (n = 5836), 2014 (n = 13,319) and 2018 (n = 24,515) waves from a nation-wide, cross-sectional, health survey of higher education in Norway (the SHoT study). Variables on smoking, snus use, gender, age and SES were used. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were used to test significance, and Mantel-Haenszel weights were used to test the trends in stratified cross-tabulations.

Results: Daily smoking decreased from 5.9 to 1.5% between 2010 and 2018, while daily snus use increased from 13.4 to 19.9%. Female snus use almost doubled, from 10.9 to 19.2%. Low SES was associated with both daily smoking and snus use across all three waves. Occasional smoking was also associated with low SES at all waves, but occasional snus use was only associated with low SES in 2010. There were no significant changes over time in either the association between occasional or daily smoking and SES or the association between occasional or daily snus use and SES.

Conclusions: The overall smoking decrease indicated that the Norwegian smoking epidemic is in its latest stage. Steady male snus use, doubled female snus use and a clear social gradient in snus use all indicate that the snus epidemic in Norway has progressed. If this trend continues, a main implication is that snus prevalence will soon peak, first in males and then in females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09604-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539463PMC
October 2020

Trajectories of sleep problems from adolescence to adulthood. Linking two population-based studies from Norway.

Sleep Med 2020 11 8;75:411-417. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway; Department of Mental Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Research & Innovation, Helse-Fonna HF, Haugesund, Norway.

Study Objective: The aim of the study is to assess stability and predictors of insomnia and sleep duration from adolescence to early adulthood.

Methods: A longitudinal sample of 1257 individuals from three age cohorts were assessed from linked population-based studies, the [email protected] study from 2012 (age 16-18) and the SHoT2018 study (age 22-25). Identical measures of insomnia symptoms and sleep duration were analysed.

Results: The stability of insomnia was high from adolescence to young adulthood, 50% of those with insomnia symptoms in adolescence still had insomnia symptoms six years later (adjusted IRR = 2.01; (CI 95%; 1.5-2.44)). Short sleep duration was also stable, with 67.8% of the adolescents in the lowest sleep duration quartile still remaining in the lowest quartile six years later. The overall rate of insomnia symptoms, long wake after sleep onset (WASO), and oversleeping increased from adolescence to young adulthood. Also, we observed a reduction in sleep efficiency and later rise times. There was no significant change in sleep onset latency (SOL).

Conclusion: Insomnia symptoms and short sleep duration are prevalent during both adolescence and young adulthood. Considerable individual stability and a rising rate of insomnia symptoms were observed over time. These findings underscore the importance of early identification and timely interventions to prevent chronic sleep problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2020.08.035DOI Listing
November 2020

DiaSHoT18: A cross-sectional national health and well-being survey of university students with type 1 diabetes.

Pediatr Diabetes 2020 12 6;21(8):1583-1592. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Research and Innovation, Fonna Health Trust, Haugesund, Norway.

Objective: To achieve a better understanding in how university students live with and are able to manage their type 1 diabetes (T1D).

Methods: In 2018, all fulltime Norwegian students aged 18 to 35 years pursuing higher education were invited into a national survey, which included data on demographics and health. In all, 162 512 students fulfilled these inclusion criteria. Students that stated having diabetes were asked to answer further questions about their diabetes care.

Results: We included data from 50 054 students responding to the survey, and identified 324 students with T1D (64% females, mean age 23 years, mean HbA1c 7.65% [60 mmol/mol]). Male students had a lower HbA1c (7.28% vs 7.86%, 56 vs 62 mmol/mol), reached an HbA1c of <7.5% (58 mol/mol) more often (62.2% vs 44.2%) and were using continuous glucose measurement (CGM) less often (19.5% vs 36.7%). Exercise and smoking habits in students with T1D were equal to the non-diabetic group. More students with T1D were overweight or obese (44.1% vs 32.2%). Students who achieved an HbA1c <7.5% (58 mmol/mol) measured their blood sugar more often, had a lower body-mass index, exercised more and were smoking less. An HbA1c >7.5% (58 mmol/mol) was associated with less activity, more overweight or obesity, and smoking. The use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and CGM was not associated with a better metabolic control.

Conclusions: These data have implications for the follow-up of adolescents and young adults, showing the need to focus on general lifestyle habits, especially in female subjects, whereas the use of technical devices might be of secondary importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pedi.13119DOI Listing
December 2020

Sleep problems and depressive symptoms in toddlers and 8-year-old children: A longitudinal study.

J Sleep Res 2021 02 2;30(1):e13150. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Sleep and depression are interlinked throughout the lifespan, but very few studies have examined the directionality of the sleep-depression link in children. The aim of the current study was to prospectively examine the bidirectional association between sleep problems and internalizing problems and depressive symptoms in toddlers and children aged 1.5 and 8 years. Data stem from the large ongoing population-based longitudinal study, the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study, recruited from October 1999 to July 2009. A total of 35,075 children were included. Information on sleep duration, nocturnal awakenings and internalizing problems (Child Behaviour Checklist) was provided by the mothers at 1.5 years, whereas data on sleep duration and depressive symptoms (Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire) were provided by the mothers when the children were 8 years old. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using logistic regression analyses. After accounting for previous internalizing problems, short sleep duration (≤10 hr) and frequent (≥3) nightly awakenings at 1.5 years predicted the development of depressive symptoms at 8 years of age (adjusted OR = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.51, and adjusted OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.08-1.50, respectively). Also, internalizing problems at 1.5 years predicted onset of later short sleep duration (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.32-2.54) after accounting for early sleep problems. This prospective study demonstrated a bidirectional association between sleep and internalizing/depressive symptoms from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Intervention studies are needed to examine whether targeting either of these problems at this early age may prevent onset of the other.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13150DOI Listing
February 2021

The Effect of Reducing Insomnia Severity on Work- and Activity-Related Impairment.

Behav Sleep Med 2021 Jul-Aug;19(4):505-515. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Mental Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Objective/background: The effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) for alleviating sleep problems is well established. However, few studies have explored its impact on work productivity and activity.

Participants: Seventy-seven currently employed adults with insomnia disorder (59 females) recruited to a randomized trial of digital versus face-to-face CBT-I.

Methods And Materials: The general health version of the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire was used to measure absenteeism, presenteeism, total work impairment, and activity impairment. We assessed changes in work productivity and activity pre-to-post-therapy for the total sample and then for subgroups categorized according to response or remission of insomnia disorder (evaluated using the Insomnia Severity Index).

Results: Study participants showed significant improvements in presenteeism ( = .001; Cohen's = 0.46), total work impairment ( < .001; = 0.48), and activity ( < .001; = 0.66), but not absenteeism ( = .51; = 0.084) between baseline and follow-up assessment. Individuals meeting criteria for remission showed significantly greater improvement in presenteeism ( = .002), total work impairment ( < .001), and activity ( = .006), but not absenteeism ( = .064).

Conclusion: This study suggests that the benefits of CBT-I extend beyond improvement in sleep to encompass moderate-to-large improvements in work productivity and activity levels particularly for individuals who achieve remission from insomnia. Given the importance of these behaviors, there is a need for future large-scale randomized trials and cohort studies which should strive to include objective measurement of daytime activity and work performance more frequently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15402002.2020.1799792DOI Listing
July 2020

Cumulated and most recent job control and risk of disability pension in the Danish Work Life Course Cohort (DaWCo).

Eur J Public Health 2020 12;30(6):1212-1218

National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Previous studies have found low job control to be associated with a higher risk of disability pension (DP). Most studies have measured job control only at one time-point, and there is a lack of knowledge regarding the role of exposure duration. This study examines the prospective association between job control and DP measuring exposure both cumulated throughout work life and most recent.

Methods: We included 712 519 individuals (about 4.5 million person-years) from The Danish Work Life Course Cohort which follows young employees in Denmark from their entry into the labour market. Job control was assessed with a job exposure matrix and DP with register data on public transfer payments. We adjusted for several potential life course confounders, including physical demands at work and parental socioeconomic position and psychiatric and somatic diagnoses.

Results: Employees in occupations with low job control had a higher risk of DP. There were effects of both cumulated and most recent job control when mutually adjusted. Fully adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.14 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.11-1.17] and 1.15 (95% CI 1.02-1.29) for cumulated and most recent job control, respectively. Without mutual adjustment, estimates were 1.15 (95% CI 1.13-1.18) and 1.55 (95% CI 1.39-1.72) for cumulated and most recent low job control, respectively.

Conclusions: Low job control predicts a higher risk of DP, even after adjustment for physical demands at work. The results indicate both gradual and short-term effects of low job control on DP risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckaa107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733044PMC
December 2020

Physical inactivity, non-participation in sports and socioeconomic status: a large population-based study among Norwegian adolescents.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jun 26;20(1):1010. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, NORCE Norwegian Research Centre, Nygårdsgaten 112, 5008, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Physical activity in adolescence is found to promote both immediate and long-term health, as well as school- and work performance. Previous studies suggest that parental socioeconomic status (SES) may influence the level of activity, although the results are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine the overall level of low physical activity/sports participation and the associations with parental SES and adolescent school program in a population-based study of older adolescents.

Methods: The [email protected] study, a large population-based study in Hordaland county, Norway, conducted in 2012, included 10,257 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53% girls). Physical activity was examined by self-reported overall activity, and participation in organized team- and individual sports. Predictor variables were parental SES measured by youth self-reports of family economic well-being, parental education and work affiliation and self-reported current high school program (vocational versus general studies). Age, ethnicity, and family structure were included as covariates.

Results: Girls who reported lower parental education had small, but significant higher risk for physical inactivity and non-participation in individual sports compared with their counterparts who reported higher family education (RRs ranging from 1.04 to 1.12, p < 0.01). There were some, but inconsistent, evidence of an increased risk for physical inactivity and non-participation in sports among those (and particularly boys) with lower family economic well-being. Parental work status was largely unrelated with physical inactivity/non-participation in sports. Adolescents in vocational studies had a small but significantly increased risk of physical inactivity and non-participation in sports compared with individuals in general studies (RRs ranging from 1.03 to 1.05, all p < 0.05).

Conclusions: We found some evidence of a social gradient for lower physical inactivity and non-participation in sports for adolescents. Although effect sizes were small, vocational studies was the most robust correlate for physical inactivity/non-participation in sports among the SES-variables, while the corresponding associations with parental education and family economic well-being differed by gender.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09141-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318733PMC
June 2020

Physical exercise and chronic pain in university students.

PLoS One 2020 26;15(6):e0235419. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Physical inactivity and chronic pain are both major public health concerns worldwide. Although the health benefits of regular physical exercise are well-documented, few large epidemiological studies have investigated the association between specific domains of physical exercise and chronic pain in young adults. We sought to investigate the association between frequency, intensity and duration of physical exercise, and chronic pain.

Methods: Data stem from the SHoT2018-study, a national health survey for higher education in Norway, in which 36,625 fulltime students aged 18-35 years completed all relevant questionnaires. Chronic pain, defined according to the International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11), was assessed with a newly developed hierarchical digital instrument for reporting both distribution and characteristics of pain in predefined body regions. Physical exercise was assessed using three sets of questions, measuring the number of times exercising each week, and the average intensity and the number of hours each time.

Results: The majority (54%) of the students reported chronic pain in at least one location, and the prevalence was especially high among women. The overall pattern was an inverse dose-response association between exercise and chronic pain: the more frequent, harder or longer the physical exercise, the lower the risk of chronic pain. Similar findings were generally also observed for the number of pain locations: frequent exercise was associated with fewer pain locations. Adjusting for demographical, lifestyle factors and depression had little effect on the magnitude of the associations.

Conclusion: Given the many health benefits of regular exercise, there is much to be gained in facilitating college and university students to be more physically active, ideally, thru a joint responsibility between political and educational institutions. Due to the cross-sectional nature of the study, one should be careful to draw a firm conclusion about the direction of causality.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235419PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319292PMC
September 2020

Life events and adolescent depressive symptoms: Protective factors associated with resilience.

PLoS One 2020 5;15(6):e0234109. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, NORCE Norwegian Research Centre, Bergen, Norway.

Introduction: Depression is a public health concern among youth, and it is pertinent to identify factors that can help prevent development of depressive symptoms in adolescence. This study aimed to investigate the association between negative life events and depressive symptoms among adolescents, and to examine the influence and relative contributions of personal, social and family protective factors related to resilience.

Methods: Data stem from the cross-sectional [email protected], conducted in Hordaland, Norway. In all, 9,546 adolescents, aged 16-19 years old (52.8% girls) provided self-report information on depressive symptoms, negative life events and protective factors related to resilience.

Results: Experiencing a higher number of negative life events was related to increases in depressive symptoms, while the potential protective factors goal orientation, self-confidence, social competence, social support, and family cohesion individually were associated with fewer symptoms. Although there were small moderating effects of goal orientation and self-confidence, the results mainly supported a compensatory resilience model. When considering the potential protective factors jointly, only self-confidence and family cohesion were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms for both genders, with the addition of social support for girls. There were significant interactions between all the potential protective factors and gender, indicating a greater reduction of depressive symptoms with higher levels of protective factors among girls.

Conclusions: Interventions aimed at fostering self-confidence and family cohesion could be effective in preventing depressive symptoms for adolescent boys and girls, regardless of their exposure to negative events. Results further indicate that preventive interventions targeting these potential protective factors could be especially beneficial for adolescent girls.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234109PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274383PMC
August 2020

Sleep patterns and insomnia in a large population-based study of middle-aged and older adults: The Tromsø study 2015-2016.

J Sleep Res 2021 02 29;30(1):e13095. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Epidemiological studies assessing adult sleep duration have yielded inconsistent findings and there are still large variations in estimation of insomnia prevalence according to the most recent diagnostic criteria. Our objective was to describe sleep patterns in a large population of middle-aged and older adults, by employing accurate measures of both sleep duration and insomnia. Data stem from the Tromsø Study (2015-2016), an ongoing population-based study in northern Norway comprising citizens aged 40 years and older (n = 21,083, attendance = 64.7%). Sleep parameters were reported separately for weekdays and weekends and included bedtime, rise time, sleep latency and total sleep time. Insomnia was defined according to recent diagnostic criteria (International Classification of Sleep Disorders; ICSD-3). The results show that 20% (95% confidence interval,19.4-20.6) fulfilled the inclusion criteria for insomnia. The prevalence was especially high among women (25%), for whom the prevalence also increased with age. For men, the prevalence was around 15% across all age groups. In all, 42% of the women reported sleeping <7 hr (mean sleep duration of 7:07 hr), whereas the corresponding proportion among males was 52% (mean sleep duration of 6:55 hr). We conclude that the proportion of middle-aged and older adults not getting the recommended amount of sleep is worryingly high, as is also the observed prevalence of insomnia. This warrants attention as a public health problem in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13095DOI Listing
February 2021

Sleep patterns and insomnia among internationally adopted adolescents.

Sleep Health 2020 10 29;6(5):594-600. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, NORCE Norwegian Research Centre, Bergen, Norway; Department of Psychosocial Science, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Objective: Sleep is essential for adolescent development. We aimed to investigate sleep patterns and insomnia among internationally adopted adolescents compared with their nonadopted peers.

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: Data stem from the population-based [email protected], conducted during winter/spring 2012, in Hordaland, Norway.

Participants: Of the 9846 adolescents who responded to the sleep measures in the [email protected], 44 were identified as international adoptees by linkage to the Central Adoption Registry.

Measures: The adolescents provided self-report information on demographic characteristics, mental health problems, and a range of sleep measures.

Results: There were no significant differences between the adoptees and nonadopted peers regarding how much time they spent in bed, but the internationally adopted adolescents reported significantly shorter sleep duration, both on weekdays (d=0.37, P = .014) and weekends (d=0.37, P = .015). The difference was due to the adoptees spending longer time awake after sleep onset (d=0.78, P > .001). Furthermore, 32% of the adopted adolescents fulfilled the DMS-5 criteria for insomnia, compared with 18% of their nonadopted peers (odds ratio 2.06, 95% CI: 1.09-3.90). However, this association was no longer significant after adjusting for symptoms of depression. Adolescents adopted after 12 months of age reported more sleep problems than those who were adopted earlier.

Conclusion: The short sleep duration and high occurrence of insomnia among the internationally adopted adolescents suggest both a problem area that should receive more focus and a potential avenue for intervention. The results further suggest that assessing both mental health problems and sleep problems among internationally adopted adolescents who are experiencing difficulties could help target interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2020.02.011DOI Listing
October 2020

Long-term effect of cognitive-behavioural therapy in patients with Hypochondriacal Disorder.

BJPsych Open 2020 Apr 29;6(3):e42. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Norway.

Background: Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for Hypochondriacal Disorder, but the long-term effect has not been examined extensively.

Aims: To investigate the long-term effect of CBT on Hypochondriacal Disorder using several mental health measures. Follow-up time was at least 10 years.

Method: A total of 50 patients with a long history of Hypochondriacal Disorder, diagnosed according to ICD-10, received 16 sessions of individual CBT and were followed up with an uncontrolled design. All participants were assessed before and after the intervention period, and 10 years later. Intention-to-treat mixed-model repeated-measures analysis were conducted. The study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00959452.

Results: Patients displayed significant improvements across all outcomes, including level of health anxiety, somatisation, symptoms of anxiety and depression, quality of life, somatisation at treatment completion. Treatment gains were well maintained 10 years later.

Conclusions: This uncontrolled treatment study suggests that patients treated with CBT for Hypochondriacal Disorder have significantly reduced health anxiety 1 year after treatment completion and the results are maintained 10 years later. The results indicate that CBT has a lasting effect, but the lack of a control group and use of only one therapist, means that care should be taken when generalising the findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189575PMC
April 2020

Long-term effect of cognitive-behavioural therapy in patients with Hypochondriacal Disorder.

BJPsych Open 2020 Apr 29;6(3):e42. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Norway.

Background: Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for Hypochondriacal Disorder, but the long-term effect has not been examined extensively.

Aims: To investigate the long-term effect of CBT on Hypochondriacal Disorder using several mental health measures. Follow-up time was at least 10 years.

Method: A total of 50 patients with a long history of Hypochondriacal Disorder, diagnosed according to ICD-10, received 16 sessions of individual CBT and were followed up with an uncontrolled design. All participants were assessed before and after the intervention period, and 10 years later. Intention-to-treat mixed-model repeated-measures analysis were conducted. The study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00959452.

Results: Patients displayed significant improvements across all outcomes, including level of health anxiety, somatisation, symptoms of anxiety and depression, quality of life, somatisation at treatment completion. Treatment gains were well maintained 10 years later.

Conclusions: This uncontrolled treatment study suggests that patients treated with CBT for Hypochondriacal Disorder have significantly reduced health anxiety 1 year after treatment completion and the results are maintained 10 years later. The results indicate that CBT has a lasting effect, but the lack of a control group and use of only one therapist, means that care should be taken when generalising the findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189575PMC
April 2020