Publications by authors named "Azwan Mat Lazim"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Sago starch nanocrystal-stabilized Pickering emulsions: Stability and rheological behavior.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Electronic address:

This study presents the isolation of SNC from sago starch and its performance as proficient particle emulsifier. It highlights the impact of SNC on the stability and rheological properties of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The percentage yield of the SNC obtained was equivalent to 25 ± 0.1% (w/w) with particle diameters ranging from 25 to 100 nm. A series of Pickering emulsion at different ratios of oil (5%-35% v/v) and SNC (1%-4% w/v) was prepared for further investigations. The mean droplet diameter of emulsions obtained was ranged from 19.12 to 35.96 μm, confirming the effects of both SNC and oil content on the droplet's diameter distribution. Formulations with 4.0 wt% of SNC exhibited the maximum stability against coalescence. Results obtained have justified that the SNC can be used as an alternative solid emulsifier in producing stable emulsion with desired properties for various applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.03.132DOI Listing
March 2021

Improving the efficiency of post-digestion method in extracting microplastics from gastrointestinal tract and gills of fish.

Chemosphere 2020 Dec 11;260:127649. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Post-digestion treatment is an important step during sample preparation to facilitate the removal of undigested materials for better detection of ingested microplastics. Sieving, density separation with zinc chloride solution (ZnCl), and oil extraction protocol (OEP) have been introduced in separating microplastics from sediments. The clean-up methods are rarely highlighted in previous studies, especially in the separation of microplastics from marine biota. Thus, this study proposed and compared the suitability of three techniques, which can reduce the number of undigested particles from the digestate of GIT and gills. Our result has shown excellent removal of non-plastics materials and reduces the coloration of filter paper in all treated samples. Both sieving and density separation achieved optimum post-digestion efficiencies of >95% for both GIT and gill samples, which former showed no effect on polymer integrity. Additionally, high recovery rate was obtained for the larger size microplastics (>500 μm) with approximately 97.7% (GIT) and 95.7% (gill), respectively. Exposure to the ZnCl solution led to a significant loss of smaller size PET and changed the absorption spectrums of all tested polymers. Particle morphology determined by SEM revealed such exposure eroded the surface of PET fragments and elemental analysis has shown detectable peaks of zinc and chlorine appeared. Low microplastics recoveries were achieved through OPE and residue of oil was observed from the infrared spectrum of all tested polymer. The findings demonstrate sieving with size fractioning can provide exceptional removal of non-plastics materials from the digestate of GIT and gill samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127649DOI Listing
December 2020

Formation of Antihyperlipidemic Nano-Ezetimibe from Volatile Microemulsion Template for Enhanced Dissolution Profile.

Langmuir 2020 07 2;36(27):7908-7915. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Faculty of Bioenginering and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli, Kelantan 17600, Malaysia.

Nanostructures play an important role in targeting sparingly water-soluble drugs to specific sites. Because of the structural flexibility and stability, the use of template microemulsions (μEs) can produce functional nanopharmaceuticals of different sizes, shapes, and chemical properties. In this article, we report a new volatile oil-in-water (o/w) μE formulation comprising ethyl acetate/ethanol/brij-35/water to obtain the highly water-dispersible nanoparticles of an antihyperlipidemic agent, ezetimibe (EZM-NPs), to enhance its dissolution profile. A pseudoternary phase diagram was delineated in a specified brij-35/ethanol ratio (1:1) to describe the transparent, optically isotropic domain of the as-formulated μE. The water-dilutable μE formulation, comprising an optimum composition of ethyl acetate (18.0%), ethanol (25.0%), brij-35 (25.0%), and water (32.0%), showed a good dissolvability of EZM around 4.8 wt % at pH 5.2. Electron micrographs showed a fine monomodal collection of EZM-loaded μE droplets (∼45 nm) that did not coalesce even after lyophilization, forming small spherical EZM-NPs (∼60 nm). However, the maturity of nanodrug droplets observed through dynamic light scattering suggests the affinity of EZM to the nonpolar microenvironment, which was further supported through peak-to-peak correlation of infrared analysis and fluorescence measurements. Moreover, the release profile of the as-obtained EZM-nanopowder increased significantly >98% in 30 min, which indicates that a reduced drug concentration will be needed for capsules or tablets in the future and can be simply incorporated into the multidosage formulation of EZM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c01016DOI Listing
July 2020

Comprehensive spectroscopic studies of synergism between Gadong starch based carbon dots and bovine serum albumin.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2019 Jul 29;218:85-96. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Carbon dots (C-dots) were used to study the binding mechanisms with serum protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) by using two notable binding systems known as non-covalent and covalent interaction. Interaction between C-dots and BSA were estimated by Stern-Volmer equation and Double Log Regression Model (DLRM). According to the fluorescent intensity, quenching of model carrier protein by C-dots was due to dynamic quenching for non-covalent and static quenching for covalent binding. The binding site constant, K and number of binding site, for covalent interaction is 1754.7L/mol and n≈1 (0.6922) were determined by DLRM on fluorescence quenching results. The blue shift of the fluorescence spectrum, from 450nm to 421nm (non-covalent) and 430nm (covalent) and suggested that both the microenvironment of C-dots and protein changed in relation to the protein concentration. The fluorescence intensity results show that protein structure has a significant role in Protein-C-dots interactions and type of binding influence physicochemical properties of C-dots differently. Understanding to this bio interface is important to utilize both quantum dots and biomolecules for biomedical field. It can be a useful guideline to design further applications in biomedical and bioimaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2019.03.108DOI Listing
July 2019

Cytotoxicity and Toxicity Evaluation of Xanthone Crude Extract on Hypoxic Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Zebrafish () Embryos.

Toxics 2018 Oct 9;6(4). Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Strandboulevarden 49, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Xanthone is an organic compound mostly found in mangosteen pericarp and widely known for its anti-proliferating effect on cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of xanthone crude extract (XCE) and α-mangostin (α-MG) on normoxic and hypoxic human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and their toxicity towards zebrafish embryos. XCE was isolated using a mixture of acetone and water (80:20) and verified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both XCE and α-MG showed higher anti-proliferation effects on normoxic HepG2 cells compared to the control drug, 5-fluorouracil (IC = 50.23 ± 1.38, 8.39 ± 0.14, and 143.75 ± 15.31 μg/mL, respectively). In hypoxic conditions, HepG2 cells were two times less sensitive towards XCE compared to normoxic HepG2 cells (IC = 109.38 ± 1.80 μg/mL) and three times less sensitive when treated with >500 μg/mL 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). A similar trend was seen with the α-MG treatment on hypoxic HepG2 cells (IC = 10.11 ± 0.05 μg/mL) compared to normoxic HepG2 cells. However, at a concentration of 12.5 μg/mL, the α-MG treatment caused tail-bend deformities in surviving zebrafish embryos, while no malformation was observed when embryos were exposed to XCE and 5-FU treatments. Our study suggests that both XCE and α-MG are capable of inhibiting HepG2 cell proliferation during normoxic and hypoxic conditions, more effectively than 5-FU. However, XCE is the preferred option as no malformation was observed in surviving zebrafish embryos and it is more cost efficient than α-MG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxics6040060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316214PMC
October 2018

Fourth-Generation Antibiotic Gatifloxacin Encapsulated by Microemulsions: Structural and Probing Dynamics.

Langmuir 2018 09 28;34(36):10603-10612. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology , University Kebangsaan Malaysia , Bangi 43600 , Selangor , Malaysia.

To overcome the increased disease rate, utilization of the versatile broad spectrum antibiotic drugs in controlled drug-delivery systems has been a challenging and complex consignment. However, with the development of microemulsion (μE)-based formulations, drugs can be effectively encapsulated and transferred to the target source. Herein, two biocompatible oil-in-water (o/w) μE formulations comprising clove oil/Tween 20/ethylene glycol/water (formulation A) and clove oil/Tween 20/1-butanol/water (formulation B) were developed for encapsulating the gatifloxacin (GTF), a fourth-generation antibiotic. The pseudoternary phase diagrams were mapped at a constant surfactant/co-surfactant (1:1) ratio to bound the existence of a monophasic isotropic region for as-formulated μEs. Multiple complementary characterization techniques, namely, conductivity (σ), viscosity (η), and optical microscopy analyses, were used to study the gradual changes that occurred in the microstructure of the as-formulated μEs, indicating the presence of a percolation transformation to a bicontinuous permeate flow. GTF showed good solubility, 3.2 wt % at pH 6.2 and 4.0 wt % at pH 6.8, in optimum μE of formulation A and formulation B, respectively. Each loaded μE formulation showed long-term stability over 8 months of storage. Moreover, no observable aggregation of GTF was found, as revealed by scanning transmission electron microscopy and peak-to-peak correlation of IR analysis, indicating the stability of GTF inside the formulation. The average particle size of each μE, measured by dynamic light scattering, increased upon loading GTF, intending the accretion of drug in the interfacial layers of microdomains. Likewise, fluorescence probing sense an interfacial hydrophobic environment to GTF molecules in any of the examined formulations, which may be of significant interest for understanding the kinetics of drug release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b01775DOI Listing
September 2018

Methylene blue removal by using pectin-based hydrogels extracted from dragon fruit peel waste using gamma and microwave radiation polymerization techniques.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2018 10 25;29(14):1745-1763. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

a School of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology , Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia , Bangi , Malaysia.

This research aims to compare the ability of smart hydrogel in removing the methylene blue prepared by using two different radiation methods. The extracted pectin from the dragon fruit peel (Hylocereus polyrhizus) was used with acrylic acid (AA) to produce a polymerized hydrogel through gamma and microwave radiation. The optimum hydrogel swelling capacity was obtained by varying the dose of radiation, pectin to AA ratio and pH used. From the array of samples, the ideal hydrogel was obtained at pH 8 with a ratio of 2:3 (pectin: AA) using 10 kGy and 400 W radiated gamma and microwave respectively. The performance of both hydrogels namely as Pc/AA(G) (gamma) and Pc/AA(Mw) (microwave) were investigated using methylene blue (MB) adsorption studies. In this study, three variables were manipulated, pH and MB concentration and hydrogel mass in order to find the optimum condition for the adsorption. Results showed that 20 mg of Pc/AA(G) performed the highest MB removal which was about 45% of 20 mg/L MB at pH 8. While 30 mg of Pc/AA(Mw) able to remove up to 35% of 20 mg/L MB at the same pH condition. To describe the adsorption mechanism, both kinetic models pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order were employed. The results from kinetic data showed that it fitted the pseudo-first-order as compared to pseudo-second-order model equation. This study provides alternative of green, facile and affective biomaterial for dye absorbents that readily available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2018.1489023DOI Listing
October 2018

Synthesis and Swelling Behavior of pH-Sensitive Semi-IPN Superabsorbent Hydrogels Based on Poly(acrylic acid) Reinforced with Cellulose Nanocrystals.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2017 Nov 20;7(11). Epub 2017 Nov 20.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur 50300, Malaysia.

pH-sensitive poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) was prepared. Acrylic acid (AA) was subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent MBA (,-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in the PAA matrix. The quantity of CNC was varied between 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt %. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data showed an increase in crystallinity with the addition of CNC, while rheology tests demonstrated a significant increase in the storage modulus of the hydrogel with an increase in CNC content. It was found that the hydrogel reached maximum swelling at pH 7. The potential of the resulting hydrogels to act as drug carriers was then evaluated by means of the drug encapsulation efficiency test using theophylline as a model drug. It was observed that 15% CNC/PAA hydrogel showed the potential to be used as drug carrier system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano7110399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5707616PMC
November 2017

Modified Dioscorea hispida starch-based hydrogels and their in-vitro cytotoxicity study on small intestine cell line (FHS-74 Int).

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Feb 19;107(Pt B):2412-2421. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Starch-based hydrogels are promising smart materials for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, which offer exciting perspectives in biophysical research at molecular level. This work was intended to develop, characterize and explore the properties of hydrogel from starch extracted from new source, Dioscorea hispida Dennst. Starch-mediated hydrogels were successfully synthesized via free radical polymerization method with varying concentrations of acrylic acid (AA),N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in aqueous system. The grafting reaction between starch and AA was examined by observing the decline in intensity peak of hydrogel FTIR spectrum at 3291cm and peak around 1600-1680cm, indicating the stretching of hydroxyl group (OH) and stretching of carbon-carbon double bond (CC) respectively. The effects of cross-linker, monomer and NaOH concentration on swelling ratio and gel content in different medium and conditions were also evaluated. The thermal stability and structural morphology of as-synthesized hydrogels were studied by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In-vitro cytotoxicity study using small intestine cell line (FHS-74 Int) revealed that the as-formulated eco-friendly-hydrogel was free from any harmful material and safe to use for future product development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.10.125DOI Listing
February 2018

Varieties, production, composition and health benefits of vinegars: A review.

Food Chem 2017 Apr 31;221:1621-1630. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Vinegars are liquid products produced from the alcoholic and subsequent acetous fermentation of carbohydrate sources. They have been used as remedies in many cultures and have been reported to provide beneficial health effects when consumed regularly. Such benefits are due to various types of polyphenols, micronutrients and other bioactive compounds found in vinegars that contribute to their pharmacological effects, among them, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidative, antiobesity and antihypertensive effects. There are many types of vinegars worldwide, including black vinegar, rice vinegar, balsamic vinegar and white wine vinegar. All these vinegars are produced using different raw materials, yeast strains and fermentation procedures, thus giving them their own unique tastes and flavours. The main volatile compound in vinegar is acetic acid, which gives vinegar its strong, sour aroma and flavour. Other volatile compounds present in vinegars are mainly alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes and ketones. The diversity of vinegars allows extensive applications in food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.10.128DOI Listing
April 2017

Physicochemical Properties of Starch from Dioscorea pyrifolia tubers.

Food Chem 2017 Apr 30;220:225-232. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

Starch from Dioscorea pyrifolia tubers was characterized for its proximate composition, physicochemical properties and toxicity. This starch contains 44.47±1.86% amylose, 4.84±0.29% moisture, 0.88±0.21% ash, 1.34±0.11% proteins and 92.73±0.48% carbohydrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed a type-C starch with a relative crystallinity of 23.31±2.41%. The starch granules are polyhedral, with a diameter of 2.8 to 5.6μm and average size of 3.93±1.47μm. Initial, peak and finishing gelatinization temperatures for the starch were 71.51±0.07, 75.05±0.15, and 78.25±0.18°C, respectively; the gelatinization enthalpy was 3.86±0.02J/g, and the peak height index was 1.09±0.05. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a weight loss of 85.81±0.52% and a decomposition temperature of 320.16±0.35°C, which indicated that there was good thermal stability of the starch. Fish embryo toxicity (FET) showed that the starch was not toxic and that it was suitable for food and non-food industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.09.196DOI Listing
April 2017

Characterization and biocompatibility evaluation of bacterial cellulose-based wound dressing hydrogel: effect of electron beam irradiation doses and concentration of acrylic acid.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2017 Nov 30;105(8):2553-2564. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

Centre for Drug Delivery Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The use of bacterial cellulose (BC)-based hydrogel has been gaining attention owing to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. This study was designed to investigate the effect of radiation doses and acrylic acid (AA) composition on in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of BC/AA as wound dressing materials. Physical properties of the hydrogel, that is, thickness, adhesiveness, rate of water vapor transmission, and swelling were measured. Moreover, the effect of these parameters on skin irritation and sensitization, blood compatibility, and cytotoxicity was studied. Increased AA content and irradiation doses increased the thickness, crosslinking density, and improved the mechanical properties of the hydrogel, but reduced its adhesiveness. The swelling capacity of the hydrogel increased significantly with a decrease in the AA composition in simulated wound fluid. The water vapor permeability of polymeric hydrogels was in the range of 2035-2666 [g/(m day )]. Dermal irritation and sensitization test demonstrated that the hydrogel was nonirritant and nonallergic. The BC/AA hydrogel was found to be nontoxic to primary human dermal fibroblast skin cells with viability >88% and was found to be biocompatible with blood with a low hemolytic index (0.80-1.30%). Collectively, these results indicate that these hydrogels have the potential to be used as wound dressings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2553-2564, 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.33776DOI Listing
November 2017

Transformation of crystalline starch nanoparticles into highly luminescent carbon nanodots: Toxicity studies and their applications.

Carbohydr Polym 2016 Feb 10;137:488-496. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600 Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Being abundant in many tropical part of the world, Dioscorea sp. as food is limited due to its toxicity. However polysaccharides derive from these tubers could be important for other applications. Here we developed a Highly Luminescent Carbon Nanodots (C-dots) via acid hydrolysis of Gadong starch (GS). The hydrolysis rate of GS increased from 49% to 86% within 7 days while the X-ray diffraction showed the native GS particle is a C-crystalline type. The GS particles were either round or oval with diameters ranging from 50-90 nm. Further acid dehydration and surface oxidation reduced the size of GS nanoparticles to 6-25 nm. The C-dots produced a fluorescent emission at wavelength 441 nm. Toxicity tests demonstrate that zebrafish embryo were able to tolerate the C-dots for 48 h after exposure. This study has successfully demonstrated a novel approach of converting GS into excellent fluorescent C-dot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.11.021DOI Listing
February 2016

Synthesis of a novel acrylated abietic acid-g-bacterial cellulose hydrogel by gamma irradiation.

Carbohydr Polym 2014 Sep 25;110:505-12. Epub 2014 Apr 25.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Wolverhampton, Wulfruna Street, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, UK.

Acrylated abietic acid (acrylated AbA) and acrylated abietic acid-grafted bacterial cellulose pH sensitive hydrogel (acrylated AbA-g-BC) were prepared by a one-pot synthesis. The successful dimerization of acrylic acid (AA) and abietic acid (AbA) and grafting of the dimer onto bacterial cellulose (BC) was confirmed by 13C solid state NMR as well as FT-IR. X-ray diffraction analysis showed characteristic peaks for AbA and BC; further, there was no effect of increasing amorphous AA content on the overall crystallinity of the hydrogel. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed a glass transition temperature of 80°C. Gel fraction and swelling studies gave insight into the features of the hydrogel, suggesting that it was suitable for future applications such as drug delivery. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed an interesting interpenetrating network within the walls of hydrogel samples with the lowest levels of AA and gamma radiation doses. Cell viability test revealed that the synthesized hydrogel is safe for future use in biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.04.052DOI Listing
September 2014

A study on dispersion and characterisation of α-mangostin loaded pH sensitive microgel systems.

Chem Cent J 2013 16;7:85. Epub 2013 May 16.

School of Chemical Sciences & Food Technology, Faculty Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 43600, Malaysia.

Background: α-Mangostin was extracted with methanol from the rind of mangosteen fruit and purified by using silica gel column chromatography technique. The compound is characterised using infrared, (13)C and (1)H NMR as well as UV-vis spectroscopy. The α-mangostin dispersion in colloidal systems was studied by incorporating it with an ionic microgel, poly (N-Isopropylacrylamide)-co-2VP at different pH.

Result: The DLS result showed the size of microgel-α-mangostin mixture declined from 548 nm to 200 nm upon the increment of the pH. Moreover, it was found the morphology of loaded compound depended largely on the nature of the continuous phase of the microgel system. Interestingly, by manipulating the pH, α-mangostin tends to form crystal at extremely low pH and transforms into spherical shapes at pH 6.

Conclusion: This research shows different structures of the α-mangostin particle that are attributed by adjusting the pH using microgel systems as a template.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-153X-7-85DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662622PMC
May 2014

Controlling gold nanoparticle stability with triggerable microgels.

Langmuir 2010 Jul;26(14):11779-83

School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS, UK.

The interaction of a photodegradable surfactant (PS, 4-hexylphenylazosulfonate, C(6)PAS) with microgels (MGs) of poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (MGA) in the protonated state (pH 3) has been investigated. Electrophoretic mobility measurements confirm that negatively charged PS interacts with positively charged MGA to form mixed PS-MG complexes. This was sensed by a decrease in the effective PS-MGA charge and a switch in sign of electrophoretic mobility, from positive to negative, with increasing PS concentration. After the addition of extra positive microgels (MGB), the system undergoes coflocculation. Incident UV irradiation was used to photolyze the anionic PS, effectively eliminating the headgroups, thereby lowering the electrostatic interactions between PS and MGA microgel networks. Consequently, a reversal of MGA charge occurred, leading to electrostatic repulsions and causing the MGs to reswell and redisperse, with both MGA and MGB now being positively charged and hence stabilized against coflocculation. Extending this approach, negatively charged gold nanoparticles (AuMES) have been incorporated into the PS-MGA complexes. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) showed that 100% of the AuMES particles were recovered after coflocculation of (PS-MGA)-AuMES complexes with MGB. Furthermore, approximately 75% of the AuMES could be redispersed after UV irradiation to restabilize the dispersion. This system provides an interesting method for phase separation and gold nanoparticle recovery for reuse and recycling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la1018955DOI Listing
July 2010