Publications by authors named "Azriani Ab Rahman"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Tobacco Denormalization Indicator in the Prevalence of Positive Smoker Identity and Its Associated Factors.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 03 31;17(7). Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Fa and ly Medicine, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150 Kelantan, Malaysia.

Positive smoker identity (PSI) is a construct that evaluates the degree of smokers' positive thoughts, images and feeling about smoking behavior and culture. PSI encompasses the indicators related to tobacco denormalization strategy, which is one of the four WHO tobacco endgame strategies. PSmoQi is a newly validated instrument which could reliably assess PSI. This study's objectives were to determine the prevalence of positive smoker identity and its associated factors using PSmoQi. A sample of 253 smokers from government agencies in Kota Bharu City, Malaysia were recruited using invitation letters sent to their head of agencies. Data collection was done in a briefing session voluntary attended by the smokers. Factors associated with PSI were analyzed using Multiple Logistic Regression. The prevalence of smokers with positive smoker identity was 72.3%. Factors associated with positive smoker identity were older age (Adjusted Odds ratio; AOR: 1.042; 95% confident interval; CI: 1.004, 1.081); = 0.028), higher smoking self-concept scale Malay version (SSCS-M) score (AOR: 1.216; 95% CI: 1.112, 1.329; < 0.001), higher heaviness index (AOR: 1.002; 95% CI: 1.001, 1.004; = 0.011) and lower educational attainment (AOR: 0.458; 95% CI: 0.233, 0.900; = 0.024). This study shows a high prevalence of PSI among smokers from government agencies in Kota Bharu City. Factors such as age, SSCS-M score, heaviness index and educational attainment influenced the level of positive smoker identity in a smoker. The finding would contribute an evidentiary guideline in screening smokers for smoking cessation clinic enrollment to achieve the best interventional outcome, as well as it would provide an objective indicator for tobacco denormalization status in a population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178188PMC
March 2020

A Reliability Study of the Malay Version of the Malaysian Ministry of Health's Adolescent Client Satisfaction Questionnaire among Adolescents Attending Health Clinics in Northeastern Malaysia.

Korean J Fam Med 2020 Nov 25;41(6):412-415. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Adolescent Health Sector, Family Health Development Division, Ministry of Health, Parcel E, Federal Government Administration Centre, Putrajaya, Malaysia.

Background: The need for client feedback in assessing healthcare services is widely recognized. However, little is known about the satisfaction of adolescent clients utilizing healthcare services in Malaysia. To the best of our knowledge, there is no validated instrument to measure the satisfaction of adolescent clients attending health clinics in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the reliability of the Malay version of the Malaysian Ministry of Health's Adolescent Client Satisfaction Questionnaire among adolescents attending health clinics in northeastern Malaysia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in January 2019 among adolescents aged 10-19 years attending four designated health clinics in the northeastern state of Peninsular Malaysia. The test for Cronbach's α was performed to determine the internal consistency reliability.

Results: There were a total of 85 adolescent clients involved in this study. The mean age of respondents was 15.6 years. The majority of respondents were female, Malay, students, and had attained a secondary level of education. The mean total satisfaction score was 78.35. The internal consistency reliability according to the Cronbach's α of the domain was 0.854, which is considered highly reliable. The corrected item-total correlation for the domain was acceptable as it was ≥0.4.

Conclusion: The Malay version of the Malaysian Ministry of Health's Adolescent Client Satisfaction Questionnaire has excellent internal consistency reliability. Therefore, it may be recommended as a tool to measure the satisfaction level among adolescents attending health clinics in Malaysia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4082/kjfm.19.0030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7700828PMC
November 2020

Making Health Services Adolescent-Friendly in Northeastern Peninsular Malaysia: A Mixed-Methods Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 02 19;17(4). Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Adolescent Health Sector, Family Health Development Division, Ministry of Health, Parcel E, Federal Government Administration Centre, Putrajaya 62590, Malaysia.

A mixed-methods study was conducted in a Malaysian state beginning with a cross-sectional quantitative study to determine the relationship between clinic characteristics and clinic score of adolescent-friendliness. Subsequently, perceptions of healthcare providers on the facilitating factors for the provision of adolescent-friendly health services were explored qualitatively to support the quantitative findings. Availability of trained healthcare providers, adequate privacy, dedicated adolescent health services team, and adolescent health promotional activities were the clinic characteristics that significantly ( < 0.05) related with clinics' scores of adolescent-friendliness. The facilitating factors required for adolescent-friendly health services were (1) healthcare providers' commitment and prioritization towards adolescent-friendly health services; (2) organizational supports; (3) appropriate clinic settings; and (4) external supports for adolescent health promotional activities. The qualitative findings reaffirmed those of the quantitative study on the significant clinic characteristics required for adolescent-friendly health services. This study provides valuable insight for the Ministry of Health to elicit the required facilitating factors to further improve the quality of adolescent health services in Malaysia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068545PMC
February 2020

Predictors of Caregivers' Satisfaction with the Management of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Study at Multiple Levels of Health Care.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 05 14;16(10). Epub 2019 May 14.

Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: Caregivers are the initial gatekeepers in the health care management of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Methods: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the factors associated with caregivers' satisfaction with different levels of health care services in managing children with ASD in Kelantan. The satisfaction scores of 227 main caregivers of confirmed ASD children were assessed with a modified Parent Satisfaction Scale (PSS) questionnaire.

Results: The analysis showed that caregivers who waited longer for a doctor's consultation in primary care had a reduced PSS score, whereas caregivers who were satisfied with the waiting time in primary care had higher PSS scores. At the secondary care level, caregivers who possessed at least a diploma had reduced PSS scores, whereas caregivers who were satisfied with both doctors' consultation times and occupational therapy appointments had higher PSS scores. At the tertiary care level, caregivers with an underlying medical problem and who had children undergoing occupational therapy for two months or more had reduced PSS scores. Nevertheless, the analysis showed that caregivers who were concerned with their children's sleeping problems, who had been informed about parental support, who were satisfied with speech and occupational therapy appointments, who were satisfied with waiting times at tertiary care clinics, and who were satisfied with their doctor's knowledge and experience had higher PSS scores.

Conclusions: This study elucidated the importance of understanding caregivers' satisfaction in attaining care for their ASD children and highlighted the need to promote factors that would increase caregivers' satisfaction with current ASD services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6572543PMC
May 2019

Perceived Stress among Caregivers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A State-Wide Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 04 25;16(8). Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience increased stress and more significant negative caregiving consequences than those with typically developing children. There is a lack of studies specifically focusing on stress among caregivers with ASD children in Asian countries. The current study examines levels of perceived stress and factors associated with it among caregivers in Kelantan, Malaysia.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the Malay version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered to 227 caregivers of children with ASD. The caregivers were recruited from ASD databases in four tertiary hospitals in Kelantan and a meeting was set up during the child's follow-up in the clinic. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to determine the predictors of perceived stress.

Results: The mean total perceived stress score was 20.84 (4.72). This was considered higher than average. Higher perceived stress was significantly predicted among caregivers who live far from the health institution, caregivers who do not own transportation to bring the child to the treatment center, and caregivers who have an ASD child with a learning disability.

Conclusion: Caregivers of an ASD child perceived significant stress while taking care of their children. Institutions should alleviate the factors that were predicted to increase the caregivers' perceived stress to improve the quality of the lives of children and ASD families as a whole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6517964PMC
April 2019

Development and Validation of Positive Smoker Identity Questionnaire (PSmoQi): A New Instrument for Smoking Cessation Correlates.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 01 26;16(3). Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Department of Family Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150 Kelantan, Malaysia.

The positive smoker identity construct, which was based on West's PRIME Theory, affected the smoking prevalence, quit attempts and cessation success. A validated questionnaire which could measure this rich and complex construct may facilitate prediction models of successful cessation. We aimed to develop and validate a questionnaire that assesses positive smoker identity based on West's PRIME Theory. The initial item pool was developed based on a theoretical framework, empirical literature, existing scales and expert review. The questionnaire was conveniently distributed to 100 smokers. Exploratory factor analysis was utilized to explore domains in the questionnaire. Construct and criterion validity, internal consistency and reliability of the domains were analyzed. The final positive smoker identity questionnaire (PSmoQi) has 26 items under four internally-consistent and reliable domains: Contributory factors, contextual and temporal patterning, identity related to smoking, and behaviour in relation to smoking. The full scale demonstrated good internal consistency (∝ = 0.78), acceptable convergent and divergent validity, and good concurrent validity with the smoker self-concept scale. The current study provides fundamental evidence for the PSmoQi as a valid instrument in research related to smoking cessation and interventional strategy. The PSmoQi contained validated domains which could measure almost a full spectrum of smoking cessation components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388284PMC
January 2019

Translation and Validation of the Malay Version of the Parents' Satisfaction Scale (PSS-M) for Assessment of Caregivers' Satisfaction with Health Care Services for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 11 4;15(11). Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kota Bharu, 16150 Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: A Malay version of Parent Satisfaction Scale (PSS-M) is needed to investigate the factors contributing to the Malay caregivers' satisfaction with health care management for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of the study is to translate and validate the questionnaire to assess the caregivers' satisfaction on health care services.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 caregivers of children with ASD aged between 2 and 17 years old that received treatment at two tertiary care centres in Kelantan. Permission to use the original version of the PSS questionnaire was obtained. The original English version of the PSS was translated into a Malay version following the 10 steps proposed by an established guideline. Pre-testing of the PSS was carried out with 30 caregivers before confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was established using 110 caregivers. They were asked to assess their understanding of the questionnaire. The one-dimensional questionnaire consists of 11 items, including staff attitudes, availability of staff, supportiveness, and helpfulness. The 5-point Likert scale provided ratings from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed using a robust maximum likelihood estimator.

Results: The analysis showed model fit data with good reliability.

Conclusion: The PSS-M shows overall model fitness based on specific indices, with good construct validity and excellent absolute reliability to determine the satisfaction level of caregivers of children with ASD with respect to health care services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6265777PMC
November 2018

Perceived Stress and Coping Styles among Malay Caregivers of Children with Learning Disabilities in Kelantan.

Malays J Med Sci 2017 Mar 24;24(1):81-93. Epub 2017 Feb 24.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Caregivers of children with learning disabilities have been shown to experience increased stress and greater negative caregiving consequences than those with typically developing children. There remains a lack of studies focusing on stress and coping mechanisms among caregivers of a wider age group and diagnosis of individuals with disabilities in Asian countries. The current study examines levels of perceived stress and associated child and caregiver factors among caregivers of children with learning disabilities in the Malaysian context. An additional aim was to determine whether caregiver coping styles may be predictors of perceived stress.

Methods: The Malay version of the Perceived Stress Scale with 10 items and the Brief COPE Scale were administered to a sample of 190 Malay caregivers of children with learning disabilities registered with community-based rehabilitation centres in Kelantan, a state in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine the predictors of perceived stress.

Results: The mean total perceived stress score of caregivers was 16.96 (SD = 4.66). The most frequently used coping styles found among caregivers included religion, acceptance and positive reframing, while substance use and behavioural disengagement were least frequently used. Higher perceived stress was significantly predicted among caregivers with fewer children, frequent use of instrumental support and behavioural disengagement coping, and lack of emotional support and religious coping.

Conclusion: Findings indicate that the perceived stress levels among caregivers were significantly predicted by different coping styles. It is vital to help the caregivers improve their good coping styles in order to reduce their stress levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/mjms2017.24.1.9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5346006PMC
March 2017

Health and quality of life among the caregivers of children with disabilities: A review of literature.

Asian J Psychiatr 2016 Oct 16;23:71-77. Epub 2016 Jul 16.

School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Families caring for children with disabilities face particular challenges and demands compared to those caring for children without disabilities. Evidence suggests that there is considerable variation in how caregivers of children with disabilities adapt to their caregiving demands and stressors. The different adaptations to the children with disabilities may cause different impacts on the health and well-being of caregivers. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on the impact of caring for children with disabilities on the health and quality of life of caregivers and the factors related to the health outcomes and quality of life. A literature search was conducted by using various electronic databases, including PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, and MEDLINE using specific key terms. Thirty-one articles published in peer-review journals from the last six years (2009-2014) were reviewed. Most of the studies were quantitative studies. Factors discussed that impact on caregivers' health and quality of life include the caregivers' sociodemographic background and child's disability-related factors. Several mediators and moderators including coping strategies, social support, parental stress, self-esteem and self-efficacy are described in this paper. This review highlighted the importance of these factors to better understand the complex nature of stress processes and the caregivers' adaptations to their children's disabilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2016.07.007DOI Listing
October 2016

Relationship between pulmonary function and degree of spinal deformity, location of apical vertebrae and age among adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

Singapore Med J 2016 Jan;57(1):33-8

Department of Orthopedics, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Introduction: This retrospective review aimed to examine the relationship between preoperative pulmonary function and the Cobb angle, location of apical vertebrae and age in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To our knowledge, there have been no detailed analyses of preoperative pulmonary function in relation to these three factors in AIS.

Methods: A total of 38 patients with thoracic or thoracolumbar scoliosis were included. Curvature of spinal deformity was measured using the Cobb method. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were used to evaluate preoperative pulmonary function. Statistical methods were used to analyse the relationship between preoperative pulmonary function and the factors that may contribute to poor pulmonary function.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 16.68 ± 6.04 years. An inverse relationship was found between the degree of the Cobb angle and FVC as well as FEV1; however, the relationships were not statistically significant (p = 0.057 and p = 0.072, respectively). There was also a trend towards a significant negative correlation between the thoracic curve and FVC (p = 0.014). Patients with larger thoracic curves had lower pulmonary function. A one-year increase in age significantly decreased FVC by 1.092 units (p = 0.044). No significant relationship between age and preoperative FEV1 was found. The median FVC was significantly higher in patients with affected apical vertebrae located at levels L1-L3 than at T6-T8 or T9-T12 (p = 0.006).

Conclusion: Lung function impairment was seen in more severe spinal deformities, proximally-located curvature and older patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2016009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4728701PMC
January 2016

The Effectiveness of Methadone Maintenance Therapy Among Opiate - Dependants Registered with Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II Kota Bharu, Kelantan.

Malays J Med Sci 2012 Oct;19(4):17-22

Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of MMT program among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Kota Bharu, Kelantan.

Methods: The study was a retrospective study based on the records of injecting drug users (IDUs) involved in the MMT program from November 2005 to 31st Jan 2008, registered at the Psychiatric Clinic of Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II. Opiate Treatment Index (OTI) was used as the research instrument. Repeated measures ANCOVA was used to compare the mean scores during the entry period and after completing twelve months of MMT program after adjusted for age, marital status, and level of education.

Results: A total of 117 file records were reviewed. There was significant reduction in the mean scores after 12 months of heroin Q score, HIV Risk-taking Behavior Scale and health scale after adjusted for age, marital status, and level of education. For Heroin Q score, mean difference was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.45, 2.56), for HIV Risk-taking Behavior Scale, mean difference was 7.64 (95% CI: 6.03, 9.26), and for health scale, mean difference was 5.35(95% CI: 3.90, 6.79).

Conclusion: This study supports the evidence that MMT program is effective in treating heroin and opiate dependence.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3629676PMC
October 2012

The impact of children with disabilities on parent health-related quality of life and family functioning in Kelantan and its associated factors.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2013 May;34(4):262-8

Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Objectives: Caring for children with disabilities brings about a significant impact on the parents and families. The purposes of this study were to determine the impact of having children with disabilities on parents' health-related quality of life (HRQOL), family functioning, and total family impact and to identify the associated factors.

Method: A total of 425 parents/caregivers of children with disabilities who were registered to community-based rehabilitation centers in 5 districts in Kelantan, Malaysia, participated in this study. The Malay version of PedsQL Family Impact Module was used as research instrument. General linear regression was applied to analyze the association between family impact scores (Total Impact, Parent HRQOL Summary, and Family Functioning Summary) and study factors using Stata/SE 11 software.

Results: The mean (SD) Total Impact Score and Parent HRQOL Summary Score of the parents/caregivers was 75.1 (16.85) and 75.0 (18.74) respectively, and the median (IQR) of Family Functioning Summary Score was 84.4 (28.13). Mothers, non-Malays, and widowed parents/caregivers, parents/caregivers having male children with disabilities, and children with more complex disability had significantly lower parent HRQOL and family functioning.

Conclusions: Both parents/caregivers' characteristics and children's characteristics contributed to family impact in local setting. Results of this study emphasize the importance of the whole family involvement as the focus of services and supports by health care providers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0b013e318287cdfeDOI Listing
May 2013

Validity and reliability of the Malay version of WHO Women's Health and Life Experiences Questionnaire.

J Interpers Violence 2013 Aug 18;28(12):2557-80. Epub 2013 Mar 18.

School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia.

The Women's Health and Life Experiences questionnaire measures the prevalence, health implications, and risk factors for domestic violence. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the validity and reliability of the Malay version of World Health Organization (WHO) Women's Health and Life Experiences Questionnaire. Construct validity and reliability assessment of the Malay version of the questionnaire was done on 20 specific items that measure four types of intimate partner violence (IPV) act; controlling behaviors (CB), emotional violence (EV), physical violence (PV), and sexual violence (SV), which were considered as the domains of interest. Face-to-face interviewing method was used for data collection. A total of 922 women completed the interviews. The results showed that exploratory factor analysis of four factors with eigenvalues above 1 accounted for 63.83% of the variance. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that all items loaded above 0.40 and the majority of items loaded on factors that were generally consistent with the proposed construct. The internal consistency reliability was good. The Cronbach's α values ranged from 0.767 to 0.858 across domains. The Malay version of WHO Women's Health and Life Experiences Questionnaire is a valid and reliable measure of women's health and experiences of IPV in Malaysia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260513479029DOI Listing
August 2013

Comparison of antimicrobial resistance in neonatal and adult intensive care units in a tertiary teaching hospital.

Am J Infect Control 2012 Aug;40(6):572-5

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia.

Intrahospital variations in antimicrobial profiles may be related to many factors. This study compared causative agents of nosocomial bloodstream infections between a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) that adopted a ward-tailored antibiotic policy and adult intensive care units (ICUs). Data on organisms from blood cultures obtained from the respective wards between 2005 and 2009 were analyzed. Compared with the adult ICUs, the NICU had a higher frequency of Enterobacteriacae and lower frequencies of typical hospital-acquired pathogens (eg, Klebsiella pneumoniae, 17.4% vs 10.0% [P < .001]; Acinetobacter baumannii, 3.9% vs 11.6% [P < .001]). Antibiotic resistance of gram-negative organisms was also significantly lower in the NICU, including resistance to imipenem (5.7% vs 32.1%; P < .001), amikacin (8.8% vs 30.3%), and ceftriaxone (36.1% vs 74.6%; P < .001). This could possibly be due to the ward-tailored antibiotic policy adopted by the NICU but not by the other ICUs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2012.02.032DOI Listing
August 2012

A Preliminary Study on the Reliability of the Malay Version of PedsQL™ Family Impact Module among Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Kelantan, Malaysia.

Malays J Med Sci 2011 Oct;18(4):63-8

Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: No previous study has assessed the impact of childhood disability on parents and family in the context of Malaysia, and no instrument to measure this impact has previously been available. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the reliability of a Malay version of the PedsQL™ Family Impact Module that measures the impact of children with disabilities (CWD) on their parents and family in a Malaysian context.

Methods: The study was conducted in 2009. The questionnaire was translated forward and backward before it was administered to 44 caregivers of CWD to determine the internal consistency reliability. The test for Cronbach's alpha was performed.

Results: The internal consistency reliability was good. The Cronbach's alpha for all domains was above 0.7, ranging from 0.73 to 0.895.

Conclusion: The Malay version of the PedsQL™ Family Impact Module showed evidence of good internal consistency reliability. However, future studies with a larger sample size are necessary before the module can be recommended as a tool to measure the impact of disability on Malay-speaking Malaysian families.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3328932PMC
October 2011

Knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school in Kelantan, Malaysia.

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2011 May;42(3):717-25

Department of Family Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The objectives of this study were to describe the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school and to compare the levels of knowledge between males and females and between older and younger groups of adolescents. Across-sectional study was conducted among 1,034 secondary school students using a self administered validated questionnaire. The items with the fewest correct responses included: whether one can get pregnant after a single act of sexual intercourse (30.4%), whether sexual intercourse causes sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (12.4%) and whether washing the vagina after sexual intercourse prevents pregnancy (17.0%). Their main source of sexual information was friends (64.4%). An independent t-test revealed the mean knowledge score was significantly higher among females than males on items assessing whether the genitalia may be touched freely by family members, females having attained menarche may become pregnant if having sex, whether pregnancy will occur if there is penetration of the penis into the vagina, whether premarital sexual intercourse causes pregnancy and if there is a relationship between abandoned babies and premarital pregnancies. The mean knowledge score assessing whether pregnancy can be prevented using condoms was higher among males than females. The mean knowledge scores were significantly higher among form four and form five students than forms one, two and three students. Lack of knowledge regarding important aspects of sexual and reproductive health warrant the need to strengthen sexual and reproductive health education.
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May 2011

Women's attitude and sociodemographic characteristics influencing usage of herbal medicines during pregnancy in Tumpat District, Kelantan.

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2009 Mar;40(2):330-7

Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether the use of herbal medicines during pregnancy is associated with women's attitudes towards herbal medicines and their sociodemographic features, such as age, education level, and income. Two-hundred ten women (110 "users," 100 "non-users") were studied. The probability of using herbal medicines among women who had negative attitudes towards the use of herbal medicines was 50.0% less compared to those who had positive attitudes (OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.92). Women who had a positive attitude towards the safety of herbal medicines were less likely to use herbal medicines during pregnancy. There were no significant associations between usage and sociodemographic features, such as age, income, race, and education.
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March 2009

The use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and perinatal mortality in Tumpat District, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2007 Nov;38(6):1150-7

Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Krian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The objective of this case-control study was to determine the association between herbal medicine use during pregnancy and perinatal mortality in Tumpat District, Kelantan, Malaysia. Cases were mothers who gave birth from June 2002 to June 2005 with a history of perinatal mortality, while controls were those without a history of perinatal infant mortality. A total of 316 mothers (106 cases and 210 controls) were interviewed. The use of unidentified herbs prepared by traditional midwives and other types of herbal medicines during the first trimester of pregnancy were positively associated with perinatal mortality (OR = 5.24, 95% CI = 1.13; 24.23 and OR = 8.90, 95%, CI = 1.35; 58.53, respectively). The use of unidentified "Orang Asli" herbs and coconut oil during the third trimester of pregnancy were negatively associated with perinatal mortality in Tumpat (OR = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.02; 0.59 and OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.25; 0.92, respectively). These findings suggest the use of unidentified "Orang Asli" herbs and coconut oil in late pregnancy are protective against perinatal mortality, while the use of unidentified herbs prepared by traditional midwives and other types of herbal medicines in early pregnancy has an increased risk of perinatal infant mortality. Pharmacological studies to confirm and identify the compounds in these herbs and their effects on the fetus should be conducted in the future.
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November 2007

Prevalence and pattern of use of herbal medicines during pregnancy in tumpat district, kelantan.

Malays J Med Sci 2008 Jul;15(3):40-8

Department of Community Medicine, Departments of Pharmacology.

The objective of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence and pattern of herbal medicines use during pregnancy among women in Tumpat district, Kelantan. A total of 210 mothers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. There were 108 mothers (51.4%) who used at least one type of herbal medicines during pregnancy. The most common herbal medicines used (63.9%) was coconut oil which was ingested during the third trimester of pregnancy only. The most common indication was (89.8%) to facilitate labour. The majority of users (79.6%) used herbal medicines during the third trimester of pregnancy only. Many of them (81.5%) believed that herbal medicines were effective to solve their health problems and fulfilled the indications for use. The older generation like parents and in laws (63.9%) were the most common persons who suggested using herbal medicines. The majority of them used the herbs only once (56.5%) and one type (87.0%) throughout the pregnancy. Further research focusing on local commonly used herbal medicines is to be carried out to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the herbs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3341906PMC
July 2008