Publications by authors named "Azimahtol Hawariah Lope Pihie"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Labisia pumila Ethanol Extract and Its Active Fraction in Human Melanoma HM3KO Cells.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012 8;2012:123470. Epub 2012 Mar 8.

School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Malaysia.

The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showed that SF2Lp was able to arrest the HM3KO cell cycle at the G1 phase, while morphological findings from AO-EB nuclear staining assays along with the Apoptotic Index confirmed the induction of apoptosis by SF2Lp in HM3KO cells. Results from the mechanistic study further revealed that SF2Lp treatment was able to concurrently increase the expression level of p53 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax and also reduce the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in HM3KO cells, directly contributing to the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings, therefore, suggested that L. pumila was able to inhibit HM3KO cell growth possibly by arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase and inducing apoptosis in HM3KO cells via the up- and down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein, mediated through a p53-dependent pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/123470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3310196PMC
August 2012

Xanthorrhizol induced DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells involving Bcl-2 family proteins.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2012 Apr 23;420(4):834-8. Epub 2012 Mar 23.

School of Biosciences & Biotechnology, Faculty of Science & Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.03.083DOI Listing
April 2012

A natural compound from Hydnophytum formicarium induces apoptosis of MCF-7 cells via up-regulation of Bax.

Cancer Cell Int 2010 May 4;10:14. Epub 2010 May 4.

Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Szeged, Hungary.

Background: Hydnophytum formicarium Jack is an epyphytic shrub that belongs to the family of Rubiaceae and is native to the tropical rain forests of the Asean region, which includes Malaysia. A flavanoid derivative, 7, 3', 5'-trihydroxyflavanone (3HFD), isolated from H. formicarium has been reported to have cytotoxic effects on the human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. The aim of the current study was to investigate the mode of cell death in MCF-7 cells treated with 3HFD. A DNA fragmentation assay was conducted on isolated genomic DNA, a TUNEL assay was used to determine the mode of cell death and Western blotting was used to evaluate the expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2. Immunofluorescence staining of MCF-7 cells was also performed to confirm the up-regulation of the Bax protein.

Results: The ladder pattern resulting from the DNA fragmentation assay was a multimer of 180 kb. The morphological changes of cells undergoing apoptosis were visualised by a TUNEL assay over time. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased as early as 6 hours post treatment compared to untreated cells. Western blotting revealed up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. However, 3HFD did not affect expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2.

Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that plant-derived 3HFD was able to induce the apoptotic cell death of MCF-7 cells by increasing Bax expression level and makes 3HFD a promising agent for chemotherapy, which merits further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2867-10-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2873331PMC
May 2010

Eurycomanone induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells via up-regulation of p53.

Cancer Cell Int 2009 Jun 10;9:16. Epub 2009 Jun 10.

Institute of Biosciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Eurycomanone is a cytotoxic compound found in Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Previous studies had noted the cytotoxic effect against various cancer cell lines. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxicity against human hepato carcinoma cell in vitro and the mode of action. The cytotoxicity of eurycomanone was evaluated using MTT assay and the mode of cell death was detected by Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining and flow cytometry with Annexin-V/propidium iodide double staining. The protein expression Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and cytochrome C were studied by flow cytometry using a spesific antibody conjugated fluorescent dye to confirm the up-regulation of p53 and Bax in cancer cells.

Results: The findings suggested that eurycomanone was cytotoxic on cancerous liver cell, HepG2 and less toxic on normal cells Chang's liver and WLR-68. Furthermore, various methods proved that apoptosis was the mode of death in eurycomanone-treated HepG2 cells. The characteristics of apoptosis including chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic bodies were found following eurycomanone treatment. This study also found that apoptotic process triggered by eurycomanone involved the up-regulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein. The up-regulation of p53 was followed by the increasing of pro-apoptotic Bax and decreasing of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. The increased of cytochrome C levels in cytosol also results in induction of apoptosis.

Conclusion: The data suggest that eurycomanone was cytotoxic on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis through the up-regulation of p53 and Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2867-9-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2700790PMC
June 2009

Antiproliferative property and apoptotic effect of xanthorrhizol on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

Anticancer Res 2008 Nov-Dec;28(6A):3677-89

Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Center, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Xanthorrhizol is a natural sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhizza Roxb (Zingerberaceae). Recent studies of xanthorrhizol in cell cultures strongly support the role of xanthorrhizol as an antiproliferative agent. In our study, we tested the antiproliferative effect of xanthorrhizol using different breast cancer cell lines. The invasive breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, was then selected for further investigations. Treatment with xanthorrhizol caused 50% growth inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells at 8.67 +/- 0.79 microg/ml as determined by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining assay showed the rate of apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells to increase in response to xanthorrhizol treatment. Immunofluorescence staining using antibody MitoCapture and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled cytochrome c revealed the possibility of altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the release of cytochrome c respectively. This was further confirmed by Western-blotting, where cytochrome c was showed to migrate from mitochondrial fraction to the cytosol fraction of treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Caspase activity assay showed the involvement of caspase-3 and caspase-9, but not caspase-6 or caspase-8 in MDA-MB-231 apoptotic cell death. Subsequently, cleavage of PARP-1 protein is suggested. These data suggest treatment with xanthorrhizol modulates MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway subsequent to the disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and the modulation of PARP-1 protein.
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March 2009

Combined xanthorrhizol-curcumin exhibits synergistic growth inhibitory activity via apoptosis induction in human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231.

Cancer Cell Int 2009 Jan 2;9. Epub 2009 Jan 2.

Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Center, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: It has been suggested that combined effect of natural products may improve the treatment effectiveness in combating proliferation of cancer cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility that the combination of xanthorrhizol and curcumin might show synergistic growth inhibitory effect towards MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells via apoptosis induction. The effective dose that produced 50% growth inhibition (GI50) was calculated from the log dose-response curve of fixed-combinations of xanthorrhizol and curcumin generated from the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The experimental GI50 value was used to determine the synergistic activity of the combination treatment by isobolographic analysis and combination-index method. Further investigation of mode of cell death induced by the combination treatment was conducted in the present study.

Results: Isobole analysis revealed that substances interaction was synergistic when xanthorrhizol and curcumin were added concurrently to the cultures but merely additive when they were added sequentially. The synergistic combination treatment was then applied to the cultures to investigate the mode of cell death induced by the treatment. Immunofluorescence staining using antibody MitoCapturetrade mark revealed the possibility of altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential, which is one of the hallmark of apoptosis. Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining assay showed the rate of apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells to increase in response to the treatment. Apoptotic cell death was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay, where internucleosomal excision of DNA was induced upon treatment with xanthorrhizol-curcumin.

Conclusion: This is the first time the combined cytotoxic effect of xanthorrhizol and curcumin on MDA-MB-231 cells has been documented and our findings provide experimental support to the hypothesis that combined xanthorrhizol-curcumin showed synergistic growth inhibitory activity on MDA-MB-231 cells via apoptosis induction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2867-9-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2630298PMC
January 2009

Regulation of p53-, Bcl-2- and caspase-dependent signaling pathway in xanthorrhizol-induced apoptosis of HepG2 hepatoma cells.

Anticancer Res 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):965-71

School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

Xanthorrhizol is a sesquiterpenoid compound extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza. This study investigated the antiproliferative effect and the mechanism of action of xanthorrhizol on human hepatoma cells, HepG2, and the mode of cell death. An antiproliferative assay using methylene blue staining revealed that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of the HepG2 cells with a 50% inhibition of cell growth (IC50) value of 4.17 +/- 0.053 microg/ml. The antiproliferative activity of xanthorrhizol was due to apoptosis induced in the HepG2 cells and not necrosis, which was confirmed by the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells showed typical apoptotic morphology such as DNA fragmentation, cell shrinkage and elongated lamellipodia. The apoptosis mediated by xanthorrhizol in the HepG2 cells was associated with the activation of tumor suppressor p53 and down-regulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression, but not Bax. The levels of Bcl-2 protein expression decreased 24-h after treatment with xanthorrhizol and remained lower than controls throughout the experiment, resulting in a shift in the Bax to Bcl-2 ratio thus favouring apoptosis. The processing of the initiator procaspase-9 was detected. Caspase-3 was also found to be activated, but not caspase-7. Xanthorrhizol exerts antiproliferative effects on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway.
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May 2007

Xanthorrhizol exhibits antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 breast cancer cells via apoptosis induction.

Anticancer Res 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6B):4527-34

Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Center, Institute for Medical Research, 50588 Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Xanthorrhizol is a natural sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb (Zingiberaceae). Xanthorrhizol was tested for a variety of important pharmacological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. An antiproliferation assay using the MTT method indicated that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, with an EC50 value of 1.71 microg/ml. Three parameters including annexin-V binding assay, Hoechst 33258 staining and accumulation of sub-G1 population in DNA histogram confirmed the apoptosis induction in response to xanthorrhizol treatment. Western-blotting revealed down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein expression. However, xanthorrhizol did not affect the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, bax, at a concentration of 1 microg/ml, 2.5 microg/ml and 5 microg/ml. The level of p53 was greatly increased, whilst PARP-1 was cleaved to 85 kDa subunits, following the treatment with xanthorrhizol at a dose-dependent manner. These results, thereby, suggest that xanthorrhizol has antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis through the modulation of bcl-2, p53 and PARP-1 protein levels.
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January 2007

Xanthorrhizol induces apoptosis via the up-regulation of bax and p53 in HeLa cells.

Anticancer Res 2005 May-Jun;25(3B):2221-7

School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

Xanthorrhizol is a sesquiterpenoid compound extracted from Curcuma xanthorrhiza, which is known locally as Temulawak. Traditionally, C. xanthorrhiza was found to have antibacterial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. The rhizome has also been used to treat inflammation in postpartum uterine bleeding. An antiproliferative assay using methylene blue staining revealed that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of the cervical cancer cell line HeLa with an EC50 value of 6.16 microg/ml. Xanthorrhizol significantly increased apoptosis in HeLa cells, as evaluated by the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and nuclear morphology by Hoechst 33258 staining. Western blot analysis, which was further confirmed by the immunostaining results, implied an up-regulation of tumor suppressor protein p53 and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, following the treatment with xanthorrhizol. Xanthorrhizol, however, did not affect the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 and the viral oncoprotein, E6. Hence, xanthorrhizol is a promising antiproliferative and anticancer agent which induces p53 and Bax-dependent apoptosis in HeLa cervical cancer cells.
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November 2005

Induction of apoptosis by Eurycoma longifolia jack extracts.

Anticancer Res 2005 May-Jun;25(3B):2205-13

School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

Extracts of the plant Eurycoma longifolia have been shown to possess cytotoxic, antimalarial, anti-ulcer, antipyretic and plant growth inhibition activities. The present study investigated the effects of extracts and their chromatographic fractions from the root of E. longifolia on the growth of a human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Our data indicated that E. longifolia extracts and fractions exert a direct antiproliferative activity on MCF-7. The bioassay-guided root fractionation resulted in the isolation of three active fractions, F5, F6 and F7, which displayed IC50 values of (6.17+/-0.38) microg/ml, (4.40+/-0.42) microg/ml and (20.00+/-0.08) microg/ml, respectively. The resultant from F7 purification, F16, exhibited a higher cytotoxic activity towards MCF-7, (IC50=15.23+/-0.66 microg/ml) and a certain degree of selectivity against a normal breast cell line, MCF-10A (IC50=66.31-0.47 microg/ml). F16 significantly increased apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as evaluated by the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end labelling assay and nuclear morphology. Western blotting revealed down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression. F16, however, did not affect the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax. These results, therefore, suggest that F16 has antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 protein levels.
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November 2005

Screening for antihyperglycaemic activity in several local herbs of Malaysia.

J Ethnopharmacol 2004 Dec;95(2-3):205-8

School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

Screening of aqueous extract of Phyllantus niruri (PL), Zingiber zerumbet (ZG), Eurycoma longifolia (TA-a and TA-b) and Andrographis paniculata (AP) to determine their blood glucose lowering effect were conducted in normoglycaemic and Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemic rats. Significant reduction in blood glucose level at 52.90% was shown when hyperglycaemic rats were treated with 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) aqueous extract of AP. This effect is enhanced when freeze-dried material was used, where 6.25 mg/kg BW gave 61.81% reduction in blood glucose level. In the administration of TA-a and TA-b, positive results in hyperglyacaemic rats were only obtained when 150 mg/kg BW of the aqueous extract was used. No significant reduction in blood glucose level were shown in hyperglycaemic rats treated with PL and ZG at all concentrations used (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg BW). In normoglycaemic rats, no significant reduction was noted when all the same extracts were used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.07.004DOI Listing
December 2004

Styrylpyrone Derivative (SPD) induces apoptosis in a caspase-7-dependent manner in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

Cancer Cell Int 2003 Oct 4;3(1):16. Epub 2003 Oct 4.

School of Biosciences & Biotechnology, Faculty of Science & Technology, National University of Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, MALAYSIA.

BACKGROUND: Styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) is a plant-derived pharmacologically active compound extracted from Goniothalamus sp. Previously, we have reported that SPD inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death, while having minimal effects on non-malignant cells. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of SPD. RESULTS: We found that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was invoked, with the accumulation of cytosolic cytochrome c and processing of the initiator caspase-9. Cleaved products of procaspase-8 were not detected. Next, the executioner caspase-7 was cleaved and activated in response to SPD treatment. To confirm that apoptosis was induced following caspase-7 activation, the caspase inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO was used. Pre-incubation of cells with this inhibitor reversed apoptosis levels and caspase-7 activity in SPD-treated cells to untreated levels. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest SPD as a potent antiproliferative agent on MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis in a caspase-7-dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2867-3-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC239923PMC
October 2003

Styrylpyrone derivative induces apoptosis through the up-regulation of Bax in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

J Biochem Mol Biol 2003 May;36(3):269-74

School of Biosciences & Biotechnology, Faculty of Science & Technology, National University of Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

In the fight against cancer, novel chemotherapeutic agents are constantly being sought to complement existing drugs. Various studies have presented evidence that the apoptosis that is induced by these anticancer agents is implicated in tumor regression, and Bcl-2 family genes play a part in apoptosis following treatment with various stimuli. Here, we present data that a styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) that is extracted from the plant Goniothalamus sp. showed cytotoxic effects on the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. SPD significantly increased apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as visualized by phase contrast microscopy and evaluated by the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay and nuclear morphology. Western blotting and immunostaining revealed up-regulation of the proapoptotic Bax protein expression. SPD, however, did not affect the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. These results, therefore, suggest SPD as a potent cytotoxic agent on MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis through the modulation of Bax levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5483/bmbrep.2003.36.3.269DOI Listing
May 2003

Antifertility effect of Jamu (traditional herbal medicine).

Malays J Reprod Health 1983 Dec;1(2):176-80

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December 1983