Publications by authors named "Azadeh Shojaei"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cigarette Smoking Behavior a Gateway to Opium Use Disorder: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis.

Behav Genet 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Hemmat Highway, Tehran, Iran.

Gateway hypothesis presumes that using a psychotropic drug can increase the probability of using another drug. The study was to assess whether cigarette smoking is a gateway drug for subsequent opium use. Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was applied to test and estimate the size of causal effect of cigarette smoking on opium use. The CHRNA3 rs1051730 polymorphism was used as an instrumental variable. A population-based case control study in the setting of Fasa Cohort Study was carried out using 477 cases and 531 controls based on their opium use status at the baseline of cohort study. The logistic two stage estimator method was applied. The Number of cigarettes smoked per day was associated with opium use (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.15-1.19). In the MR analysis, rs1051730 T alleles were associated with increased risk of opium use among ever smokers (OR 5.73, 95% CI 1.72-19.07) however there found no evidence of association among never smokers. In instrumental variable analysis, showed that on average smoking every 1 more cigarette per day increases the odds of opium use by 1.17 (OR 1.17, 95%CI:1.14-1.19). The MR analysis found a positive finding on the relationship between cigarette smoking and opium use which supports the gateway hypothesis. It adds new information to the gateway theory regarding the relation of cigarette smoking and drug use, and increases our understanding of the importance of tobacco control for prevention of opium addiction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10519-021-10052-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Molecular Genetic Analysis of Steroid Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome, Detection of a Novel Mutation.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2019 05;13(3):165-172

Department of Medical Genetics and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine; Shahid Akbarabadi Clinical Research Development Unit (ShACRDU); Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Nephrotic syndrome is a heterogeneous disease in children, with nearly 10% categorized as steroid-resistant. In this study we evaluated disease related mutations within NPHS1, NPHS2 and new potential variants in other genes.

Methods: In the first phase of study, 25 patients with SRNS were analyzed by Sanger sequencing for NPHS1 (exon 2, 26) and all exons of NPHS2 genes. In the next step, whole exome sequencing was performed on 10 patients with no mutation in NPHS1 and NPHS2.

Results: WES analysis revealed a novel mutation in FAT1 (c.10570C > A; Q3524K). We identified 4 pathogenic mutations, located in exon 4 and 5 of NPHS2 gene in 20% of patients (V180M, P118L, R168C and Leu156Phe). Also our study has contributed to the description of previously known pathogenic mutations across WT1 (R205C) and SMARCAL1 (R764Q) and a novel polymorphism in CRB2.

Conclusion: It seems that NPHS2, especially exons 4 and 5, should be considered as the first step in genetic evaluation of Iranian patients. We suggest conducting WES after NPHS2 screening to identify the potential genes associated with SRNS, Further studies are required to examine more common genes in the first step and then designing native laboratory panels.
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May 2019

Association of homeobox B13 (HOXB13) gene variants with prostate cancer risk in an Iranian population.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2018 7;32:97. Epub 2018 Oct 7.

Department of Medical Genetics and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Prostate cancer is a complex condition in which both genetic and environmental factors concomitantly contribute to the tumor initiation and progression. Recently, HOXB13 has been proposed as a susceptibility gene for prostate cancer. The present study was conducted to determine the existence of potential variations in HOXB13 gene in Iranian men with prostate cancer (PCa) compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) cases. HOXB13 genetic status was screened in 51 samples, including 21 blood and tissue of PCa cases, and compared to 30 cases affected by BPH using PCR/sequencing. Then, the existence of potential association was investigated between genomic DNA alterations in blood and tissue PCa specimens. Analysis of BPH tissues showed single nucleotide variations c.366C > T (rs) or c.513T > C (rs9900627) in exon 1, but not in exon 2. Evaluation of PCa tissues revealed 2 cases with both synonymous c.366C > T and c.513T > C variants and 2 cases with the synonymous c.366C > T variant in exon 1. The variants c.366C > T and c.513T > C, simultaneously or separately, were found in blood samples of PCa patients. The novel variant c.127A > G in exon 2 was detected in 1 PCa blood sample. Our analysis indicated a significant reciprocal correlation between HOXB13 mutation in the tissue and blood samples of PCa cases (p= 0.02). The variants in exon 2 of HOXB13 may influence the risk of prostate cancer. Also, evaluation of HOXB13 mutation may be considered as a novel marker for screening PCa. Further investigations are warranted to evaluate the clinical significance of HOXB13 in Iranian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14196/mjiri.32.97DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6477883PMC
October 2018

Association between tobacco smoking and opioid use: A meta-analysis.

Addict Behav 2019 05 4;92:225-235. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Non-Communicable Disease Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Tobacco smoking has been shown to be a major risk factor for opioid use and opioid use disorders in several observational studies; however, the results are inconsistent. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was conducted to investigate the association between smoking behavior and opioid use and opioid use disorders.

Methods: A systematic literature search of relevant keywords was done in Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar up to October 2017. The reference lists of retrieved articles were also examined for inclusion. While random effects meta-analysis was used, pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Der-Simonian and Laird method, taking into account conceptual heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses were performed using participants and studies' characteristics to assess the sources of heterogeneity.

Results: Ten eligible observational studies (6 cohorts and 4 population-based cross sectional studies), with 175,063 participants, were identified. The pooled OR of opioid use disorders was 8.23 (95% CI: 3.07-22.09) for current smokers compared to nonsmokers; pooled OR for opioid use was 2.51 (95% CI: 1.91-3.28). Opioid use or opioid use disorders were positively associated with earlier age at onset of smoking (pooled OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.28-2.16).

Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis confirmed that tobacco smoking is associated with opioid use and opioid use disorders development. This conclusion has an important public health message for areas with high smoking prevalence and high opioid use and opioid use disorders incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.11.043DOI Listing
May 2019

Mutation analysis of Phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Iranian patients with Phenylketonuria.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2018 11;32:21. Epub 2018 Mar 11.

Department of Medical Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Phenylketonuria as the most common genetic metabolic disorder is the result of disruption of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. This study was carried out to explore the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene mutation status of Iranian phenylketonuria patients. Blood samples were collected from 30 patients, and hot spot areas of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene, including exons 6, 7, 8, 11, and 12 were studied through polymerase chain reaction and sequencing techniques. Eight different mutations, including 5 missense mutations, 1 splice mutation, 1 nonsense mutation, and 1 Silent/Splice mutation were detected. These mutations were R243X, R261Q, R261X, P281L, R241C, V399V, E280K, and IVS11+1G>C. V399V and R241C were reported for the first time in Iranian population. Three polymorphisms including Q232Q, V245V and L385L and 3 novel intronic variants including IVS10-15A>C, IVS6+44T>G, and IVS6+36 T>G were also detected in this study. The results of this study prove the heterogeneous status of phenylalanine hydroxylase gene mutations in the Iranian population, which can be useful in carrier testing and genetic counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14196/mjiri.32.21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6108261PMC
March 2018

The association between polymorphism of the BDNF gene and cigarette smoking in the Iranian population.

J Gene Med 2018 10 12;20(10-11):e3052. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Medical Genetics and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Cigarette smoking remains a serious public health problem. Environmental and genetic factors both play critical roles in the process of cigarette smoking. We aimed to investigate the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the BDNF gene and cigarette smoking in the Iranian population.

Methods: We conducted a case-control study. In total, 932 case and control subjects aged > 15 years were recruited in the present study in a simple random manner, including 523 lifetime cigarette smokers, 466 cigarette smokers within a 12-month period, 409 never cigarette smokers in their lifetime and 466 never cigarette smokers within a 12-month period. The rs6265 SNP genotypes were determined by a polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. To examine the association of smoking with the BDNF gene polymorphism, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age and sex.

Results: In total, 932 participants (758 males and 174 females) were selected. Using a chi-squared test, we found that rs6265 with OR = 1.41 and 95% CI = 1.07-1.87 (p = 0.009) and OR = 1.41 and 95% CI = 1.08-1.85 (p = 0.008) in the BNDF was associated with an increased odds of lifetime cigarette smoking and cigarette smoking within a 12-month period, respectively. Also, the allele "A" of rs6265 in BDNF had a significant elevating effect for cigarette smoking in a recessive model (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: These results suggest that polymorphisms of BDNF play an important role in lifetime cigarette smoking and cigarette smoking within a 12-month period of susceptibility in the Iranian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgm.3052DOI Listing
October 2018

The effects of omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation on parameters of mental health and gene expression related to insulin and inflammation in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome.

J Affect Disord 2018 03 28;229:41-47. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R. Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation on parameters of mental health and gene expression related to insulin and inflammation in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Methods: Forty PCOS women were allocated into two groups and treated with 1000mg omega-3 fatty acids plus 400 IU vitamin E supplements (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) per day for 12 weeks. Parameters of mental health were recorded at baseline and after the 12-week intervention. Gene expression related to insulin and inflammation were measured in blood samples of PCOS women.

Results: After the 12-week intervention, compared with the placebo, omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation led to significant improvements in beck depression inventory total score (- 2.2 ± 2.0 vs. - 0.2 ± 1.3, P = 0.001), general health questionnaire scores (- 5.5 ± 4.6 vs. - 1.0 ± 2.3, P < 0.001) and depression anxiety and stress scale scores (- 7.2 ± 5.2 vs. - 1.3 ± 1.3, P < 0.001). Compared with the placebo, omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation could up-regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression (P = 0.04) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of PCOS women. In addition, compared with the placebo, omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation down-regulated interleukin-8 (IL-8) (P = 0.003) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression (P = 0.001) in PBMC of PCOS women. There were no significant difference between-group changes in glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), IL-6 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in PBMC of PCOS women.

Conclusion: Omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation was effective in improving parameters of mental health, and gene expression of PPAR-γ, IL-8 and TNF-α of women with PCOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.049DOI Listing
March 2018

Genetic Screening of Iranian Patients with 46,XY Disorders of Sex Development.

Rep Biochem Mol Biol 2017 Oct;6(1):59-65

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Disorders of sex development (DSDs) belong to uncommon pathologies and result from abnormalities during gonadal determination and differentiation. Various gene mutations involved in gonadal determination and differentiation have been associated with gonadal dysgenesis. Despite advances in exploration of genes and mechanisms involved in sex disorders, most children with severe 46,XY DSDs have no definitive etiological diagnoses; therefore, the possibility that other genes or loci might play important roles in these disorders needs to be explored.

Methods: Patients (37) clinically suspicious for 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis (46,XY GD) of unknown etiology were studied. , encoding the sex-determining region Y protein, , encoding a transcription factor called steroidogenic factor 1, and , encoding the desert hedgehog protein, were directly sequenced. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was used to detect deletions in , encoding the DAX1 protein, and , encoding the WNT4 protein, and real-time PCR (qPCR) confirmed the MLPA data. Other potential loci have been investigated in the complete genome using Array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization, (Array CGH).

Results: The deletion was found in five patients. One each of previously described , and (androgen receptor) allelic variants were identified. A pathogenic c.2522G>A mutation was found in two affected brothers. A heterozygous partial deletion was found in and heterozygous partial duplications were found in . These deletions and duplications (del/dup) were confirmed by qPCR. The Array CGH result demonstrated one partial deletion in , which encodes a member of the SOX family of transcription factors, and the exact region of the rearrangements.

Conclusion: According to our study, del/dup mutations could be checked prior to point mutations, SOX2-OT has a potential role in gonadal dysgenesis, and Array CGH has a prominent role in gonadal dysgenesis diagnosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5643445PMC
October 2017

Rectal Thiopental versus Intramuscular Ketamine in Pediatric Procedural Sedation and Analgesia; a Randomized Clinical Trial.

Emerg (Tehran) 2015 ;3(1):22-6

Department of Emergency Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: Physicians frequently deal with procedures which require sedation of pediatric patients. Laceration repair is one of them. No study has been performed regarding the comparison between induction of sedation with sodium thiopental and ketamine in laceration repair. Therefore, the present study was aimed to comparison of induced sedation by rectal sodium thiopental and muscular injection of hydrochloride ketamine in pediatric patients need laceration repair.

Methods: The presented study is a single-blinded clinical trial performed through 2013 to 2014 in Ayatollah Kashani and Alzahra Hospitals, Isfahan, Iran. Patients from 3 months to 14 years, needed sedation for laceration repair, were entered. Patients were sequentially evaluated and randomly categorized in two groups of hydrochloride ketamine with dose of 2-4 milligram per kilogram and sodium thiopental with dose of 25 milligram per kilogram. Demographic data and vital signs before drug administration and after induction of sedation, Ramsey score, time to onset of action, and sedation recovery time were evaluated. Chi-squared, Mann-Whitney, and Non-parametric analysis of covariance tests were used. P<0.05 was considered as a significant level.

Results: In this study 60 pediatric patients were entered. 30 patients with mean age of 42.8±18.82 months were received sodium thiopental and the rest with mean age of 30.08±16.88 months given ketamine. Mann-Whitney test was showed that time to onset of action in sodium thiopental group (28.23±5.18 minutes) was significantly higher than ketamine (7.77±4.13 minutes), (p<0.001). The sedation recovery time in ketamine group (29.83±7.70) was higher than sodium thiopental. Depth of sedation had no significant difference between two groups based on Ramsey score (p=0.87). No significant difference was seen between two groups in the respiratory rate (df=1, 58; F=0.002; P=0.96) and heart rate (df=1, 58; F=0.98; P=0.33). However, arterial oxygen saturation level (df=1, 58; F=6.58; P=0.013) was significantly higher in ketamine group.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study show that Although the recovery time from sedation by ketamine is more than sodium thiopental, it's fast-acting function without effecting on the oxygen saturation level causes that ketamine is considered as the better choice for induction of sedation in pediatric patients need laceration repair. In addition, long-term effect of ketamine provides more time for the physician to do the procedure and this issue decreases the need probability to the repeated-dose. However, effectiveness of both drugs to decrease the agitation was equal, based on the Ramsey score.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4614604PMC
October 2015

Mutation analysis of androgen receptor gene: multiple uses for a single test.

Gene 2014 Dec 18;552(2):234-8. Epub 2014 Sep 18.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Androgen receptor gene mutations are one of the leading causes of disorders of sex development (DSD) exhibited by sexual ambiguity or sex reversal. In this study, 2 families with patients whom diagnosed clinically as androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) were physically and genetically examined. This evaluation carried out by cytogenetic and molecular analysis including karyotype and sequencing of SRY and AR genes. In family 1, two brothers and their mother were hemizygous and heterozygous respectively for c.2522G>A variant, while one of their healthy brother was a completely normal hemizygote. Family 2 assessment demonstrated the c.639G>A (rs6152) mutation in two siblings who were reared as girls. The SRY gene was intact in all of the study's participants. Our findings in family 1 could be a further proof for the pathogenicity of the c.2522G>A variant. Given the importance of AR mutations in development of problems such as sex assignment in AIS patients, definitive diagnosis and phenotype-genotype correlation could be achieved by molecular genetic tests that in turn could have promising impacts in clinical management and also in prenatal diagnosis of prospect offspring. In this regard, phenotype-genotype correlation could be helpful and achieved by molecular genetic tests. This could influence the clinical management of the patients as well as prenatal diagnosis for the prospective offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2014.09.038DOI Listing
December 2014

Genomic characterization of some Iranian children with idiopathic mental retardation using array comparative genomic hybridization.

Indian J Hum Genet 2013 Oct;19(4):443-8

Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Mental retardation (MR) has a prevalence of 1-3% and genetic causes are present in more than 50% of patients. Chromosomal abnormalities are one of the most common genetic causes of MR and are responsible for 4-28% of mental retardation. However, the smallest loss or gain of material visible by standard cytogenetic is about 4 Mb and for smaller abnormalities, molecular cytogenetic techniques such as array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) should be used. It has been shown that 15-25% of idiopathic MR (IMR) has submicroscopic rearrangements detectable by array CGH. In this project, the genomic abnormalities were investigated in 32 MR patients using this technique.

Materials And Methods: Patients with IMR with dysmorphism were investigated in this study. Karyotype analysis, fragile X and metabolic tests were first carried out on the patients. The copy number variation was then assessed in a total of 32 patients with normal results for the mentioned tests using whole genome oligo array CGH. Multiple ligation probe amplification was carried out as a confirmation test.

Results: In total, 19% of the patients showed genomic abnormalities. This is reduced to 12.5% once the two patients with abnormal karyotypes (upon re-evaluation) are removed.

Conclusion: The array CGH technique increased the detection rate of genomic imbalances in our patients by 12.5%. It is an accurate and reliable method for the determination of genomic imbalances in patients with IMR and dysmorphism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6866.124373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897140PMC
October 2013

Novel nucleotide changes in mutational analysis of mitochondrial 12SrRNA gene in patients with nonsyndromic and aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss.

Mol Biol Rep 2013 Mar 16;40(3):2689-95. Epub 2012 Dec 16.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Mitochondria have essential role in cellular energy metabolism and defects in their function lead to many metabolic diseases. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been associated with number diseases such as nonsyndromic and aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss. Mutational screening of entire 12SrRNA and tRNA (ser (UCN)) genes in 107 unrelated Iranian patients with amino glycoside-induced and nonsyndromic bilateral hearing loss by direct sequencing analysis method were performed. Twenty different homoplasmic sequence variants were identified; including fifteen common polymorphisms, two putatively pathogenic variants: m.921T>C and m.1005T>C, one 12SrRNA sequence variant m.739C>T and two nucleotides substitution; m.1245T>C and m.1545T>C. Deafness-associated mutation, m.1555A>G, was not found. In our patients we found the mutation 1005 was associated with R haplogroup. These finding show that m.1555A>G mutation is not important in our population. Nucleotide change, m.739C>T, previously reported with very low frequency. We suggested the variation of two nucleotides 1245 and 1545 that localized at conserved site of 12SrRNA may be new candidate for amino glycoside-induced and nonsyndromic hearing impairment associated mutations. However, aminoglycoside exposure is a risk factor for clinical phenotype appearance of these mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-012-2355-8DOI Listing
March 2013

Partial trisomy 7q and monosomy 13q in a child with disorder of sex development: phenotypic and genotypic findings.

Gene 2013 Mar 30;517(1):137-45. Epub 2012 Nov 30.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Terminal 7q duplication and terminal 13q deletion are two conditions with variable phenotypes including microcephaly, thumb a-/hypoplasia, cortical dysplasia, microphtalmia, intellectual disability and dysmorphic features. We describe a boy born to a mother with a reciprocal t (7;13) who combines both a terminal 7q33-qter duplication and terminal 13q33-qter deletion through the inheritance of a derivative chromosome 13 (der (13)). The patient presented with developmental delay, facial and non-facial dysmorphic features, hypertonia, genital abnormality and skeletal malformation but no thumb a-/hypoplasia or microphtalmia. Knowing the exact breakpoints of his chromosomal aberrations using high resolution array CGH (aCGH) and comparison of his phenotypes with those of 24 and 59 previously published cases of 7q duplication and 13q deletion, respectively, allow us to further narrow the size of the proposed critical regions for microcephaly, thumb a-/hypoplasia and hypo/hypertonia on chromosome 13.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2012.11.013DOI Listing
March 2013

Novel human mitochondrial tRNA phe mutation in a patient with hearing impairment: a case study.

Mitochondrial DNA 2013 Apr 14;24(2):132-6. Epub 2012 Sep 14.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

We present a patient with non-syndromic and sensorineural hearing impairment with a novel mitochondrial DNA transition. A 7-year-old boy showed progressive deafness. He gradually lost his hearing ability and his hearing function did not improve with hearing aids. Laboratory data revealed normal blood lactate and pyruvate levels. Genetic analyses for mitochondrial DNA and GJB2 and GJB6 genes were performed. Mitochondrial genes analysis revealed a novel heteroplasmic nucleotide substitution, m.628C>T, in the phenylalanine transfer RNA gene. This case study reveals m.628C>T transition as a novel mitochondrial nucleotide change which may be important in mitochondrial deafness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/19401736.2012.717935DOI Listing
April 2013