Publications by authors named "Azad Khaledi"

43 Publications

Overview on urinary tract infection, bacterial agents, and antibiotic resistance pattern in renal transplant recipients.

J Res Med Sci 2021 31;26:26. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a mainly common infection in kidney transplant recipients. This study decided to investigate UTI, bacterial agents, and antibiotic resistance pattern in kidney transplant recipients from Iran.

Materials And Methods: Search process was conducted for UTI, bacterial agents, and antibiotic resistance pattern in kidney transplant recipients from Iran via electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, etc.,) with Mesh terms in either Persian and English languages without limited time to May 31, 2020. Data were analyzed by comprehensive meta-analysis software.

Results: The combined prevalence of UTI in renal transplant recipients was reported by 31.1%. The combined prevalence of Gram-negative bacteria was 69%. The most common pathogens among Gram negatives were followed by with frequency 43.4% and 13%, respectively. Subgroup analysis for Gram-positive bacteria showed the combined prevalence of 31%. The most common microorganism among Gram positives belonged to coagulase-negative and Enterococci with a prevalence of 10.2% and 9%, respectively. Subgroup meta-analysis of antibiotic resistance for Gram-negative showed the most resistance to cephalexin followed by carbenicillin with a prevalence of 89.1% and 87.3%, respectively.

Conclusion: Our review showed a noticeable rate of UTI (31.1%) among renal transplant recipients in Iran and a high prevalence of Gram-negative (69%) and Gram-positive (13%) microorganisms. A high resistance rate was seen against almost all antibiotics used for the treatment of UTI. Therefore, empirical prescription of antibiotics should be avoided, and it should be based on data obtained from antibiogram tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_286_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240543PMC
March 2021

Efficacy of PCR Analysis of , and Genes with Culture in Detection of .

Iran J Public Health 2021 May;50(5):1079-1081

Department of Microbiology and Applied Microbiology Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v50i5.6130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223580PMC
May 2021

Molecular Typing of Clinical Isolates of Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR).

Iran J Public Health 2021 Apr;50(4):850-851

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v50i4.6019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219610PMC
April 2021

Antimicrobial Effect of Opuntia Ficus-Indica Extract on Isolated from Patients with Urinary Tract Infection.

Iran J Public Health 2021 Mar;50(3):634-636

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v50i3.5634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214620PMC
March 2021

An update on prevalence of slow-growing mycobacteria and rapid-growing mycobacteria retrieved from hospital water sources in Iran - a systematic review.

Germs 2021 Mar 15;11(1):97-104. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

PhD, Infectious Diseases Research Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 87155.111, Post Code: 87154, Kashan, Iran.

Introduction: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of slow growing mycobacteria (SGM) and rapid-growing mycobacteria (RGM) retrieved from hospital water sources in Iran from 2016 to 2020.

Methods: The review was conducted to get eligible published studies from 1 January 2016 to 25 March 2020 based on PRISMA protocol. A combination of related words from the Medical Subject Heading Terms (MeSH), with (AND, OR) were used to search for published studies reporting the prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in Scopus, MEDLINE, Web of Sciences, Google Scholar, and Iranian databases. Then data from the studies were extracted and reported.

Results: Our study showed that different water sources of hospitals were contaminated with NTMs. The prevalence of RGM isolates in hospital water samples varied between 42.2%-67.5%, and the prevalence of SGM varied between 32.5%-57.7%, respectively. (84.7%), complex(2.8%-56.4%)and (2.8%-56.2%) were the most prevalent NTM species amongst SGM, whereas (2.9%-44.2%), (8%-36.8%) (8%-25.6%) were the most leading NTM isolates among RGM.

Conclusions: A high prevalence of NTM was reported from hospital environments particularly hospital water sources which can colonize medical devices, solutions, and water used for patients and cause nosocomial infection. Therefore, the hospitals should check the microbiological quality of the water used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18683/germs.2021.1245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8057855PMC
March 2021

Immunoregulatory Effects of Tolerogenic Probiotics in Multiple Sclerosis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1286:87-105

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Gut microbiota has essential roles in the prevention and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). The association between the gut microbiota and the central nervous system (CNS) or immune system response of MS patients has been documented in many studies. The composition of the gut microbiota could lead to sensitization or resistance against promotion and development of MS disease. Probiotics are the major part of gut microflorapopulation and could be substituted with tolerogenic probiotics that protect the CNS against autoimmune responses. Tolerogenic probiotics with anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties have effects on intestinal flora and can reestablish regulatory mucosal and systemic immune responses. Probiotics are able to prevent and restore excessive activation of inflammatory responses, especially autoreactive T cells and inflammatory cytokines. Tolerogenic probiotics, through induction of regulatory T cells and increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines, play a crucial role in controlling inflammation and maintaining tolerance and hemostasis. Therefore, probiotics can be considered as a preventive or therapeutic tool in MS. In the present review, we focus on the immunoregulatory effects of tolerogenic probiotics on the severity of disease, as well as Th1, Th2, and Treg populations in different experimental and human studies of MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-55035-6_6DOI Listing
March 2021

Antibiotic Resistance Pattern in Isolated from Clinical Samples Other than Burn Samples in Iran.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2021 Jan-Mar;13(1):35-41

Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the prevalence of class 1 integrons, antibiotic resistance pattern in isolated from clinical samples other than burn samples.

Methods: The Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct databases were searched using keywords based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The cross-sectional studies published from 1st January 2000 until 1st January 2019 were included which addressed the prevalence of class 1 integrons and antibiotic-resistance in isolated from clinical samples other than burn samples. Meta-analysis was conducted using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software. The random-effects model, Cochran's Q and I tests were applied for statistical analyses.

Results: Eight articles met the eligibility standards for including in the present meta-analysis. The combined prevalence of class 1 integrons in isolated from clinical samples other than burn samples was reported by 40% (95% CI:26.1-55.8%). The pooled prevalence of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) isolates was 70.1%. The highest prevalence of combined antibiotic resistance was related to carbenicillin with a resistance rate of 79.9%. In general, 6 (75%) out of the 8 included studies showed the correlation between the presence of class 1 integrons and antibiotic resistance.

Conclusion: Regarding the correlation between the presence of integrons and the high antibiotic resistance reported by studies included in the present review, there is the need for preventive measures to prevent the spread of resistance by integrons and transferring to other micro-organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ajmb.v13i1.4575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903437PMC
March 2021

Meta-analysis of latent tuberculosis in healthcare workers in Iran: a retrospective review.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Sep;115(9):965-974

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Science, Kashan, Iran.

Background: Here we review the status of latent tuberculosis (LTB) in Iranian healthcare workers (HCWs).

Methods: A literature search was conducted using keywords according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses instructions. Cross-sectional studies published from 1 January 2000 through 1 January 2019 were retrieved. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software using the random effects model, Cochran's Q and I2 tests. Publication bias was estimated by funnel plot and Egger's linear regression test.

Results: Among 774 articles retrieved in the primary literature search, 21 studies met the eligibility criteria. No publication bias was observed among the included studies (p=0.07). The prevalence of LTB ranged from 7% to 63% in Iranian HCWs from different geographical areas. The overall combined prevalence of LTB among Iranian HCWs was 30.9% (95% confidence interval 24.2 to 38.5). Also, 52.4% of the included studies showed a significant correlation between occupation and LTB incidence (p<0.05).

Conclusions: The prevalence of LTB was high among Iranian HCWs. This requires developing comprehensive information databases and surveillance systems for detecting LTB among HCWs. It is also essential to periodically screen for LTB in HCWs to provide a timely diagnosis of the infection. It is recommended to perform a tuberculin skin test, a useful tool for screening and treatment of LTB, on an annual basis in HCWs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/trab006DOI Listing
September 2021

Reduced Efflux Pumps Expression of with Essential Oil.

Iran J Med Sci 2020 Nov;45(6):463-468

Applied Microbiology Research Center, Department of Microbiology, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Efflux pumps such as MexEF-OprN and mexXY-OprM play an important role in the resistance of () to antibiotics. The present study aimed to assess the reduced expression of efflux pump genes of with essential oil (SKEO).

Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 at the Microbiology Laboratory of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. The disk diffusion method was used for susceptibility testing of gentamicin and norfloxacin. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for gentamicin and norfloxacin. The antibacterial efficacy of SKEO was defined by determining the MIC values using the microdilution method. , the synergistic interaction of SKEO combined with gentamicin or norfloxacin was examined via checkerboard assay and defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration index. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique was used to measure changes in the expression of the efflux pump genes. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The MIC values of SKEO were in the range of 6 to 12 µg/mL. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations (1.16 to 2 MIC) of SKEO, synergistic effects were revealed using the checkerboard method. The effect of norfloxacin and gentamicin increased up to 8-fold. The expression of and was reduced after treatment with SKEO.

Conclusion: SKEO reduced the expression of efflux pumps and the MIC values of norfloxacin and gentamicin in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30476/ijms.2019.72675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707626PMC
November 2020

Seroprevalence and Trend of HBV, HCV, and HIV Infections among Blood Donors of Fars Province, Iran (2006-2018).

Ethiop J Health Sci 2020 May;30(3):397-408

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Background: Blood transfusion is a life-saving procedure; millions of lives are saved each year. However, blood transfusions are associated with certain risks that can lead to adverse consequences. This study aimed to survey the prevalence and trend of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among blood donors of Fars province, Iran (2006-2018).

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing the records of the blood transfusion organization of Fars province. A total of 1952478 blood units were screened for transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). Then, data were entered into SPSS software (Negare. version 25). Chi-square test was used to compare the sof TTIs among blood donors. Chisquare test for trend was used to analyze the variations in trends of TTIs during this period. Finally, p-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. GraphPad Prism software was used for the depiction of the graphs.

Results: Among the 1952478 blood donations within the 13-years, 4479(0.229 %) of donors were HBsAg, HCV Ab, and HIV Ag-Ab positive. The seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV was 2684(0.137%), 1703(0.087 %), and 92(0.0047%), respectively.

Conclusion: The current study showed that the overall prevalence of TTIs among blood donors was low and had a descending trend over the years of study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v30i3.11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445945PMC
May 2020

A middle east systematic review and meta-analysis of bacterial urinary tract infection among renal transplant recipients; Causative microorganisms.

Microb Pathog 2020 Nov 21;148:104458. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. Electronic address:

UTI has been reported as the most prevalent infectious complication after-kidney transplantation. This study aimed to evaluate the bacterial urinary tract infection among renal transplant recipients, and causative microorganisms from the Middle East. We searched literatures reporting the prevalence of UTI, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistance pattern from January 1, 2010-May 10, 2020 for patients with renal transplant recipients from the Middle East in international databases. Terms used were; "Urinary tract infection", "UTI", "bacterial pathogens", "bacterial infection", "renal transplant", "kidney transplant", post - renal transplant, "antibiotic resistance", "Middle East", Turkey, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Cyprus, Yemen, Iraq, Egypt, Palestine, and Syria. Data analyzed using CMA software. The prevalence of UTI among renal transplant recipients from the Middle East varied between 4.5 and 85%. The combined prevalence of UTI was reported by 37.9% (95% Cl: 28.3-48.5). The most prevalent organisms recovered from urine samples of patients with UTI were E. coli and Klebsiella with prevalence rate of 57.5%, and 15%, respectively. Also, Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (15%), and Enterococci (11.2%) were the most predominant among Gram positive microorganisms. The most resistance among Gram negative microorganisms belonged to Ceftazidime with frequency of 90% followed by Carbenicillin and Cephalexin with prevalence of 87.3%, and 84%, respectively. The effective antibiotic was Imipenem (15.2%). Regarding the high UTI rate in renal transplant recipients from the Middle East, and the significant presence of both Gram negative and Gram positive microorganisms as the most prevalent uropathogens after renal transplantation should be considered when selecting empirical antibacterial therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104458DOI Listing
November 2020

Evaluate the Effect of Zinc Oxide and Silver Nanoparticles on Biofilm and icaA Gene Expression in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Burn Wound Infection.

J Burn Care Res 2020 11;41(6):1253-1259

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is the cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles (ZnO-Ag NPs) on biofilms formation and icaA gene expression in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In this study, three standard strains (ATCC 43300, 25923, and 29913) and a clinical isolate are included. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanoparticles was determined by microdilution broth method. The antibacterial effects of ZnO-Ag NPs either alone or in combination with each other were compared with vancomycin (as the control group). The effect of MIC and sub-MIC concentrations of ZnO-Ag NPs on biofilm formation was determined by the microtiter plate method. The expression level of the icaA gene was assessed by real-time PCR LightCycler® 96 software (Version 1.1.0.1320, Roche, Germany). technique. All experiments were repeated three times. Data were analyzed using SPSS software through ANOVA and t-test. The P-value of less than .05 was considered as statistically significant. The average MICs of ZnO, Ag, and ZnO-Ag NPs compounds were 393.2, 179.8, and 60.8 μg/ml, respectively. The compound of ZnO-Ag NPs had a synergistic effect against all isolates. ZnO-Ag NPs decreased the biofilm formation rate at MIC and sub-MIC concentrations (P < .001). Sub-MIC ZnO-Ag NPs concentration significantly reduced the icaA gene expression in S. aureus strains (P < .03). The sub-MIC concentration of ZnO-Ag NPs reduced biofilm formation rate and icaA gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus strains compared with vancomycin. It can be used to cover medical devices after examining more clinical isolates to prevent bacterial colonization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/iraa085DOI Listing
November 2020

Construction, Cloning, and Expression of CagA Recombinant Protein of .

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2020 Apr-Jun;12(2):135-138

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: This study aimed to assess construction and expression of CagA recombinant protein of in BL21.

Methods: Bioinformatics was used in designing the desired gene by Gene Runner. Next, the construct was subcloned to pET21b vector and this process was confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), enzyme digestion and sequencing techniques. Then, it was cloned in the Escherichia coli BL21 as an expression host. Expression of protein was verified using sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting technique. For purification of the protein, the Ni-NTA column was used. Protein concentration was determined by the Bicinchoninic Acid Protein Assay Kit (Parstoos). Finally, Western blotting was performed using CagA antibodies and normal human serum for determining immunogenicity feature with human antiserum.

Results: According to the results of the present study, CagA construct was cloned into the pET21b vector and after confirmation and cloning in host expression, recombinant protein with the size of 38 was successfully expressed and purified. The recombinant CagA protein showed immunogenicity characteristics with human antiserum.

Conclusion: In conclusion, only 5'-end of recombinant protein CagA with high immunogenicity effects was successfully constructed, cloned and expressed. Also, CagA recombinant protein showed good immunogenicity activity with human antiserum.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229452PMC
May 2020

A systematic review and meta-analysis of antibiotic resistance patterns, and the correlation between biofilm formation with virulence factors in uropathogenic E. coli isolated from urinary tract infections.

Microb Pathog 2020 Jul 10;144:104196. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ji'nan, China; Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Classical Theory, Ministry of Education, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ji'nan, China. Electronic address:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is caused by the invasion of the pathogen in the urinary system that can manifest as symptomatic or asymptomatic bacteriuria. This study was conducted to investigate antibiotic resistance patterns, and the correlation between biofilm formations with virulence factors in uropathogenic E. coli isolates retrieved from UTI. We searched Scopus and Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of sciences for studies published in the English language between 1st 2005 to 31st December 2019. The Mesh terms and text words included "biofilms", OR "biofilm formation", AND "antibiotic resistance", OR "drug-resistance", OR "antimicrobial drug resistance", AND "urinary tract infections", OR "UTI", AND "biofilm related-genes", AND "virulence factors" AND "correlation", AND "Uropathogenic Escherichia coli", OR "Uropathogenic E. coli" AND "prevalence" AND "Iran". Data analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software. The random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled prevalence with 95% confidence interval (CI). The combined rates of biofilm formation in Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates were achieved as 84.6% (95% CI: 72.7-91.9). Also, 24.8%, 26.1% and 44.6% of UPEC isolates were able to create strong, moderate and weak biofilm, respectively. The highest pooled antibiotic resistance was against Ampicillin followed by Tetracycline with resistance rates of 74.6% and 64.9%, respectively. Accordingly, some studies reported that biofilm production was significantly associated with antibiotic resistance and virulence genes (p < 0.05). This study showed a high tendency among UPEC isolates to form biofilm (more than 84%), also, most studies included in the present review reported a significant correlation between biofilm formation with antibiotic resistance and virulence factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104196DOI Listing
July 2020

A Systematic Review of the Effects of Jamzad and Boiss against .

Iran J Med Sci 2020 Mar;45(2):83-90

Department of Mycobacteriology and Pulmonary Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The use of antibiotics is common, but its excessive or improper use leads to antibiotic resistance. Consequently, scientists have been interested in exploring traditional medicine to identify a new source of anti-bacterial agents. The present study aimed to conduct a systematic review to determine the anti-bacterial activity of Jamzad (SKJ) and Boiss (ZM) essential oils against in vitro.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search for studies published on SKJ and ZM was carried out. Various keywords ( shirazi thyme, thymol, carvacrol; Iran, antibacterial effect; traditional medicine, phytomedicine, herbal medicine) were used to search both international and Iranian databases (Google Scholar, Science Direct, Web of Science, MEDLINE; PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Academic Search; Journal Storage, Magiran, Irandoc, Scientific Information Database (SID), and IranMedex). The selected articles were published during 2000-2017 and were written in English or Persian.

Results: Seventeen articles were included in the review. The main ingredients of SKJ and ZM plants were carvacrol and thymol. The potential anti-bacterial activity of essential oils from these plants was confirmed. The carvacrol content, as the major active ingredient of SKJ was between 38.33-97.89%. The major ingredients of ZM were carvacrol (16.8-82.7%) followed by thymol (25.70-64.87%). The minimum inhibitory concentration () value of SKJ and ZM essential oils against bacterial strains was in the range of 0.31-450 and 2-8,000 μg/mL, respectively.

Conclusion: The present review study confirmed the anti-bacterial activity of SKJ and ZM, particularly against .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30476/IJMS.2019.72570.DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071551PMC
March 2020

Correlation between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a meta-analysis.

Infez Med 2020 Mar;28(1):47-54

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Biofilm formation is one of the important resistance mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study aimed to consider the correlation between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa through a systematic review and meta-analysis. This study was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) strategies. Scientific databases were searched by MeSH terms and keywords such as "Pseudomonas aeruginosa", "biofilm formation", "antibiotic resistance", "prevalence" AND "Iran", to obtain articles published from 1st January 2016 to 30th November 2019. Studies recording biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa recovered from clinical samples of Iranian patients were included. Data analysis was performed using CMA software. The combined biofilm formation rate was reported as 87.6 % (95% CI: 80-92.5). The heterogeneity index among the selected articles was Q2=96.5, I2=85.5, and t=0.26 (p=0.16). The pooled occurrences of strong, moderate and weak biofilms were 47.7% (95% CI: 28.7-67.3), 30.2% (95% CI: 19.4-43.8), and 27.4% (95% CI: 8.8-59.8), respectively. The pooled prevalence of MDR P. aeruginosa strains was as follows: 62.5% (95% CI: 40-77.2). The highest combined rates of antibiotic resistance were against ceftriaxone and tobramycin with the rates of 79.2.9% (95% CI: 54.2-96.2) and 64.4% (95% CI: 36.3-92), respectively. Also, the lowermost antibiotic resistance rates were against colistin and polymyxin B, with the prevalence of 2.1% (95% CI: 0.2-18.1), and 3% (95% CI: 0.5-17.3), respectively. More than half of the studies included in the present review showed a significant correlation between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance pattern.
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March 2020

Pulmonary Nocardiosis in Suspected Tuberculosis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cross-Sectional Studies.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2020 Mar;30(2):293-300

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Background: nocardiosis is an opportunistic infectious disease in immunocompromised patients. The most common form of nocardiosis infection in humans is pulmonary nocrdiosis caused by inhaling Nocardia species from the environment. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the pulmonary nocardiosis in patients with suspected tuberculosis using systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search for cross-sectional studies focused on the pulmonary nocardiosis among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) published from January 2001 to October 2019. The search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Science Direct databases, and Iranian databases. Medical subject headings (MeSH) and text words were searched: "pulmonary nocardiosis", "nocardiosis", OR "nocardial infection", "pulmonary nocardial infections/agents", AND "pulmonary tuberculosis", OR "pulmonary TB", AND "Iran". Two of the reviewers enrolled independently articles published in English and Persian languages according to the inclusion and the exclusion criteria. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (Version 3.3.070) was used for meta-analysis.

Results: Only 4 studies met the eligibility criteria. The pulmonary nocardiosis prevalence varied from 1.7% to 6.7%. The combined prevalence of nocardiosis among patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in Iran was 4.8% (95% CI: 3-7.3, Q=5.8, Z=12.7). No heterogeneity was observed between studies because I was 48.3. N. cyriacigeorgica and N. asteroides were reported as the prevalent isolates, respectively.

Conclusions: This review showed in patients suspected TB when they were negative in all diagnosis laboratory tests, nocardiosis cases which be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v30i2.17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7060384PMC
March 2020

Correlation Between Biofilm Formation and Antibiotic Resistance in MRSA and MSSA Isolated from Clinical Samples in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Microb Drug Resist 2020 Sep 10;26(9):1071-1080. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

This study aimed at reviewing the correlation between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) isolates. This review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocols. The literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science (ISI), and Scopus databases. Combinations of Mesh terms such as "biofilms" OR "biofilm formation," AND "Drug Resistance" OR "Antimicrobial Drug Resistance" OR "Antibiotic Resistance" AND "" OR "Methicillin-resistant " or "MRSA" AND "Methicillin-sensitive OR "MSSA" AND "biofilm-related genes" AND "Prevalence" AND "Iran" were searched. Two reviewers independently searched the databases. Analyses were performed in Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. The random-effects model was used to obtain the combined prevalence with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The combined prevalence of MRSA retrieved from Iranian clinical samples was 48.3% (95% CI: 40.8-55.9). The pooled rate of biofilm formation in MRSA strains was reported as 80.9% (95% CI: 67.8-89.4). Overall, 52.9%, 45.3%, and 22.5% of MRSA isolates were strong, moderate, and weak biofilm producers, respectively. The highest frequency of biofilm-related genes was observed for gene (67.7%) followed by gene with a frequency of 64.7%. Among seven studies that addressed the relationship between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance, six reported positive associations. Regarding the MRSA strains, they had a significantly higher ability of biofilm formation than MSSA strains; therefore, preventive measures against infections caused by them are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2020.0001DOI Listing
September 2020

Diagnosis of Acute Toxoplasmosis by IgG and IgM Antibodies and IgG Avidity in Pregnant Women from Mashhad, Eastern Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2019 Oct-Dec;14(4):639-645

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: We aimed to evaluate the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis by IgG avidity test in pregnant women.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 250 blood samples were collected from pregnant women with the first month of their pregnancy referring to health centers of University in Mashhad during 2016. Samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 min for separation of serum and were kept in the -20 until use. To detection of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis, anti- antibodies (IgG and IgM, and IgG avidity tests were performed using ELISA. Then, data analyzed using SPSS software by Frequency, Pearson Chi-Square, Likelihood Ratio, and Exact tests. And <0.05 was statistically considered as significant.

Results: Total prevalence of IgG and IgM was 23.2% and 7.2%, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between the mean age and IgG level (<0.05). It was not found any correlation between the history of raw meat consumption, cats keeping, education, and residency site. Moreover, 16 people (6.4%) had IgM antibody, of which, 10 cases (62.5%) with low avidity for IgG and 1 people (6.2%) with moderate avidity and 5 cases (31.3%) with high avidity for IgG. Moreover, 76% of pregnant women were seronegative.

Conclusion: More than half of the women (62.5%) with positive IgM antibody in their serum had a low avidity for IgG which revealed an acute infection among pregnant women. infection should be considered as an important factor that affects the pregnancy and IgG avidity as an important test for screening the women who need the treatment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028235PMC
February 2020

Aspergillus coinfection among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Asia and Africa countries; A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.

Microb Pathog 2020 Apr 29;141:104018. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. Electronic address:

Progress of the disease and prolonged treatment with antibiotics or immunosuppressive agents makes tuberculosis patients susceptible to fungal infections. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary Aspergillus coinfection among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Asia and Africa. The present review of cross-sectional studies was conducted on the prevalence of pulmonary Aspergillus coinfection among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis according to the PRISMA Protocol. Literatures published online in English from January 2001 to March 2019 via key databases such as Web of Science, MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library were searched. The used MeSH and non-MeSH keywords were; "pulmonary fungal", "pulmonary coinfection", OR "Pulmonary mycosis", "pulmonary fungal infections/agents", OR "Polymicrobial infection", OR "Secondary infection", OR "Mixed infections", "pulmonary aspergillosis", "fungi coinfection", "Fungal co-colonization", AND "pulmonary tuberculosis", OR "pulmonary TB", AND "Asia" AND "Africa". Finally, data analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (CMA). The combined Aspergillus coinfection among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was 15.4% (95% CI: 11.4-20.5), Q = 105.8 and Z = 9.57 in Asia and Africa. The most frequency of Aspergillus spp. was related to A. fumigatus with a combined prevalence of 57.6%. Most of the studies included in the present review showed a higher Aspergillus coinfection in the age group of 40 years and higher. Also, the existence of a correlation between increasing age and Aspergillus coinfection was reported (p < 0.05). The present review showed a high combined Aspergillus coinfection among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Asia and Africa. Also, amongst the Aspergillus spp., the most frequent was related to A. fumigatus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104018DOI Listing
April 2020

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacterial Uropathogens Isolated from Iranian Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Iran J Public Health 2019 Dec;48(12):2165-2176

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a major complication in patients who receive the kidney transplant. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial uropathogens isolated from Iranian kidney transplant recipients.

Methods: We searched according to Prisma protocol for UTI infection, prevalence, occurrence and distribution of bacteria and their pattern of antibiotic resistance among Iranian patients who receive kidney transplant through online electronic databases with MeSh terms and text words in published references in both Persian and English languages during 1990-2017. Data analysis was performed using Comprehensive meta-analysis software (CMA) by Cochrane Q and I Random Effects Model.

Results: Eleven studies met the eligible inclusion criteria. The prevalence of UTI among kidney transplant patients varied from 11.7% to 67.5%. The combined prevalence of UTI was 32.6%. Among Gram-negative pathogens causing UTI, was the most dominant followed by with prevalence 41.3% and 11.9%, respectively. Also, amongst Gram-positive bacteria, the highest prevalence belonged to spp (9.8%) and coagulasenegative Staphylococci (9.4%). Also in Gram-negative pathogens, the most resistance was to ampicillin (91.2%), followed by ceftazidime (89.5%). The minimum resistance was against imipenem with prevalence 14.3%.

Conclusion: The combined prevalence of UTI was 32.6%. Gram-negative pathogens especially were the most agents of UTI in Iranian patients who receive kidney transplant. Also, in gram-negative pathogens, the most resistance was to ampicillin that it needs a new strategy for prophylaxis and treatment of UTI after the kidney transplant.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6974870PMC
December 2019

Meta-Analysis of Biofilm Formation, Antibiotic Resistance Pattern, and Biofilm-Related Genes in Isolated from Clinical Samples.

Microb Drug Resist 2020 Jul 23;26(7):815-824. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R. Iran.

Resistant microorganisms such as grow by developing biofilms in hospitals. We aimed to investigate the biofilm formation and the frequencies of biofilm-related genes and their associations with antibiotic resistance pattern in isolated from Iranians' clinical samples. This review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We conducted a systematic literature search in scientific databases using medical subject heading terms, including " "biofilm formation," "biofilm-related genes," "antibiotic resistance," and "prevalence," to obtain related articles published from 1st January, 2000, to 30th March, 2019. The studies reporting the prevalence of biofilm formation, the frequencies of biofilm-related genes, and the antibiotic resistance pattern in retrieved from Iranian patients were included. Meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. The pooled rate of biofilm formation was calculated as 86.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 79-91.6). The combined frequencies of strong, moderate, and weak biofilms were 51% (95% CI: 37.4-64.4), 29.2% (95% CI: 20.9-39.1), and 25.4% (95% CI: 11.5-47.2), respectively. The pooled prevalence of , , , , and genes were 93.6% (95% CI: 88.1-96.6), 91.4% (95% CI: 80.8-96.4), 89.3% (95% CI: 85.2-92.3), 98.7% (95% CI: 96.5-99.6), and 93% (95% CI: 82.7-97.3), respectively. The highest combined antibiotic resistance rates of isolates were against piperacillin/tazobactam (90%). This study showed that biofilm formation was higher in multidrug-resistant (MDR) than non-MDRs. A significant correlation was observed between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in 50% of studies included in this review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2019.0274DOI Listing
July 2020

Ability of biofilm production and molecular analysis of spa and ica genes among clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

BMC Res Notes 2020 Jan 7;13(1):19. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of biofilm formation and spa and ica genes among clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Result: This cross-sectional study was performed on 146 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from hospitalized patients in Isfahan Province Hospitals. MRSA isolates were confirmed using disk diffusion test with oxacillin disk and amplification of mecA gene by PCR assays. Ability of biofilm production was evaluated targeting the icaA and icaD genes. Of 146 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 24 (16.4%) carried mecA genes and identified as MRSA strains. Strong ability of biofilm production was seen among 76.02% (111/146) S. aureus isolates and 87.5% (21/24) MRSA strains, respectively. Also, 75.0% (18/24) MRSA isolates carried icaA and icaD was not detected in these strains. Analysis of spa gene showed 70.83% (17/24) MRSA strains were spa positive. From which 14 and 3 strains identified with one band (150, 270, 300, 360, 400 bp) and two bands (150-300 bp), respectively. According to data obtained, the prevalence of MRSA isolates from Isfahan Province Hospitals is relatively high and a remarkable percentage of them show strong power in biofilm production. Also analysis of spa gene showed a fairly large diversity among MRSA strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-4885-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6947956PMC
January 2020

Inhibitory effects of Cinnamaldehyde, Carvacrol, and honey on the expression of exoS and ampC genes in multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn wound infections.

Microb Pathog 2020 Mar 23;140:103946. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Science, Kashan, Iran; Autoimmune Diseases Research Center, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Cinnamaldehyde, Carvacrol, and honey either alone or in combinations on the expression of exoS and ampC genes in multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa isolates. Thirty-five P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered from burn wound infections of patients admitted to the burn ward of Besat hospital of Hamadan, Iran, during 2018. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method to identify MDR isolates. The antibacterial effects of Cinnamaldehyde, Carvacrol, and honey either alone or in combinations with each other were compared to Imipenem (as the control group) using the broth dilution method. The expressions of exoS and ampC genes were determined in bacteria treated with sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the ternary combination of Cinnamaldehyde, Carvacrol, and honey by Real-Time-PCR. The data were analyzed using SPSS software applying student t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests. The P-value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The average MICs of Cinnamaldehyde, Carvacrol, and honey were 0.82-0.01, 0.01-0.6, and 62.5-250 μg/mL, respectively. The average MIC of the mentioned compounds was 430 times lower than that of Imipenem. A synergistic effect was detected between these drugs against 70% of the isolates. At sub-MIC concentration, the triple combination of Cinnamaldehyde, Carvacrol, and honey reduced the expressions of exoS and ampC genes by 6.12 and 2.85 folds, respectively. The combination of Cinnamaldehyde, Carvacrol, and honey showed a higher antibacterial effect than Imipenem. However, it needs confirmation with more isolates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103946DOI Listing
March 2020

Candida coinfection among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Asia and Africa; A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.

Microb Pathog 2020 Feb 30;139:103898. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. Electronic address:

Diagnosis of fungal co-infections in patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis has critical importance. Therefore, we aimed to determine the prevalence of candida coinfection in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. The present systematic review of cross-sectional studies was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) Protocol. Studies published online in English from January 2001 to March 2019 were assessed. Literature search was done in Web of Science, MEDLINE/PubMed, and Scopus databases and search engines using keywords combinations of "pulmonary fungi", "pulmonary coinfection", OR "pulmonary mycosis", "pulmonary fungal infections/agents", OR "polymicrobial infection", OR "secondary infection", OR "mixed infections", "pulmonary candidiasis", "fungi coinfection", "fungal co-colonization", AND "pulmonary tuberculosis", OR "pulmonary TB", AND "Asia", AND "Africa". Data was analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (CMA). Heterogeneity between studies was evaluated by Cochran's Q and I tests. The pooled prevalence of candida coinfection among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was 25.7% (95% CI: 23.7-27.9). C. albicans was the most prevalent Candida spp. with a pooled prevalence of 65.8% (95% CI: 54.3-75.7). Risk factors of candida coinfection were smoking, diabetes, advanced age, and low body mass index. The present review showed a high rate of candida coinfection among patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis. So, appropriate measures are necessary to early diagnose and treat these infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103898DOI Listing
February 2020

Prevalence of Integrons and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern in Isolated from Clinical Samples of Iranian Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2019 Sep;29(5):639-648

Immunogenetic and Cell Culture Department, Immunology Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic nosocomial pathogen. Class 1 integrons in A. baumannii plays a significant role in antibiotic resistance. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of integrons and antibiotic resistance pattern in A. baumannii isolated from clinical samples of Iranian patients.

Methods: The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and the keywords with the help of Boolean operators ("AND" or "OR") were used alone or in combination to conduct the search. The searching process was conducted in the Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases and, also Iranian databases. The search was restricted to relevant English and Persian cross-sectional publications reporting the prevalence of Int1 in A. baumannii isolated from clinical samples from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2018. The data were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. Regarding the heterogeneity of studies, the random effects model was used. Cochrane Q and I tests was used to evaluate statistical heterogeneity between the studies.

Results: Fifteen studies were included in the analysis. The combined prevalence of class 1 integrons in A. baumannii was 55.2% (95% CI: 44.8-65.1). The pooled prevalence of MDR A. baumannii isolates was 68.1%. The highest resistance belonged to Aztreonam, followed by Ciprofloxacin, and Ceftazidime with a resistance rate of 97.6%, 92.8%, and 91.6%, respectively. Tobramycin was reported as an effective antibiotic.

Conclusions: The present study reported an alarmingly high prevalence of class 1 Integrons, and MDR isolates of A. baumannii recovered from clinical samples that should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v29i5.15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6813273PMC
September 2019

Essential Oil against Quorum Sensing of Using RT-PCR.

Iran J Public Health 2019 Jul;48(7):1390-1391

Department of Microbiology and Applied Microbiology Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6708546PMC
July 2019

A Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Class 1 Integron and Correlation with Antibiotic Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Recovered from Iranian Burn Patients.

J Burn Care Res 2019 10;40(6):972-978

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The role of integrons has been highlighted in antibiotic resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Therefore, we here reviewed the prevalence of class 1 integrons and their correlations with antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa isolated from Iranian burn patients. This review was conducted according to the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Cross-sectional and cohort studies published from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2018 were enrolled. Meta-analysis was performed by Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software using the random effects model, Cochran's Q, and I2 tests. Publication bias was estimated by Funnel plot and Egger's linear regression test. Nine out of 819 studies met the eligibility criteria. The overall combined prevalence of class 1 integrons in P. aeruginosa isolates was 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 50.5-83%). The highest combined resistance was reported against Cloxacillin (87.7%), followed by Carbenicillin (79.1%) and Ceftriaxone (77.3%). The combined prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates was 79.3% (95% CI: 31.1-97%). Also, a significant correlation was noted between the presence of class 1 integrons and antibiotic resistance in 55.5% of the included studies (P < .05). The results showed high prevalence of class 1 integrons, antibiotic resistance, and MDR strains in P. aeruginosa isolated from Iranian burn patients. Also, most of the included studies showed a significant correlation between the presence of class 1 integrons and antibiotic resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/irz135DOI Listing
October 2019

Epinecidin-1, a highly potent marine antimicrobial peptide with anticancer and immunomodulatory activities.

BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2019 05 28;20(1):33. Epub 2019 May 28.

Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Antibiotic-resistant pathogens are an emerging threat in this century. Epinecidin-1 is a multi-functional Antimicrobial Peptide (AMP) produced by Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) has been shown to have extensive potentials as an alternative for current antibiotics. Due to the huge costs for the study and the production of a new drug, if an antimicrobial peptide has other beneficial functions in addition to antimicrobial activities, it would be preferred.

Methods: In this study, properties and applications of Epinecidin-1 were investigated and addressed comprehensively. To achieve this, the Google Scholar search engine and three databases of PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were used.

Results: Epinecidin-1 is a cationic AMP with an alpha-helical structure. Seven functional usages of this peptide have been reported in the literature including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiprotozoal, anticancer, immunomodulatory, and wound healing properties. Moreover, this peptide has high potential to be used as an active ingredient in cleaning solutions as well as application in vaccine production.

Conclusion: Due to significant antimicrobial activities tested on bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori and also wound healing properties, Epi-1 has high potential to be considered as an important candidate for the production of new drugs and treatment of various infections including diabetic foot ulcer and peptic ulcer. Moreover, adjuvant-like properties of Epi-1 make it a suitable candidate for the studies related to an adjuvant. Other attractive properties such as anticancer effects have also been reported for this peptide which encourages further studies on this peptide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40360-019-0309-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537373PMC
May 2019

Vaccine potential of LenA and LcpA proteins of in combination with heat-labile enterotoxin, B subunit (LTB).

Iran J Microbiol 2019 Feb;11(1):39-47

Department of Microbiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Leptospirosis is a zooanthroponosis caused by the genus of . It is an emerging public health problem due to its increasing incidence. The achievement to a vaccine that prevent from entrance of to the deeper tissues of the host is needed. This study aimed to investigate the immunogenicity of LcpA (rLcpA) and LenA (rLenA) recombinant proteins in combination with LTB (rLTB) recombinant protein as an adjuvant against leptospiral infection in hamsters.

Materials And Methods: The genes encoding these proteins were cloned into pGH cloning vector and then and genes subcloned into pET-15b and pET-28a expression vectors, respectively. The hamsters were immunized with the purified recombinant proteins and challenged with for evaluation of their survival. The antibody responses to the recombinant proteins were determined by ELISA. Then, data entered into SPSS software. Statistical Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the significant differences among different groups. The groups with significant differences were further analyzed by post hoc tests. The value < 0.05 statistically was considered significant.

Results: Immunized hamsters with rLenA-plus-rLTB, rLcpA-plus-rLTB and rLenA-plus-rLcpA-plus-rLTB proteins showed 60%, 74%, and 80% survival rates, respectively. A significant amount of interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and gamma interferon (IFNγ) cytokines were produced in immunized hamsters.

Conclusion: Based on our findings, rLcpA and rLenA proteins in combination with rLTB can protect the hamsters against and effectively induce a protective antibody response. Thus, these proteins can be used as an additional prophylactic tool against leptospira.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462271PMC
February 2019
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