Publications by authors named "Aytekin Oto"

192 Publications

Prostate minimally invasive procedures: complications and normal vs. abnormal findings on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI).

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA, 92868-3201, USA.

Minimally invasive alternatives to traditional prostate surgery are increasingly utilized to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and localized prostate cancer in select patients. Advantages of these treatments over prostatectomy include lower risk of complication, shorter length of hospital stay, and a more favorable safety profile. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has become a widely accepted imaging modality for evaluation of the prostate gland and provides both anatomical and functional information. As prostate mpMRI and minimally invasive prostate procedure volumes increase, it is important for radiologists to be familiar with normal post-procedure imaging findings and potential complications. This paper reviews the indications, procedural concepts, common post-procedure imaging findings, and potential complications of prostatic artery embolization, prostatic urethral lift, irreversible electroporation, photodynamic therapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound, focal cryotherapy, and focal laser ablation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-021-03097-6DOI Listing
May 2021

High spectral and spatial resolution MRI of prostate cancer: a pilot study.

Magn Reson Med 2021 09 8;86(3):1505-1513. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Purpose: High spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI is a spectroscopic imaging method focusing on water and fat resonances that has good diagnostic utility in breast imaging. The purpose of this work was to assess the feasibility and potential utility of HiSS MRI for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

Methods: HiSS MRI was acquired at 3 T from six patients who underwent prostatectomy, yielding a train of 127 phase-coherent gradient echo (GRE) images. In the temporal domain, changes in voxel intensity were analyzed and linear (R) and quadratic (R1, R2) quantifiers of signal logarithm decay were calculated. In the spectral domain, three signal scaling-independent parameters were calculated: water resonance peak width (PW), relative peak asymmetry (PRA), and relative peak distortion from ideal Lorentzian shape (PRD). Seven cancer and five normal tissue regions of interest were identified in correlation with pathology and compared.

Results: HiSS-derived quantifiers, except R2, showed high reproducibility (coefficients of variation, 5%-14%). Spectral domain quantifiers performed better than temporal domain quantifiers, with receiver operator characteristic areas under the curve ranging from of 0.83 to 0.91. For temporal domain parameters, the range was 0.74 to 0.91. Low absolute values of the coefficients of correlation between monoexponential decay markers (R, PW) and resonance shape markers (PRA, PRD) were observed (range, 0.23-0.38).

Conclusion: The feasibility and potential diagnostic utility of HiSS MRI in the prostate at 3 T without an endorectal coil was confirmed. Weak correlation between well-performing markers indicates that complementary information could be leveraged to further improve diagnostic accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.28802DOI Listing
September 2021

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Post-Treatment Surveillance of Bladder Cancer: 2021 Update.

J Am Coll Radiol 2021 May;18(5S):S126-S138

Specialty Chair, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Urothelial cancer is the second most common cancer, and cause of cancer death, related to the genitourinary tract. The goals of surveillance imaging after the treatment of urothelial cancer of the urinary bladder are to detect new or previously undetected urothelial tumors, to identify metastatic disease, and to evaluate for complications of therapy. For surveillance, patients can be stratified into one of three groups: 1) nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer with no symptoms or additional risk factors; 2) nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer with symptoms or additional risk factors; and 3) muscle invasive bladder cancer. This document is a review of the current literature for urothelial cancer and resulting recommendations for surveillance imaging. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2021.02.011DOI Listing
May 2021

Prostate Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Local Recurrence Reporting (PI-RR): International Consensus -based Guidelines on Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prostate Cancer Recurrence after Radiation Therapy and Radical Prostatectomy.

Eur Urol Oncol 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Imaging techniques are used to identify local recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa) for salvage therapy and to exclude metastases that should be addressed with systemic therapy. For magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a reduction in the variability of acquisition, interpretation, and reporting is required to detect local PCa recurrence in men with biochemical relapse after local treatment with curative intent.

Objective: To propose a standardised method for image acquisition and assessment of PCa local recurrence using MRI after radiation therapy (RP) and radical prostatectomy (RT).

Evidence Acquisition: Prostate Imaging for Recurrence Reporting (PI-RR) was formulated using the existing literature. An international panel of experts conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature. The PI-RR system was created via consensus through a combination of face-to-face and online discussions.

Evidence Synthesis: Similar to with PI-RADS, based on the best available evidence and expert opinion, the minimum acceptable MRI parameters for detection of recurrence after radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy are set. Also, a simplified and standardised terminology and content of the reports that use five assessment categories to summarise the suspicion of local recurrence (PI-RR) are designed. PI-RR scores of 1 and 2 are assigned to lesions with a very low and low likelihood of recurrence, respectively. PI-RR 3 is assigned if the presence of recurrence is uncertain. PI-RR 4 and 5 are assigned for a high and very high likelihood of recurrence, respectively. PI-RR is intended to be used in routine clinical practice and to facilitate data collection and outcome monitoring for research.

Conclusions: This paper provides a structured reporting system (PI-RR) for MRI evaluation of local recurrence of PCa after RT and RP.

Patient Summary: A new method called PI-RR was developed to promote standardisation and reduce variations in the acquisition, interpretation, and reporting of magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating local recurrence of prostate cancer and guiding therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euo.2021.01.003DOI Listing
February 2021

Comparison of DCE-MRI of murine model cancers with a low dose and high dose of contrast agent.

Phys Med 2021 Jan 26;81:31-39. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, United States. Electronic address:

There are increasing concerns regarding intracellular accumulation of gadolinium (Gd) after multiple dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI scans. We investigated whether a low dose (LD) of Gd-based contrast agent is as effective as a high dose (HD) for quantitative analysis of DCE-MRI data, and evaluated the use of a split dose protocol to obtain new diagnostic parameters. Female C3H mice (n = 6) were injected with mammary carcinoma cells in the hind leg. MRI experiments were performed on 9.4 T scanner. DCE-MRI data were acquired with 1.5 s temporal resolution before and after a LD (0.04 mmol/kg), then again after 30 min followed by a HD (0.2 mmol/kg) bolus injection of Omniscan. The standard Tofts model was used to extract physiological parameters (K and v) with the arterial input function derived from muscle reference tissue. In addition, an empirical mathematical model was used to characterize maximum contrast agent uptake (A), contrast agent uptake rate (α) and washout rate (β and γ). There were moderate to strong correlations (r = 0.69-0.97, p < 0001) for parameters K, v, A, α and β from LD versus HD data. On average, tumor parameters obtained from LD data were significantly larger (p < 0.05) than those from HD data. The parameter ratios, K, v, A and α calculated from the LD data divided by the HD data, were all significantly larger than 1.0 (p < 0.003) for tumor. T* changes following contrast agent injection affected parameters calculated from HD data, but this was not the case for LD data. The results suggest that quantitative analysis of LD data may be at least as effective for cancer characterization as quantitative analysis of HD data. In addition, the combination of parameters from two different doses may provide useful diagnostic information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2020.11.023DOI Listing
January 2021

Signal intensity form of the Tofts model for quantitative analysis of prostate dynamic contrast enhanced MRI data.

Phys Med Biol 2021 01 22;66(2):025002. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, United States of America.

The aim of this study is to develop a signal intensity (S(t)) form of the standard Tofts pharmacokinetic model that avoids the need to calculate tissue contrast agent concentration (C(t)) as function of time (t). We refer to this as 'SI-Tofts' model. Physiological parameters (K and v ) calculated using the SI-Tofts and standard Tofts models were compared by using simulations and human prostate dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI data. This approach was also applied to the Patlak model to compare K values calculated from C(t) and S(t). Simulations were performed on DCE-MRI data from the quantitative imaging biomarkers alliance to validate SI-Tofts model. In addition, ultrafast DCE-MRI data were acquired from 18 prostate cancer patients on a Philips Achieva 3T-TX scanner. Regions-of-interest (ROIs) for prostate cancer, normal tissue, gluteal muscle, and iliac artery were manually traced. The C(t) was calculated for each ROI using the standard model with measured pre-contrast tissue T values. Both the simulation and clinical results showed strong correlation (r = 0.87-0.99, p < 0.001) for K and v calculated from the SI-Tofts and standard Tofts models. The SI-Tofts model with a correction factor using the T ratio of blood to tissue significantly improved the K estimates. The correlation of K obtained from the Patlak model with C(t) vs S(t) was also strong (r = 0.95-0.99, p < 0.001). These preliminary results suggest that physiological parameters from DCE-MRI can be reliably estimated from the SI-Tofts model without contrast agent concentration calculation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/abca02DOI Listing
January 2021

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Recurrent Lower Urinary Tract Infections in Females.

J Am Coll Radiol 2020 Nov;17(11S):S487-S496

Specialty Chair, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women are common, with an overall lifetime risk over >50%. UTIs are considered recurrent when they follow complete clinical resolution of a previous UTI and are usually defined as at least three episodes of infection within the preceding 12 months. An uncomplicated UTI is classified as a UTI without structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and without relevant comorbidities. Complicated UTIs are those occurring in patients with underlying structural or medical problems. In women with recurrent uncomplicated UTIs, cystoscopy and imaging are not routinely used. In women suspected of having a recurrent complicated UTI, cystoscopy and imaging should be considered. CT urography or MR urography are usually appropriate for the evaluation of recurrent complicated lower urinary tract infections or for women who are nonresponders to conventional therapy, develop frequent reinfections or relapses, or have known underlying risk factors. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2020.09.003DOI Listing
November 2020

Data Augmentation and Transfer Learning to Improve Generalizability of an Automated Prostate Segmentation Model.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2020 12 14;215(6):1403-1410. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10, Rm B3B85, Bethesda MD 20892.

Deep learning applications in radiology often suffer from overfitting, limiting generalization to external centers. The objective of this study was to develop a high-quality prostate segmentation model capable of maintaining a high degree of performance across multiple independent datasets using transfer learning and data augmentation. A retrospective cohort of 648 patients who underwent prostate MRI between February 2015 and November 2018 at a single center was used for training and validation. A deep learning approach combining 2D and 3D architecture was used for training, which incorporated transfer learning. A data augmentation strategy was used that was specific to the deformations, intensity, and alterations in image quality seen on radiology images. Five independent datasets, four of which were from outside centers, were used for testing, which was conducted with and without fine-tuning of the original model. The Dice similarity coefficient was used to evaluate model performance. When prostate segmentation models utilizing transfer learning were applied to the internal validation cohort, the mean Dice similarity coefficient was 93.1 for whole prostate and 89.0 for transition zone segmentations. When the models were applied to multiple test set cohorts, the improvement in performance achieved using data augmentation alone was 2.2% for the whole prostate models and 3.0% for the transition zone segmentation models. However, the best test-set results were obtained with models fine-tuned on test center data with mean Dice similarity coefficients of 91.5 for whole prostate segmentation and 89.7 for transition zone segmentation. Transfer learning allowed for the development of a high-performing prostate segmentation model, and data augmentation and fine-tuning approaches improved performance of a prostate segmentation model when applied to datasets from external centers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.19.22347DOI Listing
December 2020

Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Transurethral Ultrasound Ablation of Prostate Cancer.

J Urol 2021 Mar 6;205(3):769-779. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

University of Chicago.

Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided transurethral ultrasound ablation uses directional thermal ultrasound under magnetic resonance imaging thermometry feedback control for prostatic ablation. We report 12-month outcomes from a prospective multicenter trial (TACT).

Materials And Methods: A total of 115 men with favorable to intermediate risk prostate cancer across 13 centers were treated with whole gland ablation sparing the urethra and apical sphincter. The co-primary 12-month endpoints were safety and efficacy.

Results: In all, 72 (63%) had grade group 2 and 77 (67%) had NCCN® intermediate risk disease. Median treatment delivery time was 51 minutes with 98% (IQR 95-99) thermal coverage of target volume and spatial ablation precision of ±1.4 mm on magnetic resonance imaging thermometry. Grade 3 adverse events occurred in 9 (8%) men. The primary endpoint (U.S. Food and Drug Administration mandated) of prostate specific antigen reduction ≥75% was achieved in 110 of 115 (96%) with median prostate specific antigen reduction of 95% and nadir of 0.34 ng/ml. Median prostate volume decreased from 37 to 3 cc. Among 68 men with pretreatment grade group 2 disease, 52 (79%) were free of grade group 2 disease on 12-month biopsy. Of 111 men with 12-month biopsy data, 72 (65%) had no evidence of cancer. Erections (International Index of Erectile Function question 2 score 2 or greater) were maintained/regained in 69 of 92 (75%). Multivariate predictors of persistent grade group 2 at 12 months included intraprostatic calcifications at screening, suboptimal magnetic resonance imaging thermal coverage of target volume and a PI-RADS™ 3 or greater lesion at 12-month magnetic resonance imaging (p <0.05).

Conclusions: The TACT study of magnetic resonance imaging-guided transurethral ultrasound whole gland ablation in men with localized prostate cancer demonstrated effective tissue ablation and prostate specific antigen reduction with low rates of toxicity and residual disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000001362DOI Listing
March 2021

PI-RADS Committee Position on MRI Without Contrast Medium in Biopsy-Naive Men With Suspected Prostate Cancer: Narrative Review.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 01 19;216(1):3-19. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Northwood, Middlesex, United Kingdom.

The steadily increasing demand for diagnostic prostate MRI has led to concerns regarding the lack of access to and the availability of qualified MRI scanners and sufficiently experienced radiologists, radiographers, and technologists to meet the demand. Solutions must enhance operational benefits without compromising diagnostic performance, quality, and delivery of service. Solutions should also mitigate risks such as decreased reader confidence and referrer engagement. One approach may be the implementation of MRI without the use gadolinium-based contrast medium (bipara-metric MRI), but only if certain prerequisites such as high-quality imaging, expert interpretation quality, and availability of patient recall or on-table monitoring are mandated. Alternatively, or in combination, a clinical risk-based approach could be used for protocol selection, specifically, which biopsy-naive men need MRI with contrast medium (multiparametric MRI). There is a need for prospective studies in which biopsy decisions are made according to MRI without contrast enhancement. Such studies must define clinical and operational benefits and identify which patient groups can be scanned successfully without contrast enhancement. These higher-quality data are needed before the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) Committee can make evidence-based recommendations about MRI without contrast enhancement as an initial diagnostic approach for prostate cancer workup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.20.24268DOI Listing
January 2021

T2*-weighted MRI as a non-contrast-enhanced method for assessment of focal laser ablation zone extent in prostate cancer thermotherapy.

Eur Radiol 2021 Jan 12;31(1):325-332. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Radiology, Sanford J. Grossman Center of Excellence in Prostate Imaging and Image Guided Therapy, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Objectives: To evaluate utility of T2*-weighted (T2*W) MRI as a tool for intra-operative identification of ablation zone extent during focal laser ablation (FLA) of prostate cancer (PCa), as compared to the current standard of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (T1W) MRI.

Methods: Fourteen patients with biopsy-confirmed low- to intermediate-risk localized PCa received MRI-guided (1.5 T) FLA thermotherapy. Following FLA, axial multiple-TE T2*W images, diffusion-weighted images (DWI), and T2-weighted (T2W) images were acquired. Pre- and post-contrast T1W images were also acquired to assess ablation zone (n = 14) extent, as reference standard. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and subtracted contrast-enhanced T1W (sceT1W) images were calculated. Ablation zone regions of interest (ROIs) were outlined manually on all ablated slices. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CBR) of the ablation site ROI relative to the untreated contralateral prostate tissue was calculated on T2*W images and ADC maps and compared to that in sceT1W images.

Results: CBRs in ablation ROIs on T2*W images (TE = 32, 63 ms) did not differ (p = 0.33, 0.25) from those in sceT1W images. Bland-Altman plots of ROI size and CBR in ablation sites showed good agreement between T2*W (TE = 32, 63 ms) and sceT1W images, with ROI sizes on T2*W (TE = 63 ms) strongly correlated (r = 0.64, p = 0.013) and within 15% of those in sceT1W images.

Conclusions: In detected ablation zone ROI size and CBR, non-contrast-enhanced T2*W MRI is comparable to contrast-enhanced T1W MRI, presenting as a potential method for intra-procedural monitoring of FLA for PCa.

Key Points: • T2*-weighted MR images with long TE visualize post-procedure focal laser ablation zone comparably to the contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI. • T2*-weighted MRI could be used as a plausible method for repeated intra-operative monitoring of thermal ablation zone in prostate cancer, avoiding potential toxicity due to heating of contrast agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07127-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755698PMC
January 2021

Factors Impacting Performance and Reproducibility of PI-RADS.

Can Assoc Radiol J 2020 Jul 21:846537120943886. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, IL, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0846537120943886DOI Listing
July 2020

Hiding in the Water.

N Engl J Med 2020 May;382(19):1844-1849

From the Department of Internal Medicine, Sections of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (D.M., M.R.C.) and Infectious Diseases (J.-L.B.), and the Department of Radiology (A.O.), University of Chicago Medicine, and the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Chicago Medicine, and the MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics, University of Chicago (M.S.) - all in Chicago.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMcps1902741DOI Listing
May 2020

Variability of the Positive Predictive Value of PI-RADS for Prostate MRI across 26 Centers: Experience of the Society of Abdominal Radiology Prostate Cancer Disease-focused Panel.

Radiology 2020 07 21;296(1):76-84. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

From the Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (A.C.W., R.J.Z.), Urology (A.C.W., P.R.C.), and Epidemiology and Biostatistics (C.E.M.) and the Clinical and Translational Science Institute (C.E.M.), University of California, San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave, M-392, Box 0628, San Francisco, CA 94143; Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pa (J.M.A., R.B.P.); Departments of Radiology and Radiological Sciences (S.A., V.G.B) and Urologic Surgery (S.A.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tenn; Departments of Radiology (A.O.) and Urology (N.S.B), University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill; Departments of Radiology (J.O.B) and Nuclear Medicine (J.J.F.), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Departments of Diagnostic Radiology (T.K.B., D.M.G), Interventional Radiology (S.E.M.), and Urology (J.F.W.), University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Tex; Diagnósticos da América S/A, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (L.K.B); and Department of Radiology, Fluminense Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (L.K.B.); Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, Calif (M.T.B., M.E.H.); UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, Calif (P.R.C.); Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Ill (D.D.C., A.R.W.); Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (S.D.C., R.D.); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, Ore (F.V.C., B.R.F.); Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM (S.C.E., B.S., J.B.S.); and Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn (A.T.F.). Joint Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network-Mount Sinai Hospital-Women's College Hospital, Toronto, Canada (M.R.G., S.G.); Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wis (L.M.G.); Departments of Radiology (R.T.G.) and Surgery (R.T.G., T.J.P.), Duke University Medical Center and Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, NC; Department of Radiological Sciences and Urology, University of California, Irvine, Orange, Calif (R.H.); Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Va (C.K.); Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Sciences, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea (C.K.K.); Department of Radiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Fla (C.L.); Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY (D.J.A.M.); Department of Radiology, University of Colorado at Denver, Denver, Colo (N.U.P.); Molecular Imaging Program (B.T.) and Urologic Oncology Branch (P.A.P.), National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md; Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Tex (V.S.T.); Departments of Radiology (A.B.R.) and Urologic Oncology (S.S.T.), New York University Langone Health, New York, NY; Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio (S.V.); Department of Urology, University of Minnesota Institute for Prostate and Urologic Cancers, Minneapolis, Minn (C.A.W.); and Department of Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Va (J.Y.).

Background Prostate MRI is used widely in clinical care for guiding tissue sampling, active surveillance, and staging. The Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) helps provide a standardized probabilistic approach for identifying clinically significant prostate cancer. Despite widespread use, the variability in performance of prostate MRI across practices remains unknown. Purpose To estimate the positive predictive value (PPV) of PI-RADS for the detection of high-grade prostate cancer across imaging centers. Materials and Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study was compliant with the HIPAA. Twenty-six centers with members in the Society of Abdominal Radiology Prostate Cancer Disease-focused Panel submitted data from men with suspected or biopsy-proven untreated prostate cancer. MRI scans were obtained between January 2015 and April 2018. This was followed with targeted biopsy. Only men with at least one MRI lesion assigned a PI-RADS score of 2-5 were included. Outcome was prostate cancer with Gleason score (GS) greater than or equal to 3+4 (International Society of Urological Pathology grade group ≥2). A mixed-model logistic regression with institution and individuals as random effects was used to estimate overall PPVs. The variability of observed PPV of PI-RADS across imaging centers was described by using the median and interquartile range. Results The authors evaluated 3449 men (mean age, 65 years ± 8 [standard deviation]) with 5082 lesions. Biopsy results showed 1698 cancers with GS greater than or equal to 3+4 (International Society of Urological Pathology grade group ≥2) in 2082 men. Across all centers, the estimated PPV was 35% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27%, 43%) for a PI-RADS score greater than or equal to 3 and 49% (95% CI: 40%, 58%) for a PI-RADS score greater than or equal to 4. The interquartile ranges of PPV at these same PI-RADS score thresholds were 27%-44% and 27%-48%, respectively. Conclusion The positive predictive value of the Prostate Imaging and Reporting Data System was low and varied widely across centers. © RSNA, 2020 See also the editorial by Milot in this issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020190646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7373346PMC
July 2020

New prostate MRI techniques and sequences.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2020 12;45(12):4052-4062

Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Prostate MRI has seen increasing interest in recent years and has led to the development of new MRI techniques and sequences to improve prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis which are reviewed in this article. Numerous studies have focused on improving image quality (segmented DWI) and faster acquisition (compressed sensing, k-t-SENSE, PROPELLER). An increasing number of studies have developed new quantitative and computer-aided diagnosis methods including artificial intelligence (PROSTATEx challenge) that mitigate the subjective nature of mpMRI interpretation. MR fingerprinting allows rapid, simultaneous generation of quantitative maps of multiple physical properties (T1, T2), where PCa are characterized by lower T1 and T2 values. New techniques like luminal water imaging (LWI), restriction spectrum imaging (RSI), VERDICT and hybrid multi-dimensional MRI (HM-MRI) have been developed for microstructure imaging, which provide information similar to histology. The distinct MR properties of tissue components and their change with the presence of cancer is used to diagnose prostate cancer. LWI is a T2-based imaging technique where long T2-component corresponding to luminal water is reduced in PCa. RSI and VERDICT are diffusion-based techniques where PCa is characterized by increased signal from intra-cellular restricted water and increased intracellular volume fraction, respectively, due to increased cellularity. VERDICT also reveal loss of extracellular-extravascular space in PCa due to loss of glandular structure. HM-MRI measures volumes of prostate tissue components, where PCa has reduced lumen and stromal and increased epithelium volume similar to results shown in histology. Similarly, molecular imaging using hyperpolarized C imaging has been utilized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-020-02504-8DOI Listing
December 2020

Effect of Echo Times on Prostate Cancer Detection on T2-Weighted Images.

Acad Radiol 2020 11 26;27(11):1555-1563. Epub 2020 Jan 26.

Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637; Sanford J. Grossman Center of Excellence in Prostate Imaging and Image Guided Therapy, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare the effect of different echo times (TE) on the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) on T2-weighted MR images.

Materials And Methods: This study recruited patients (n = 38) with histologically confirmed PCa who underwent preoperative 3T MRI. Three radiologists independently marked region on interests (ROIs) on suspected PCa lesions on T2-weighted images at different TEs: 90, 150, and 180 ms obtained with Turbo Spin Echo imaging protocol with multiple echoes. The ROIs were assigned a value 1-5 indicating the reviewer's confidence in accurately detecting PCa. These ROIs were compared to histologically confirmed PCa (n = 95) on whole mount prostatectomy sections to calculate sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and confidence score.

Results: Two radiologists (R1, R2) showed significantly increased sensitivity for PCa detection at 180 ms TE compared to 90 ms (R1: 43.2, 50.5, 50.5%, R2: 45.3, 44.2, 53.7% at TE of 90, 150, 180 ms, respectively) (p = 0.048, 0.033 for R1 and R2). Sensitivity was similar for radiologist 3 (45.3%-46.3%) at different TE values (p = 0.953). No significant difference in the PPV (R1: 64.1%-70.6%, R2: 46.7%-56.0%, R3: 70.5%-81.5%) and the confidence score assigned (R1: 4.6-4.8, R2: 4.6-4.8 R3: 4.3-4.4) was found for either of the radiologists.

Conclusion: Our results suggest improved detection of PCa with similar PPV and confidence scores when higher TE values are utilized for T2-weighted image acquisition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2019.12.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7381367PMC
November 2020

Optimum Imaging Strategies for Advanced Prostate Cancer: ASCO Guideline.

J Clin Oncol 2020 06 15;38(17):1963-1996. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: Provide evidence- and expert-based recommendations for optimal use of imaging in advanced prostate cancer. Due to increases in research and utilization of novel imaging for advanced prostate cancer, this guideline is intended to outline techniques available and provide recommendations on appropriate use of imaging for specified patient subgroups.

Methods: An Expert Panel was convened with members from ASCO and the Society of Abdominal Radiology, American College of Radiology, Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, American Urological Association, American Society for Radiation Oncology, and Society of Urologic Oncology to conduct a systematic review of the literature and develop an evidence-based guideline on the optimal use of imaging for advanced prostate cancer. Representative index cases of various prostate cancer disease states are presented, including suspected high-risk disease, newly diagnosed treatment-naïve metastatic disease, suspected recurrent disease after local treatment, and progressive disease while undergoing systemic treatment. A systematic review of the literature from 2013 to August 2018 identified fully published English-language systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses, reports of rigorously conducted phase III randomized controlled trials that compared ≥ 2 imaging modalities, and noncomparative studies that reported on the efficacy of a single imaging modality.

Results: A total of 35 studies met inclusion criteria and form the evidence base, including 17 systematic reviews with or without meta-analysis and 18 primary research articles.

Recommendations: One or more of these imaging modalities should be used for patients with advanced prostate cancer: conventional imaging (defined as computed tomography [CT], bone scan, and/or prostate magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and/or next-generation imaging (NGI), positron emission tomography [PET], PET/CT, PET/MRI, or whole-body MRI) according to the clinical scenario.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.02757DOI Listing
June 2020

Prostate MR: pitfalls and benign lesions.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2020 07;45(7):2154-2164

Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate has evolved to be an integral component for the diagnosis, risk stratification, staging, and targeting of prostate cancer. However, anatomic and histologic mimics of prostate cancer on mpMRI exist. Anatomic feature that mimic prostate cancer on mpMRI include anterior fibromuscular stroma, normal central zone, periprostatic venous plexus, and thickened surgical capsule (transition zone pseudocapsule). Benign conditions such as post-biopsy hemorrhage, prostatitis or inflammation, focal prostate atrophy, benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules, and prostatic calcifications can also mimic prostate cancer on mpMRI. Technical challenges and other pitfalls such as image distortion, motion artifacts, and endorectal coil placements can also limit the efficacy of mpMRI. Knowledge of prostate anatomy, location of the lesion and its imaging features on different sequences, and being familiar with the common pitfalls are critical for the radiologists who interpret mpMRI. Therefore, this article reviews the pitfalls (anatomic structures and technical challenges) and benign lesions or abnormalities that may mimic prostate cancer on mpMRI and how to interpret them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-019-02302-xDOI Listing
July 2020

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Post-Treatment Surveillance of Bladder Cancer.

J Am Coll Radiol 2019 Nov;16(11S):S417-S427

Specialty Chair, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Urothelial cancer is the second most common cancer, and cause of cancer death, related to the genitourinary tract. The goals of surveillance imaging after the treatment of urothelial cancer of the urinary bladder are to detect new or previously undetected urothelial tumors, to identify metastatic disease, and to evaluate for complications of therapy. For surveillance, patients can be stratified into one of three groups: (1) nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer with no symptoms or additional risk factors; (2) nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer with symptoms or additional risk factors; and (3) muscle invasive bladder cancer. This article is a review of the current literature for urothelial cancer and resulting recommendations for surveillance imaging. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2019.05.026DOI Listing
November 2019

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Penetrating Trauma-Lower Abdomen and Pelvis.

J Am Coll Radiol 2019 Nov;16(11S):S392-S398

Specialty Chair, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Lower urinary tract injury is most commonly the result of blunt trauma but can also result from penetrating or iatrogenic trauma. Clinical findings in patients with a mechanism of penetrating trauma to the lower urinary tract include lacerations or puncture wounds of the pelvis, perineum, buttocks, or genitalia, as well as gross hematuria or inability to void. CT cystography or fluoroscopy retrograde cystography are usually the most appropriate initial imaging procedures in patients with a mechanism of penetrating trauma to the lower urinary tract. CT of the pelvis with intravenous contrast, pelvic radiography, fluoroscopic retrograde urethrography, and CT of the pelvis without intravenous contrast may be appropriate in some cases. Arteriography, radiographic intravenous urography, CT of the pelvis without and with intravenous contrast, ultrasound, MRI, and nuclear scintigraphy are usually not appropriate. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2019.05.023DOI Listing
November 2019

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms-Suspicion of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

J Am Coll Radiol 2019 Nov;16(11S):S378-S383

Specialty Chair, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic enlargement have a high prevalence in men over 50 years of age. Diagnosis is made with a combination of focused history and physician examination and validated symptom questionnaires. Urodynamic studies can help to differentiate storage from voiding abnormalities. Pelvic ultrasound may be indicated to assess bladder volume and wall thickness. Other imaging modalities, including prostate MRI, are usually not indicated in the initial workup and evaluation of uncomplicated lower urinary tract symptoms from an enlarged prostate. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2019.05.031DOI Listing
November 2019

Use of Indicator Dilution Principle to Evaluate Accuracy of Arterial Input Function Measured With Low-Dose Ultrafast Prostate Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI.

Tomography 2019 06;5(2):260-265

Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL and.

Accurately measuring arterial input function (AIF) is essential for quantitative analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We used the indicator dilution principle to evaluate the accuracy of AIF measured directly from an artery following a low-dose contrast media ultrafast DCE-MRI. In total, 15 patients with biopsy-confirmed localized prostate cancers were recruited. Cardiac MRI (CMRI) and ultrafast DCE-MRI were acquired on a Philips 3 T Ingenia scanner. The AIF was measured at iliac arties following injection of a low-dose (0.015 mmol/kg) gadolinium (Gd) contrast media. The cardiac output (CO) from CMRI (CO) was calculated from the difference in ventricular volume at diastole and systole measured on the short axis of heart. The CO from DCE-MRI (CO) was also calculated from the AIF and dose of the contrast media used. A correlation test and Bland-Altman plot were used to compare CO and CO. The average (±standard deviation [SD]) area under the curve measured directly from local AIF was 0.219 ± 0.07 mM·min. The average (±SD) CO and CO were 6.52 ± 1.47 L/min and 6.88 ± 1.64 L/min, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation ( = 0.82, < .01) and good agreement between CO and CO. The CO is consistent with the reference standard CO. This indicates that the AIF can be measured accurately from an artery with ultrafast DCE-MRI following injection of a low-dose contrast media.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2019.00004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6588202PMC
June 2019

A compact solution for estimation of physiological parameters from ultrafast prostate dynamic contrast enhanced MRI.

Phys Med Biol 2019 08 7;64(15):155012. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

College of Medicine and Biological Information Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang, People's Republic of China. Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, United States of America.

The Tofts pharmacokinetic model requires multiple calculations for analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI. In addition, the Tofts model may not be appropriate for the prostate. This can result in error propagation that reduces the accuracy of pharmacokinetic measurements. In this study, we present a compact solution allowing estimation of physiological parameters K and v from ultrafast DCE acquisitions, without fitting DCE-MRI data to the standard Tofts pharmacokinetic model. Since the standard Tofts model can be simplified to the Patlak model at early times when contrast efflux from the extravascular extracellular space back to plasma is negligible, K can be solved explicitly for a specific time. Further, v can be estimated directly from the late steady-state signal using the derivative form of Tofts model. Ultrafast DCE-MRI data were acquired from 18 prostate cancer patients on a Philips Achieva 3T-TX scanner. Regions-of-interest (ROIs) for prostate cancer, normal tissue, gluteal muscle, and iliac artery were manually traced. The contrast media concentration as function of time was calculated over each ROI using gradient echo signal equation with pre-contrast tissue T1 values, and using the 'reference tissue' model with a linear approximation. There was strong correlation (r  =  0.88-0.91, p   <  0.0001) between K extracted from the Tofts model and K estimated from the compact solution for prostate cancer and normal tissue. Additionally, there was moderate correlation (r  =  0.65-0.73, p   <  0.0001) between extracted versus estimated v . Bland-Altman analysis showed moderate to good agreement between physiological parameters extracted from the Tofts model and those estimated from the compact solution with absolute bias less than 0.20 min and 0.10 for K and v , respectively. The compact solution may decrease systematic errors and error propagation, and could increase the efficiency of clinical workflow. The compact solution requires high temporal resolution DCE-MRI due to the need to adequately sample the early phase of contrast media uptake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ab2b62DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227457PMC
August 2019

Multi-institutional Clinical Tool for Predicting High-risk Lesions on 3Tesla Multiparametric Prostate Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Eur Urol Oncol 2019 05 4;2(3):257-264. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Urology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for prostate cancer detection without careful patient selection may lead to excessive resource utilization and costs.

Objective: To develop and validate a clinical tool for predicting the presence of high-risk lesions on mpMRI.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Four tertiary care centers were included in this retrospective and prospective study (BiRCH Study Collaborative). Statistical models were generated using 1269 biopsy-naive, prior negative biopsy, and active surveillance patients who underwent mpMRI. Using age, prostate-specific antigen, and prostate volume, a support vector machine model was developed for predicting the probability of harboring Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System 4 or 5 lesions. The accuracy of future predictions was then prospectively assessed in 214 consecutive patients.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Receiver operating characteristic, calibration, and decision curves were generated to assess model performance.

Results And Limitations: For biopsy-naïve and prior negative biopsy patients (n=811), the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.730 on internal validation. Excellent calibration and high net clinical benefit were observed. On prospective external validation at two separate institutions (n=88 and n=126), the machine learning model discriminated with AUCs of 0.740 and 0.744, respectively. The final model was developed on the Microsoft Azure Machine Learning platform (birch.azurewebsites.net). This model requires a prostate volume measurement as input.

Conclusions: In patients who are naïve to biopsy or those with a prior negative biopsy, BiRCH models can be used to select patients for mpMRI.

Patient Summary: In this multicenter study, we developed and prospectively validated a calculator that can be used to predict prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results using patient age, prostate-specific antigen, and prostate volume as input. This tool can aid health care professionals and patients to make an informed decision regarding whether to get an MRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euo.2018.08.008DOI Listing
May 2019

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Acute Onset of Scrotal Pain-Without Trauma, Without Antecedent Mass.

J Am Coll Radiol 2019 May;16(5S):S38-S43

Specialty Chair, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

An acute scrotum is defined as testicular swelling with acute pain and can reflect multiple etiologies including epididymitis or epididymo-orchitis, torsion of the spermatic cord, or torsion of the testicular appendages. Quick and accurate diagnosis of acute scrotum and its etiology with imaging is necessary because a delayed diagnosis of torsion for as little as 6 hours can cause irreparable testicular damage. Ultrasound duplex Doppler of the scrotum is usually appropriate as the initial imaging for the acute onset of scrotal pain without trauma or antecedent mass in an adult or child. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2019.02.016DOI Listing
May 2019

Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer by Use of MRI-Derived Quantitative Risk Maps: A Feasibility Study.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 08 30;213(2):W66-W75. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

1 Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave, Chicago, IL 60637.

The purpose of this study was to develop a new quantitative image analysis tool for estimating the risk of cancer of the prostate by use of quantitative multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) metrics. Thirty patients with biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent preoperative 3-T mpMRI were included in the study. Quantitative mpMRI metrics-apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), T2, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) signal enhancement rate (α)-were calculated on a voxel-by-voxel basis for the whole prostate and coregistered. A normalized risk value (0-100) for each mpMRI parameter was obtained, with high risk values associated with low T2 and ADC and high signal enhancement rate. The final risk score was calculated as a weighted sum of the risk scores (ADC, 40%; T2, 40%; DCE, 20%). Data from five patients were used as training set to find the threshold for predicting PCa. In the other 25 patients, any region with a minimum of 30 con-joint voxels (≈ 4.8 mm) with final risk score above the threshold was considered positive for cancer. Lesion-based and sector-based analyses were performed by matching prostatectomyverified malignancy and PCa predicted with the risk analysis tool. The risk map tool had sensitivity of 76.6%, 89.2%, and 100% for detecting all lesions, clinically significant lesions (≥ Gleason 3 + 4), and index lesions, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for PCa detection for all lesions in the sector-based analysis were 78.9%, 88.5%, 84.4%, and 84.1%, respectively, with an ROC AUC of 0.84. The risk analysis tool is effective for detecting clinically significant PCa with reasonable sensitivity and specificity in both peripheral and transition zones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20702DOI Listing
August 2019

Revisiting quantitative multi-parametric MRI of benign prostatic hyperplasia and its differentiation from transition zone cancer.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2019 06;44(6):2233-2243

Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Purpose: This study investigates the multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) appearance of different types of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and whether quantitative mpMRI is effective in differentiating between prostate cancer (PCa) and BPH.

Materials And Methods: Patients (n = 60) with confirmed PCa underwent preoperative 3T MRI. T2-weighted, multi-echo T2-weighted, diffusion weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced images (DCE) were obtained prior to undergoing prostatectomy. PCa and BPH (cystic, glandular or stromal) were identified in the transition zone and matched with MRI. Quantitative mpMRI metrics: T2, ADC and DCE-MRI parameters using an empirical mathematical model were measured.

Results: ADC values were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in PCa compared to all BPH types and can differentiate between PCa and BPH with high accuracy (AUC = 0.87, p < 0.001). T2 values were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in PCa compared to cystic BPH only, while glandular (p = 0.27) and stromal BPH (p = 0.99) showed no significant difference from PCa. BPH mimics PCa in the transition zone on DCE-MRI evidenced by no significant difference between them. mpMRI values of glandular (ADC = 1.31 ± 0.22 µm/ms, T2 = 115.7 ± 37.3 ms) and cystic BPH (ADC = 1.92 ± 0.43 µm/ms, T2 = 242.8 ± 117.9 ms) are significantly different. There was no significant difference in ADC (p = 0.72) and T2 (p = 0.46) between glandular and stromal BPH.

Conclusions: Multiparametric MRI and specifically quantitative ADC values can be used for differentiating PCa and BPH, improving PCa diagnosis in the transition zone. However, DCE-MRI metrics are not effective in distinguishing PCa and BPH. Glandular BPH are not hyperintense on ADC and T2 as previously thought and have similar quantitative mpMRI measurements to stromal BPH. Glandular and cystic BPH appear differently on mpMRI and are histologically different.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-019-01936-1DOI Listing
June 2019

Navigating the Challenges of Targeting Accuracy and Tumor Heterogeneity in Targeted Prostate Biopsy.

Authors:
Aytekin Oto

Radiology 2019 Apr 29;291(1):90-91. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

From the Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave, MC 2026, Chicago, IL 60637.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2019182868DOI Listing
April 2019