Publications by authors named "Aykut Aksit"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of Systemic versus Intratympanic Dexamethasone Administration on the Perilymph Proteome.

J Proteome Res 2021 08 22;20(8):4001-4009. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, United States.

Glucocorticoids are the first-line treatment for sensorineural hearing loss, but little is known about the mechanism of their protective effect or the impact of route of administration. The recent development of hollow microneedles enables safe and reliable sampling of perilymph for proteomic analysis. Using these microneedles, we investigate the effect of intratympanic (IT) versus intraperitoneal (IP) dexamethasone administration on guinea pig perilymph proteome. Guinea pigs were treated with IT dexamethasone ( = 6), IP dexamethasone ( = 8), or untreated for control ( = 8) 6 h prior to aspiration. The round window membrane (RWM) was accessed via a postauricular approach, and hollow microneedles were used to perforate the RWM and aspirate 1 μL of perilymph. Perilymph samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based label-free quantitative proteomics. Mass spectrometry raw data files have been deposited in an international public repository (MassIVE proteomics repository at https://massive.ucsd.edu/) under data set # MSV000086887. In the 22 samples of perilymph analyzed, 632 proteins were detected, including the inner ear protein cochlin, a perilymph marker. Of these, 14 proteins were modulated by IP, and three proteins were modulated by IT dexamethasone. In both IP and IT dexamethasone groups, VGF nerve growth factor inducible was significantly upregulated compared to control. The remaining adjusted proteins modulate neurons, inflammation, or protein synthesis. Proteome analysis facilitated by the use of hollow microneedles shows that route of dexamethasone administration impacts changes seen in perilymph proteome. Compared to IT administration, the IP route was associated with greater changes in protein expression, including proteins involved in neuroprotection, inflammatory pathway, and protein synthesis. Our findings show that microneedles can mediate safe and effective intracochlear sampling and hold promise for inner ear diagnostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.1c00322DOI Listing
August 2021

Simulation assisted design for microneedle manufacturing: Computational modeling of two-photon templated electrodeposition.

J Manuf Process 2021 Jun 16;66:211-219. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10027, USA.

Fully metallic micrometer-scale 3D architectures can be fabricated via a hybrid additive methodology combining multi-photon lithography with electrochemical deposition of metals. The methodology - referred to as two-photon templated electrodeposition (2PTE) - has significant design freedom that enables the creation of complicated, traditionally difficult-to-make, high aspect ratio metallic structures such as microneedles. These complicated geometries, combined with their fully metallic nature, can enable precision surgical applications such as inner ear drug delivery or fluid sampling. However, the process involves electrochemical deposition of metals into complicated 3D lithography patterns thicker than 500 μm. This causes potential and chemical gradients to develop within the 3D template, creating limitations to what can be designed. These limitations can be explored, understood, and overcome via numerical modeling. Herein we introduce a numerical model as a design tool that can predict growth for manufacturing complicated 3D metallic geometries. The model is successful in predicting the geometric result of 2PTE, and enables extraction of insights about geometric constraints through exploration of its mechanics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2021.04.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128138PMC
June 2021

Novel 3D-printed hollow microneedles facilitate safe, reliable, and informative sampling of perilymph from guinea pigs.

Hear Res 2021 02 2;400:108141. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, 180 Fort Washington Avenue, Harkness Pavilion, 8th Floor, New York, NY 10032, United States; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Inner ear diagnostics is limited by the inability to atraumatically obtain samples of inner ear fluid. The round window membrane (RWM) is an attractive portal for accessing perilymph samples as it has been shown to heal within one week after the introduction of microperforations. A 1 µL volume of perilymph is adequate for proteome analysis, yet the total volume of perilymph within the scala tympani of the guinea pig is limited to less than 5 µL. This study investigates the safety and reliability of a novel hollow microneedle device to aspirate perilymph samples adequate for proteomic analysis.

Methods: The guinea pig RWM was accessed via a postauricular surgical approach. 3D-printed hollow microneedles with an outer diameter of 100 µm and an inner diameter of 35 µm were used to perforate the RWM and aspirate 1 µL of perilymph. Two perilymph samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics as part of a preliminary study. Hearing was assessed before and after aspiration using compound action potential (CAP) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). RWMs were harvested 72 h after aspiration and evaluated for healing using confocal microscopy.

Results: There was no permanent damage to hearing at 72 h after perforation as assessed by CAP (n = 7) and DPOAE (n = 8), and all perforations healed completely within 72 h (n = 8). In the two samples of perilymph analyzed, 620 proteins were detected, including the inner ear protein cochlin, widely recognized as a perilymph marker.

Conclusion: Hollow microneedles can facilitate aspiration of perilymph across the RWM at a quality and volume adequate for proteomic analysis without causing permanent anatomic or physiologic dysfunction. Microneedles can mediate safe and effective intracochlear sampling and show great promise for inner ear diagnostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heares.2020.108141DOI Listing
February 2021

Drug delivery device for the inner ear: ultra-sharp fully metallic microneedles.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2021 Feb;11(1):214-226

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, 500 West 120th Street, New York, NY, 10027, USA.

Drug delivery into the inner ear is a significant challenge due to its inaccessibility as a fluid-filled cavity within the temporal bone of the skull. The round window membrane (RWM) is the only delivery portal from the middle ear to the inner ear that does not require perforation of bone. Recent advances in microneedle fabrication enable the RWM to be perforated safely with polymeric microneedles as a means to enhance the rate of drug delivery from the middle ear to the inner ear. However, the polymeric material is not biocompatible and also lacks the strength of other materials. Herein we describe the design and development of gold-coated metallic microneedles suitable for RWM perforation. When developing microneedle technology for drug delivery, we considered three important general attributes: (1) high strength and ductility material, (2) high accuracy and precision of fabrication, and (3) broad design freedom. We developed a hybrid additive manufacturing method using two-photon lithography and electrochemical deposition to fabricate ultra-sharp gold-coated copper microneedles with these attributes. We refer to the microneedle fabrication methodology as two-photon templated electrodeposition (2PTE). We demonstrate the use of these microneedles by inducing a perforation with a minimal degree of trauma in a guinea pig RWM while the microneedle itself remains undamaged. Thus, this microneedle has the potential literally of opening the RWM for enhanced drug delivery into the inner ear. Finally, the 2PTE methodology can be applied to many different classes of microneedles for other drug delivery purposes as well the fabrication of small scale structures and devices for non-medical applications. Graphical Abstract Fully metallic ultra-sharp microneedle mounted at end of a 24-gauge stainless steel blunt syringe needle tip: (left) Size of microneedle shown relative to date stamp on U.S. one-cent coin; (right) Perforation through guinea pig round window membrane introduced with microneedle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13346-020-00782-9DOI Listing
February 2021

Anatomical and Functional Consequences of Microneedle Perforation of Round Window Membrane.

Otol Neurotol 2020 02;41(2):e280-e287

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons.

Hypothesis: Microneedles can create microperforations in the round window membrane (RWM) without causing anatomic or physiologic damage.

Background: Reliable delivery of agents into the inner ear for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes remains a challenge. Our novel approach employs microneedles to facilitate intracochlear access via the RWM. This study investigates the anatomical and functional consequences of microneedle perforations in guinea pig RWMs in vivo.

Methods: Single three-dimensional-printed, 100 μm diameter microneedles were used to perforate the guinea pig RWM via the postauricular sulcus. Hearing was assessed both before and after microneedle perforation using compound action potential and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Confocal microscopy was used ex vivo to examine harvested RWMs, measuring the size, shape, and location of perforations and documenting healing at 0 hours (n = 7), 24 hours (n = 6), 48 hours (n = 6), and 1 week (n = 6).

Results: Microneedles create precise and accurate perforations measuring 93.1 ± 29.0 μm by 34.5 ± 16.8 μm and produce a high-frequency threshold shift that disappears after 24 hours. Examination of perforations over time demonstrates healing progression over 24 to 48 hours and complete perforation closure by 1 week.

Conclusion: Microneedles can create a temporary microperforation in the RWM without causing significant anatomic or physiologic dysfunction. Microneedles have the potential to mediate safe and effective intracochlear access for diagnosis and treatment of inner ear disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAO.0000000000002491DOI Listing
February 2020

3D-Printed Microneedles Create Precise Perforations in Human Round Window Membrane in Situ.

Otol Neurotol 2020 02;41(2):277-284

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons.

Hypothesis: Three-dimensional (3D)-printed microneedles can create precise holes on the scale of micrometers in the human round window membrane (HRWM).

Background: An intact round window membrane is a barrier to delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents into the inner ear. Microperforation of the guinea pig round window membrane has been shown to overcome this barrier by enhancing diffusion 35-fold. In humans, the challenge is to design a microneedle that can precisely perforate the thicker HRWM without damage.

Methods: Based on the thickness and mechanical properties of the HRWM, two microneedle designs were 3D-printed to perforate the HRWM from fresh frozen temporal bones in situ (n = 18 total perforations), simultaneously measuring force and displacement. Perforations were analyzed using confocal microscopy; microneedles were examined for deformity using scanning electron microscopy.

Results: HRWM thickness was determined to be 60.1 ± 14.6 (SD) μm. Microneedles separated the collagen fibers and created slit-shaped perforations with the major axis equal to the microneedle shaft diameter. Microneedles needed to be displaced only minimally after making initial contact with the RWM to create a complete perforation, thus avoiding damage to intracochlear structures. The microneedles were durable and intact after use.

Conclusion: 3D-printed microneedles can create precise perforations in the HRWM without damaging intracochlear structures. As such, they have many potential applications ranging from aspiration of cochlear fluids using a lumenized needle for diagnosis and creating portals for therapeutic delivery into the inner ear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAO.0000000000002480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189659PMC
February 2020

In-vitro perforation of the round window membrane via direct 3-D printed microneedles.

Biomed Microdevices 2018 06 8;20(2):47. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, 220 Mudd Building 500 West 120th Street, New York, NY, 10027, USA.

The cochlea, or inner ear, is a space fully enclosed within the temporal bone of the skull, except for two membrane-covered portals connecting it to the middle ear space. One of these portals is the round window, which is covered by the Round Window Membrane (RWM). A longstanding clinical goal is to reliably and precisely deliver therapeutics into the cochlea to treat a plethora of auditory and vestibular disorders. Standard of care for several difficult-to-treat diseases calls for injection of a therapeutic substance through the tympanic membrane into the middle ear space, after which a portion of the substance diffuses across the RWM into the cochlea. The efficacy of this technique is limited by an inconsistent rate of molecular transport across the RWM. A solution to this problem involves the introduction of one or more microscopic perforations through the RWM to enhance the rate and reliability of diffusive transport. This paper reports the use of direct 3D printing via Two-Photon Polymerization (2PP) lithography to fabricate ultra-sharp polymer microneedles specifically designed to perforate the RWM. The microneedle has tip radius of 500 nm and shank radius of 50 μ m, and perforates the guinea pig RWM with a mean force of 1.19 mN. The resulting perforations performed in vitro are lens-shaped with major axis equal to the microneedle shank diameter and minor axis about 25% of the major axis, with mean area 1670 μ m. The major axis is aligned with the direction of the connective fibers within the RWM. The fibers were separated along their axes without ripping or tearing of the RWM suggesting the main failure mechanism to be fiber-to-fiber decohesion. The small perforation area along with fiber-to-fiber decohesion are promising indicators that the perforations would heal readily following in vivo experiments. These results establish a foundation for the use of Two-Photon Polymerization lithography as a means to fabricate microneedles to perforate the RWM and other similar membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10544-018-0287-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6091873PMC
June 2018
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