Publications by authors named "Ayesha Fazal"

3 Publications

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Factors influencing COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and acceptance among the Pakistani population.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Oct 8;17(10):3365-3370. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Dental College, HITEC Institute of Medical Sciences, Taxila, Pakistan.

This study examined the factors associated with acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine compared to hesitance in the Pakistani population and specifically focusing on the perceived beliefs, knowledge, concerns, risk, and safety perception relating to the COVID-19 vaccine. A total of 423 subjects were recruited from the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan. A 27-item valid and reliable questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic characteristics, acceptance, and hesitance toward COVID-19 vaccine, perceived beliefs, knowledge, perceived concerns, risk, and safety of COVID-19 vaccines and its source of information. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used for analysis. About 53% of the participants were planning to get vaccinated and a significantly greater proportion of better educated, higher income, and healthier participants in the vaccine acceptance group ( < .05). The odds of knowing the vaccine they should get, having the confidence in the vaccine to stop the pandemic, and understanding the way vaccines work, were greater in the vaccine acceptance group than the vaccine-hesitant group (OR: 5.4; 3.5, 2.1, 3.1, respectively). Most participants (52.3%) obtained the information regarding the COVID-19 vaccine from the print and live news media (52.3%) followed by social media (23.7%). The lack of knowledge, understanding, and perception of the risk, safety partly explains the low rate of vaccine acceptance in the Pakistani population. Strategies to raise awareness of the benefits of vaccination should target individuals in the lower socioeconomic group and those with chronic disease.
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October 2021

Comparison of Tooth Widths, Arch Widths and Arch Lengths in Class-I Normal Dentition to Class-I and II Crowded Dentitions.

Pak J Med Sci 2021 Mar-Apr;37(2):345-350

Dr. Ayesha Fazal, MPH. Lecturer, Department of Community Dentistry, Margalla Institute of Health Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Background And Objective: Dental study casts play a vital role in the diagnosis and treatment planning of various orthodontic cases. This study was carried out to compare the tooth widths, arch widths, and arch lengths in Class-I normal dentition to those in Class-I and Class-II crowded dentition in an effort to improve treatment planning and to eventually reduce treatment duration.

Methods: Total 170 patients, 12 to 40 years of age with a complete set of permanent teeth till 1 molars; who presented to the Orthodontics Department at Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry (A.F.I.D), Rawalpindi from Sep 2019 to Feb 2020, were included in the study. Non-probability purposive method of sampling was used. The dental casts obtained were used to measure tooth widths, arch widths, and arch lengths. Subjects were classified into Class-I normal and Class-I and Class-II crowded occlusion and comparison of the sum of tooth widths, arch widths, and arch length discrepancies were determined among the three occlusion groups. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 21 and independent samples t-test was used to differentiate the variables of interest.

Results: Out of 170 subjects, 73 (42.9%) subjects had Class-I normal occlusion while 97 (57%) had Class-I and Class-II crowded occlusions. No statistical difference was found between the occlusal groups with regard to the sum of tooth widths, inter-canine widths, inter-first premolar widths, inter-second premolar widths and inter-molar widths. However, a remarkable difference was observed between the occlusal groups with respect to arch perimeters and arch length discrepancies (p = 0.000 and 0.000 respectively).

Conclusions: Results of the current study indicate that crowding of teeth occurs as a consequence of decreased arch perimeters which may lead to increased arch length discrepancies. However, no prominent difference was noticed in the sum of tooth widths and arch widths among different occlusal groups.
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March 2021

Comparison of Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Diabetic Patients With and Without Retinopathy.

Cureus 2020 Dec 11;12(12):e12028. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Pharmacology, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, PAK.

Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of carbohydrate, protein, and fats metabolism that results in hyperglycemia. It may also result from defects in the secretion of insulin from beta cells or in its action on target cells or both. Objective To determine the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glycated hemoglobulin (HbA1c) with the progression of retinopathy. Methodology The study was done on 80 patients who were divided into four groups (A, B, C, D), with 20 individuals each, on the basis of their diabetic status and fundoscopic findings. Serum BDNF levels were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (Glory Science Co., Taichung City, Taiwan). Results On analysis, a significant decline was seen in serum BDNF levels in diabetics as compared with non-diabetics (p < 0.001), but a significant reduction in levels with the progression of retinopathy was observed (p < 0.001). Statistical analysis All the data were processed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) v20.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Conclusion There is a significant decline in serum BDNF levels in type 2 diabetics with retinopathy in comparison with the healthy control group.
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December 2020