Publications by authors named "Ayce Ünverdi Eldeniz"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparison of cytotoxic effects of calcium silicate-based materials on human pulp fibroblasts Mehmet.

J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 2019 ;13(4):241-246

Department of Biology and Genetics, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, Turkey.

This study aimed to compare the in vitro cytotoxicity of Theracal LC, BiodentineTM, iRoot BP Plus, and MTA Angelus on human pulp fibroblasts (HPF). Fifteen discs from each calcium silicate-based material were prepared in sterile Teflon molds. After setting, the fabricated discs were eluated with a culture medium for 24 h. HPF cells were plated onto 24-well plates at 5×10 cells/well, and the cells were exposed to the material eluates. The cell viability was evaluated with MTT assay at three different times (24, 48, and 72 h). Data were statistically analyzed. The apoptotic/necrotic status of HPF cells exposed to material eluates was determined by flow cytometry. The differences between the effects of Theracal LC, Biodentine, MTA Angelus, and iRoot BP Plus on HPF cells were found to be statistically significant (P<0.05). Theracal LC was found to be more cytotoxic considering other vital pulp capping materials at 24- (28.3%), 48- (44.9%), and 72-hour (49.2%) intervals. On the other hand, Biodentine showed the least cytotoxic effects (97.1%, 130.0%, and 103.7%, respectively) According to flow cytometry results, Theracal LC material increased apoptosis/necrosis ratios compared to the other materials. Based on the results of the present study, BiodentineTM, MTA Angelus, and iRoot BP Plus can be classified as biocompatible materials in vital endodontic treatments. However, the Theracal LC materials should be used carefully due to their cytotoxic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/joddd.2019.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7072094PMC
January 2019

Fracture resistance of roots enlarged with various rotary systems and obturated with different sealers.

J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 2019 7;13(3):215-220. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

This in vitro study compared the fracture resistance of roots instrumented either with ProTaper or One Shape rotary systems and filled with one of the silicate, epoxy resin or silicone-based sealers. Sixty single-rooted extracted mandibular premolars were decoronated to a length of 13 mm and then randomly divided into two main groups (n=30) in terms of the rotary system used for preparation. Group 1 samples were instrumented with the ProTaper Universal system up to a master apical file of #F2, while samples in group 2 were enlarged with One Shape system. The two main groups were then divided into 3 subgroups in terms of the sealer used (n=10) and filled with guttapercha (either F2 or MM-GP points) of the rotary system used and one of the sealers as follows: group 1, BioRoot RCS + ProTaper F2 gutta-percha; group 2, AH Plus + ProTaper F2 gutta-percha; group 3, GuttaFlow + ProTaper F2 gutta-percha; group 4, BioRoot RCS+ MM-GP points; group 5, AH Plus + MM-GP points; and group 6, GuttaFlow + MM-GP points. Each specimen then underwent fracture testing by using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min until the root fractured. Data were statistically analyzed. Two-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the groups. One Shape instruments showed significantly better fracture resistance compared to ProTaper instruments. Statistically, no significant difference was found between AHPlus, GuttaFlow and BioRoot RCS sealers. It can be concluded that the rotary system used for the instrumentation of teeth has some influence on the fracture resistance, while the root canal sealers do not have such an effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/joddd.2019.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6904921PMC
October 2019

Effects of fruit vinegars on root dentin microhardness and roughness.

J Conserv Dent 2019 Jan-Feb;22(1):97-101

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of newly proposed irrigants; the pomegranate, apple cider, and grape vinegars in comparison with contemporary irrigants; sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and octenidine-hydrochloride (OCT) on microhardness and surface roughness of human root canal dentin.

Subjects And Methods: The crowns of the 105 mandibular incisor teeth were removed, and roots were separated longitudinally. Root halves were embedded in acrylic-resin and were ground flat. The specimens were randomly divided into following six test groups ( = 30); pomegranate vinegar, apple cider vinegar, grape vinegar, 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, OCT and a control group based on the treatment time, samples were then divided into two subgroups (15 min or 30 min). Each specimen was first subjected to surface roughness and then Vickers microhardness testing. The data were statistically analyzed.

Results: Pomegranate, apple cider, and grape vinegars exhibited similar roughness values ( > 0.05) and presented higher results than other groups ( < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the microhardness values of the irrigant groups ( > 0.05). The microhardness decreased when the exposure time increased from 15 min to 30 min ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: The use of vinegar for endodontic irrigation may have a softening effect on root canal dentin with time and may increase dentin roughness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JCD.JCD_394_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6385574PMC
March 2019

Push-Out Bond Strength and SEM Evaluation in Roots Filled with Two Different Techniques Using New and Conventional Sealers.

Materials (Basel) 2018 Sep 5;11(9). Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya 42130, Turkey.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of calcium-silicate-based sealer (Endosequence-BC-Sealer) in roots, filled with thermo-plasticized injectable technique aided by Calamus-Flow-Delivery-System, on bond strength to radicular dentin, in comparison with conventional epoxy-resin-based sealer (AH-Plus) along with cold-lateral-compaction technique. Root canals of mandibular-premolar teeth ( = 80) were instrumented using Protaper Universal rotary files and were randomly divided into four experimental groups ( = 20) as follows: (1) AH-Plus + cold-lateral-compaction technique; (2) Endosequence-BC-Sealer + cold-lateral-compaction technique; (3) AH-Plus + thermo-plasticized injectable technique; and (4) Endosequence-BC-Sealer + thermo-plasticized injectable technique. Horizontal disc shaped samples from each group ( = 60/group) were obtained and push-out bond strength testing was performed at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis and Mann-Whitney test ( < 0.001). The statistical analysis revealed a significant difference amongst the groups ( < 0.001). The highest bond strength values were found in group 1 compared with all the other experimental groups ( < 0.001), whereas the lowest bond strength values were found in group 4 ( < 0.001). It was concluded that thermo-plasticized injectable technique with Calamus-Flow-Delivery-System lowered the bond strengths of the sealers, especially Endosequence-BC-Sealer. Therefore, this technique is not recommended to calcium-silicate-based sealers. Further studies are needed to confirm the findings of this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma11091620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6163187PMC
September 2018

Effects of four novel root-end filling materials on the viability of periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

Restor Dent Endod 2018 Aug 25;43(3):e24. Epub 2018 May 25.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of newly proposed root-end filling materials, Biodentine, Micro-Mega mineral trioxide aggregate (MM-MTA), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement, and Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), in comparison with contemporary root-end filling materials, intermediate restorative material (IRM), Dyract compomer, ProRoot MTA (PMTA), and Vitrebond, using human periodontal ligament (hPDL) fibroblasts.

Materials And Methods: Ten discs from each material were fabricated in sterile Teflon molds and 24-hour eluates were obtained from each root-end filling material in cell culture media after 1- or 3-day setting. hPDL fibroblasts were plated at a density of 5 × 10/well, and were incubated for 24 hours with 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, and 1:8 dilutions of eluates. Cell viability was evaluated by XTT assay. Data was statistically analysed. Apoptotic/necrotic activity of PDL cells exposed to material eluates was established by flow cytometry.

Results: The Vitrebond and IRM were significantly more cytotoxic than the other root-end filling materials ( < 0.05). Those cells exposed to the Biodentine and Dyract compomer eluates showed the highest survival rates ( < 0.05), while the PMTA, MM-MTA, SDR, and PMMA groups exhibited similar cell viabilities. Three-day samples were more cytotoxic than 1-day samples ( < 0.05). Eluates from the cements at 1:1 dilution were significantly more cytotoxic ( < 0.05). Vitrebond induced cell necrosis as indicated by flow cytometry.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that Biodentine and Compomer were more biocompatible than the other root-end filling materials. Vitrebond eluate caused necrotic cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5395/rde.2018.43.e24DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103538PMC
August 2018

Tooth discoloration effects of calcium silicate based barrier materials used in revascularization and treatment with internal bleaching.

J Dent Sci 2017 Dec 9;12(4):347-353. Epub 2017 May 9.

Selcuk University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Endodontics, Konya, Turkey.

Background/purpose: Usage of barrier materials is an important step in revascularization procedure. One of the undesired properties of these barrier materials is to cause coronal tooth discoloration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tooth discoloration induced by ProRoot MTA (PMTA), Biodentine, and MM-MTA, as well as the efficacy of internal bleaching on this discoloration.

Materials And Methods: Forty-two maxillary incisor teeth were prepared. Triple antibiotic paste (TAP) was placed in the root canals and incubated for 3 weeks. After removing the TAP, blood embedded spongostans were inserted into the root canals, and PMTA, Biodentine, or MM-MTA was placed over them. The teeth were incubated for 4 weeks at 37 °C; then, the internal bleaching agent was sealed for one week. The tooth color was measured throughout the study and the color change values (ΔE) of each specimen were calculated, and the data was statistically analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and Tamhane's T2 tests.

Results: The TAP significantly decreased the luminosity of the teeth ( < 0.05); however, no significant differences were observed between the tooth discolorations induced by the PMTA, Biodentine, and MM-MTA ( > 0.05). The teeth in the Biodentine group were more whitened than those of the PMTA and MM-MTA groups ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Although the PMTA, Biodentine, and MM-MTA caused similar color alterations in the teeth, more bleaching was observed on those teeth discolored using TAP + blood + Biodentine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jds.2017.03.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395367PMC
December 2017

Evaluation of and adherence on different provisional crown materials.

J Adv Prosthodont 2017 Oct 16;9(5):335-340. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: Bacterial adhesion on provisional crown materials retained for a long time can influence the duration for which permanent prosthetic restorations can be healthily worn in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to compare seven different commonly used provisional crown materials with regard to and surface adhesion.

Materials And Methods: For each group, twenty specimens of the provisional fixed prosthodontic materials TemDent (Schütz), Imıdent (Imıcryl), Tab 2000 (Kerr), Structur Premium (Voco), Systemp (Ivoclar Vivadent), Acrytemp (Zhermack), and Takilon-BBF (Takilon) were prepared (diameter, 10.0 mm; height, 2.0 mm). Surface roughness was assessed by atomic force microscopy. Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups (n=10) according to the microbial suspensions used: and . The specimens were incubated at 37℃ with or for seven days. Bacterial adherence on surfaces was assessed using the 2,3-bis[2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay.

Results: showed maximum adhesion to Structur, followed by Systemp, Acrytemp, Takilon, Tab 2000, Imident, and TemDent (<.05). The highest vital adhesion was noted on Takilon, followed by Imident and Tab 2000; the lowest adhesion was noted on Systemp (<.05).

Conclusion: The materials showed significant differences in the degree of bacterial adhesion. showed higher surface adhesion than on provisional crown and fixed partial denture denture materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4047/jap.2017.9.5.335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5673609PMC
October 2017

The effect of gelatinase production of on adhesion to dentin after irrigation with various endodontic irrigants.

Acta Biomater Odontol Scand 2016 Dec 15;2(1):144-149. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk UniversityKonyaTurkey.

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the gelatinase production ability of provides any advantage on adhesion of this bacterium to dentin treated with various irrigants and their combinations. Standardized dentin discs were randomly divided into five groups ( = 20): group 1: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), group 2: 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), group 3: NaOCl + Saline + CHX, group 4: NaOCl + EDTA + NaOCl, group 5: QMix. After incubation of dentin discs with irrigants, each group was divided into two subgroups ( = 10) according to the bacterial strains used; a gelatinase-producing and a gelatinase-deficient strain of After incubation of the discs with the bacterial suspensions aerobically for 48 h, XTT assay was conducted for bacterial adherence evaluation. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests ( = .05). Gelatinase-producing adhered to dentin was significantly more than gelatinase-deficient in all test groups ( < .05). Adherence to CHX-treated dentin was lower than to the surfaces treated with other irrigants, alone or in combination ( < .05). These differences were significant except for comparisons with QMix for gelatinase-producing bacteria ( < .05). Gelatinase production of may be an important factor for bacterial adhesion. The addition of CHX to the irrigation regimen resulted in fewer adhered bacteria to dentin. QMix was not as effective as CHX in terms of bacterial adhesion prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23337931.2016.1256212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5433206PMC
December 2016

Push-out bond strength of a new post system after various post space treatments.

Dent Mater J 2016 ;35(6):876-880

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Necmettin Erbakan.

To assess the effect of post-space treatment with chelating agents on the push-out bond-strength of a glass fiber post-system. Fortyeight human teeth were decoronated. The roots were prepared to size 40 and obturated. The post-spaces were prepared with PeesoReamer drills. The post-spaces were irrigated with (i) NaOCl and EDTA with chlorhexidine (QMix), (ii) NaOCl and EDTA, (iii) NaOCl and Citric acid, (iv) NaOCl and saline as a control group. i-TFC glass fiber posts were then luted with i-TFC bond system. The samples were horizontally sectioned. The displacement resistance was measured. Push-out bond-strength (MPa) was calculated. Data were analyzed. NaOCl/QMix group showed highest values to dentine whereas NaOCl/Citric acid group showed lowest values. i-TFC post-system demonstrated equal bond strength values when post-space treated with either NaOCl/EDTA or NaOCl/Saline. It can be concluded that post-space could be treated with NaOCl and QMix in order to increase adhesion of i-TFC post-system to rootdentine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2015-372DOI Listing
August 2017

Antibacterial effect of chlorhexidine-cetrimide combination, Salvia officinalis plant extract and octenidine in comparison with conventional endodontic irrigants.

Dent Mater J 2016 ;35(5):736-741

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Bezmialem Vakif University.

The aim of the present study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), a CHX/cetrimide solution (CHX+CTR), octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) and Salvia officinalis plant extract against Enterococcus faecalis. Seventy decoronated single-rooted human teeth were infected and divided into 6 test (n=10) and 2 control groups (n=5) (negative, sterile samples and positive, infected samples). Following irrigants were then applied to test groups: 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, CHX, CHX+CTR, S. officinalis extract and OCT. The dentin chips were obtained from inner root canal walls and analyzed by counting the number of colony forming units (CFU). The 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, CHX and OCT groups presented no bacterial growth (CFU=0). S. officinalis and CHX+CTR groups reduced the number of E. faecalis cells but could not eliminate all. OCT may have potential as an endodontic irrigant in treatment of infected root canals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2015-159DOI Listing
August 2017

'Effects of novel root repair materials on attachment and morphological behaviour of periodontal ligament fibroblasts: Scanning electron microscopy observation'.

Microsc Res Tech 2016 Dec 20;79(12):1214-1221. Epub 2016 Sep 20.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the adhesion of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLs) on newly proposed root repair materials [Biodentine, MM-MTA, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement, and SDR], in comparison with contemporary root repair materials [IRM, Dyract compomer, ProRoot MTA (PMTA), and Vitrebond]. Five discs from each material were fabricated in sterile Teflon molds, and the specimens were aged and prewetted in cell culture media for 96 hours. Three material discs were used for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the assessment of the attachment, density, and morphological changes in the PDLs, while two samples were used for energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) to determine the elemental composition of the materials. Human PDLs were plated onto the materials at a density of 10,000/well, and incubated for 3 days. The SEM micrographs were taken at different magnifications (500× and 5000×). In the SEM, the cells were attached and well spread-out on the surfaces of the Biodentine, PMTA, and Dyract compomer, while varied cell densities and morphological alterations were observed in the Vitrebond, IRM, MM-MTA, SDR, and PMMA bone cement groups. The SEM-EDX analysis revealed a maximum calcium percentage in the PMTA specimens, as well a maximum silicon percentage in the Dyract compomer specimens. This in vitro study demonstrated that the Biodentine and Dyract compomer supported PDL cell adhesion and spreading. The PMTA presented a favorable scaffold for better attachment of the PDL cell aggregates. Therefore, the calcium and silicon content of a material may enhance the PDL cell attachment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.22780DOI Listing
December 2016

Comparative antifungal efficacy of light-activated disinfection and octenidine hydrochloride with contemporary endodontic irrigants.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Feb 25;30(2):669-75. Epub 2013 Jul 25.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Selcuk, Konya, Turkey.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effects of light-activated disinfection (LAD) in comparison with contemporary root canal irrigation solutions: sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and a new wound antiseptic, octenidine hydrochloride. Seventy extracted teeth having single root canals were contaminated with Candida albicans for 14 days. The samples were divided into five experimental (n = 10) and two control (positive and negative) groups (n = 10): (1) LAD with toluidine blue O, (2) octenidine hydrochloride (OCT), (3) 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (2.5% NaOCl), (4) 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (5.25% NaOCl) and (5) 2% chlorhexidine. Five millilitres of each test solution was applied for 3 min, and irradiation time used for LAD was 30 s. After treatment, the dentin chips were collected from inner canal walls into vials containing phosphate buffered saline, vortexed, serially diluted, seeded on Tryptic Soy Agar plates and incubated (37 °C, 48 h). The number of colony-forming units was then counted. Differences between LAD group and positive control group were statistically significant (P < 0.05). All Candida cells were totally eliminated in root canals irrigated with OCT, 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine groups (CFU = 0). Within the limitations of this ex vivo study, LAD had minimal antimicrobial effect on C. albicans when used 30 s, and further modifications in LAD protocol are required to improve its antifungal capability. A new wound antiseptic, octenidine hydrochloride, demonstrated better potential than LAD in elimination of Candida albicans cells and may be a promising alternative to NaOCl and chlorhexidine solutions in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-013-1387-1DOI Listing
February 2015

Effect of various endodontic irrigants on the push-out bond strength of biodentine and conventional root perforation repair materials.

J Endod 2013 Mar 16;39(3):380-4. Epub 2013 Jan 16.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Selcuk, Konya, Turkey.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various endodontic irrigants on the push-out bond strength of Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fossés, France) in comparison with contemporary root perforation repair materials.

Methods: Midroot dentin of canine teeth was horizontally sectioned into 1-mm-thick slices. The canal space of each dentin slice was enlarged with a diamond bur to 1.4 mm in diameter. The samples were divided into 5 groups (n = 40), and the following materials were placed, respectively: Biodentine, ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK), amalgam, Dyract AP (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany), and intermediate restorative material (IRM, Dentsply DeTrey). The samples were wrapped in wet gauze for 10 minutes and divided into 3 subgroups (n = 10) to be immersed into 3.5% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), or saline for 30 minutes. No irrigation was performed in the controls (n = 10), and a wet cotton pellet was placed over each test material. After incubation for 48 hours, the dislodgement resistance of the samples was measured using a universal testing machine. The samples were examined under a stereomicroscope to determine the nature of the bond failures.

Results: Biodentine showed significantly higher push-out bond strength than MTA (P < .05). The statistical ranking of push-out bond strength values was as follows: Dyract AP > amalgam ≥ IRM ≥ Biodentine > MTA. The push-out bond strength of Dyract AP, amalgam, IRM, and Biodentine was not significantly different when immersed in NaOCl, CHX, and saline solutions, whereas MTA lost strength when exposed to CHX.

Conclusions: Biodentine showed considerable performance as a perforation repair material even after being exposed to various endodontic irrigants, whereas MTA had the lowest push-out bond strength to root dentin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2012.11.033DOI Listing
March 2013

Assessment of the sealing abilities of several root canal sealers and filling methods.

Acta Odontol Scand 2013 Nov 11;71(6):1362-9. Epub 2013 Feb 11.

Selçuk University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Endodontics , Konya , Turkey.

Objective: To evaluate the sealing abilities of two root canal sealers (epoxy resin-based AH Plus(®) and polydimethylsiloxane-based GuttaFlow(®)) and of five root filling techniques (lateral condensation, matched taper single gutta-percha point, laterally condensed-matched taper gutta-percha point, Thermafil(®) and continuous wave of condensation), using a bacterial leakage model.

Materials And Methods: One hundred and seventy-four single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into 10 test groups (n = 15) and two control groups (n = 12). The roots that were filled with the test material, using the different root filling techniques, were mounted in a two-chamber bacterial leakage model and Enterococcus faecalis was added to the upper chambers. The lower chambers of all of the specimens were checked every day during the test period (100 days). The day of turbidity was recorded for each sample. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests.

Results: There was no significant difference between the epoxy resin-based and the polydimethylsiloxane-based sealers, irrespective of the filling techniques used (p > 0.05). The continuous wave of condensation technique was found to be superior to the other techniques (p < 0.05). The difference between the other groups was insignificant (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: AH Plus and GuttaFlow sealers showed similar levels of sealing ability. The continuous wave of condensation technique had the best sealing capability when compared to the other techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00016357.2012.762990DOI Listing
November 2013

Effects of different curing units and luting agents on push-out bond strength of translucent posts.

J Endod 2010 Sep 3;36(9):1521-5. Epub 2010 Jul 3.

Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Erciyes University, Melikgazi, Kayseri, Turkey.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different curing units and 2 luting cements on the push-out bond strength of a translucent fiber post.

Methods: Thirty maxillary incisor roots were endodontically treated. Post spaces were prepared, and the smear layers were removed. Posts (FRC Postec Plus) were luted with either a self-etch cement (Panavia F 2.0) or a self-adhesive cement (Maxcem). Luting agents were then light-activated with a quartz-tungsten-halogen, a blue light-emitting diode, or a plasma-arc curing unit. Roots/cemented posts were transversally sectioned from coronal to apical. Push-out tests were performed, and data were analyzed by using three-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests.

Results: Push-out bond strengths were significantly affected by the type of luting agent (P < .05) and root region (P < .05). The type of light source used in curing did not affect push-out bond strengths (P > .05).

Conclusions: Self-adhesive resin cement provided higher bond strength than the self-etch cement when smear layer was removed before the post cementation. The push-out bond strength in the apical portion of the root was significantly lower than in the coronal region. The use of different curing units in the photoirradiation of dual-cured resin cement did not affect the retention of the fiber post as a result of the limited light transmission capability of this post.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2010.04.026DOI Listing
September 2010

The effects of three different desensitizing agents on the shear bond strength of composite resin bonding agents.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2010 Jul 10;3(5):399-404. Epub 2010 Mar 10.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three desensitizing agents on the shear bond strengths of four different bonding agents used to bond composite resin to dentin. A total of 160 extracted human molars were sectioned parallel to the occlusal plane under water cooling, polished and randomly divided into 4 groups of 40. Each group was treated with a different desensitizing agent (Tooth Mousse, Ultra-EZ, Cervitec Plus), except for an untreated control group. Each group was then randomly subdivided into 4 groups of 10, and a different dentin bonding agent (XP Bond, AdheSE, Adper Prompt L-pop, GBond) was applied to each group in order to bond the specimens to a resin composite (Gradia Direct) built up using a plastic apparatus. A Universal Testing Machine was used to measure the shear bond strength of each specimen. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. With the exception of the Control/AdheSE and Ultra-EZ/XP Bond groups, no statistically significant differences were found in the shear bond strength values of the groups tested. These findings suggest that the use of different desensitizing agents does not affect the shear bond strength of various adhesive systems used to bond resin composite to dentin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2010.03.003DOI Listing
July 2010

Effect of different cavity disinfectants on shear bond strength of composite resin to dentin.

J Adhes Dent 2009 Oct;11(5):343-6

Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Kirikkale University, Kirikkale, Turkey.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different cavity disinfectants on dentin bond strengths of composite resin applied with two different adhesive systems.

Materials And Methods: One hundred mandibular third molars were sectioned parallel to the occlusal surface to expose midcoronal dentin. The dentin surfaces were polished with waterproof-polishing papers. The specimens were randomly divided into 5 groups of 20 each. In group 1, the specimens were not treated with any cavity disinfectants and served as control. From groups 2 to 5, dentin surfaces were treated with the following cavity disinfectants, respectively; 2% chlorhexidine solution, 2.5% NaOCl, 1% chlorhexidine gel, 3% H2O2. The specimens were then randomly divided into 2 subgroups including ten teeth each to evaluate the effect of different bonding systems. Dentin bonding systems were applied to the dentin surfaces and the composite buildups were created. After the specimens were stored in an incubator for 24 h, the shear bond strength was measured at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The bond strength data were analyzed with one way analysis of variance and Tukey-HSD tests.

Results: There was no significant difference between chlorhexidine gel and control groups regardless of the type of the bonding agent (p > 0.05). On the other hand, pretreatment with NaOCl, H2O2 or chlorhexidine solutions had a negative effect on the shear bond strength of self-etching bonding systems.

Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that when NaOCl, H2O2 or chlorhexidine solution are used as a cavity disinfectant, an etch-and-rinse bonding system should be preferred.
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October 2009

A comparative evaluation of sealing ability of a new, self-etching, dual-curable sealer: hybrid root SEAL (MetaSEAL).

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008 Dec 17;106(6):e45-52. Epub 2008 Sep 17.

Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Objective: To assess the long-term sealing ability of a new dual-curable, self-etching, 4-META containing resin-based sealer: Hybrid Root SEAL (MetaSEAL in the United States) and compare with RealSeal and AH Plus sealers.

Methodology: Root canals of 44 extracted and decoronated single-rooted human teeth were instrumented using a crown-down technique with ProFile 0.04 tapered NiTi rotary instruments to ISO size 30 and then to size 45 with K-hand files. Four roots were selected and used as positive and negative controls (n = 2), the rest were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10) and filled using 0.04 tapered size 45 cones as follows: Group 1: AH Plus with gutta-percha; Group 2: Hybrid Root SEAL (MetaSEAL) with gutta-percha; Group 3: Hybrid Root SEAL (MetaSEAL) with Resilon point; and Group 4: RealSeal with Resilon point. The quality of seal of each specimen was measured after 1, 4, 12, and 24 weeks using a fluid transport model. Measurements were made at 2-minute intervals for 8 minutes. The data were calculated as Lp and statistically analyzed using 2-way repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni pairwise comparison tests (alpha = 0.05).

Results: There were no significant differences among test materials in terms of fluid microleakage values (P = .126). There were statistically significant differences among the time periods (P = .009) and observed between 1- and 24-week test periods. There was significant interaction between root canal filling materials and time of testing (P = .048).

Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that recently introduced Hybrid Root SEAL (MetaSEAL) showed similar sealing performance with RealSeal and AH Plus sealers when used either with gutta-percha or Resilon at 24 weeks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2008.07.027DOI Listing
December 2008

Shear bond strength of four resin cements used to lute ceramic core material to human dentin.

J Prosthodont 2008 Dec 26;17(8):634-40. Epub 2008 Aug 26.

Assistant Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of four resin cements on the shear bond strength of a ceramic core material to dentin.

Materials And Methods: One hundred twenty molar teeth were embedded in a self-curing acrylic resin. The occlusal third of the crowns were sectioned under water cooling. All specimens were randomly divided into four groups of 30 teeth each according to the resin cement used. One hundred twenty cylindrical-shaped, 2.7-mm wide, 3-mm high ceramic core materials were heat-pressed. The core cylinders were then luted with one of the four resin systems to dentin (Super-Bond C&B, Chemiace II, Variolink II, and Panavia F). Half of the specimens (n = 15) were tested after 24 hours; the other half (n = 15) were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 1 day and then thermocycled 1000 times between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C prior to testing. Shear bond strength of each specimen was measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The bond strength values were calculated in MPa, and the results were statistically analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD tests.

Results: The shear bond strength varied significantly depending on the resin cement used (p < 0.05). The differences in the bond strengths after thermocycling were not remarkable as compared with the corresponding prethermal cycling groups (p > 0.05). Significant interactions were present between resin cement and thermocycling (p < 0.05). After 24 hours, the specimens luted with Variolink II (5.3 +/- 2.2 MPa) showed the highest shear bond strength, whereas the specimens luted with Chemiace II (1.6 +/- 0.4 MPa) showed the lowest. After thermocycling, the bond strength values of specimens luted with Chemiace II (1.1 +/- 0.1 MPa) and Super-Bond C&B (1.7 +/- 0.4 MPa) decreased; however, this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The increase in the shear bond strength values in the Panavia F (4.5 +/- 0.7 MPa) and Variolink II (5.5 +/- 2.1 MPa) groups after thermocycling was also not statistically significant (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Variolink II and Panavia F systems showed higher shear bond strength values than Chemiace II and Super-Bond C&B. They can be recommended for luting ceramic cores to dentin surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-849X.2008.00348.xDOI Listing
December 2008

Effect of temporary filling materials on repair bond strengths of composite resins.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2008 Aug;86(2):303-9

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Kirikkale University, Kirikkale, Turkey.

Endodontic access cavities sometimes can be prepared through a permanent composite restoration. Between the appointments, temporary cements are used to seal access cavities and may have negative effect on bonding of further composite restoration. The purpose of this study was to compare shear bond strength of composite to composite which had been in contact with various temporary filling materials. Standard cavities were prepared on 160 acrylic resin blocks, obturated with composite resin (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray, Japan) and randomly divided into eight groups (n = 20). Group 1 received no treatment. From group 2-8, composite surfaces were covered with the following cements temporarily: Zinc-oxide/calcium-sulphate (Cavit-G, ESPE, Germany), two different Zinc-Oxide-Eugenol materials (ZnOE, Cavex, Holland and IRM, Dentsply, USA), Zinc-phosphate cement (Adhesor, Spofa-Dental, Germany), Zinc-polycarboxylate cement (Adhesor-Carbofine, Spofa-Dental, Germany), Glass-Ionomer-Cement (Argion-Molar, Voco, Germany), or light curing temporary material (Clip, Voco, Germany). The cements were removed mechanically after 1 week storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C and composite surfaces were treated with a self-etch adhesive system (SE-Bond, Kuraray, Japan). Composite resin build-ups were created on composite surfaces. Shear bond strength values were measured using universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The data was calculated in MPa and statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Eugenol-containing cements significantly reduced shear bond strengths of composite to composite (p < 0.05), while the other temporary materials had no adverse effect on shear bond strength (p > 0.05). These findings suggested that temporary filling materials except eugenol-containing materials have no negative effect on composite repair bond strengths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.31017DOI Listing
August 2008

Evaluation of pH and calcium ion release of Acroseal sealer in comparison with Apexit and Sealapex sealers.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2007 Mar 22;103(3):e86-91. Epub 2007 Jan 22.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Selcuk, Konya, Turkey.

Objective: This is an in vitro assessment of pH level and calcium ion release exhibited by 3 calcium hydroxide-based root canal sealers-Sealapex, Apexit, and Acroseal.

Study Design: The materials were prepared according to the manufacturers' instructions and placed in 1 cm long and 4 mm diameter tubes. The tubes were then immersed in a glass flask containing 10 mL bidistilled water (n = 15), which was sealed and stored at 37 degrees C before the materials had set. The control group contained bidistilled water with empty tubes (n = 12). At predetermined time intervals (24 h, 96 h, and 7, 15, and 28 days) the pH of the bidistilled water was tested with a pH meter and for released calcium by using spectrophotometry. The data were statistically analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance for the comparison of the materials at each time point. If the difference was significant, individual comparisons were performed by Tukey multiple comparisons test (alpha = .05).

Results: Sealapex produced higher pH and released significantly higher calcium amounts than the other 2 sealers at all periods (P < .05). Apexit showed higher calcium release than Acroseal at the end of 15 days (P < .05). There was no significant difference in the pH between Apexit and Acroseal (P > .05).

Conclusion: The new Acroseal sealer presented the least calcium ion release and pH than Sealapex and less calcium ion release than Apexit sealer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2006.10.018DOI Listing
March 2007

Assessment of antibacterial activity of EndoREZ.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006 Jul 21;102(1):119-26. Epub 2006 Apr 21.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Selcuk, Konya, Turkey.

Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate antibacterial activity of a new resin based sealer, EndoREZ in comparison with 5 other sealers: AH 26, Diaket, Sultan, Apexit, and RoekoSeal.

Study Design: The effect of 6 different sealers on the growth of 3 bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was measured using the agar diffusion test (ADT) and direct contact test (DCT). For ADT, 200 microL bacterial suspensions were spread on agar plates and freshly mixed sealers were applied to uniform wells punched in the agar. The zones of inhibition of bacterial growth were measured at 24 hours, 48 hours, 7 days, and 10 days. For DCT, 2 sets of sealers were prepared: fresh and 24-hour samples. Fresh samples were used within 20 minutes of mixing time while 24-hour samples were allowed to set in a humid atmosphere at 37 degrees C for 24 hours before testing. Sealers were mixed and placed on the walls of microtiter plate wells and 10-microL bacterial suspensions were allowed to directly contact the sealers for 1 hour. Fresh media were added and 15 microL were transferred from this plate to another plate containing fresh medium (215 microL). Bacterial growth of this last plate was then measured using spectrophotometer every hour over 16 hours.

Results: ADT results indicated that EndoREZ, Apexit, and RoekoSeal did not show any antibacterial activity. In DCT results, AH 26 and Sultan were potent bacterial growth inhibitors.

Conclusion: EndoREZ is not as potent a bacterial growth inhibitor as Sultan and AH 26.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2005.06.017DOI Listing
July 2006

Antibacterial effect of selected root-end filling materials.

J Endod 2006 Apr 7;32(4):345-9. Epub 2006 Feb 7.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Selcuk, Konya, Turkey.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of leachable components of selected root-end filling materials: amalgam, ProRoot MTA (mineral trioxide aggregate), Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), Super Bond C&B, Geristore, Dyract, Clearfil APX composite with SE Bond, or Protect Bond. The direct contact test (DCT) with Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was used. The materials were tested immediately after application to the microtiter wells (fresh samples) and after setting for 3 days (set samples). Ten microliters of bacterial suspension was added to each well for direct contact with each material for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Growth of surviving bacteria was then measured in a microplate spectrophotometer hourly at 620 nm for 15 h. Twelve uncoated wells using identical inoculum size served as positive controls. The data obtained at the end of 15 h was subjected to one-way ANOVA and post hoc comparisons were done using Tamhane's T2 test. Fresh samples of all materials showed a 3-h delay in exponential growth of both E. faecalis and S. aureus, and a 5-h delay in growth of P. aeruginosa. Set samples of IRM and ProRoot MTA cements showed generally greater antibacterial activity than the other materials: both completely inhibited P. aeruginosa, and both delayed or limited growth of E. faecalis. The DCT, by being quantitative and virtually independent of solubility and diffusion, was found suitable to assay solid root-end filling materials. IRM and ProRoot MTA were generally more potent inhibitors of bacterial-growth than the other tested materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2005.09.009DOI Listing
April 2006

Thermal changes in the pulp chamber during different adhesive clean-up procedures.

Angle Orthod 2005 Mar;75(2):220-5

Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey.

The aim of this in vitro study was to measure the temperature changes in the pulpal chamber when different adhesive clean-up procedures were used. Ninety intact extracted human maxillary central incisors were used in the study. The teeth were divided into six groups of 15 teeth each. The removal of the remaining composite on the tooth surface was performed with a tungsten carbide bur. The residual adhesive was removed using a high-speed handpiece with and without water cooling and a contra-angle handpiece with and without water cooling at high and low speeds. A J-type thermocouple wire was positioned in the center of the pulp chamber. The results were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey-honestly significant difference test. Two-factor ANOVA revealed significant interaction between the handpiece type and water cooling. In this study, the high-speed contra-angle handpiece without water cooling group had the highest deltaT values (7.58 degrees C+/-1.84 degrees C) among all the clean-up procedures. The decrease in pulpal temperature with water cooling was -5.34 degrees C for the handpiece, -5.36 degrees C for the low-speed contra-angle handpiece and -4.98 degrees C for the high-speed contra-angle handpiece. Clinicians should be aware of the potential thermal damage to the pulp, which may result from long clean-up procedures without water cooling. Adhesive removal procedures should be performed with adequate water cooling to prevent temperature increases that might be harmful to pulpal tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1043/0003-3219(2005)075<0216:TCITPC>2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
March 2005

Shear bond strength of three resin based sealers to dentin with and without the smear layer.

J Endod 2005 Apr;31(4):293-6

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Selcuk, Konya, Turkey.

Bond strength of root canal sealers to dentin is an important property for the integrity of the sealings of root-canals. The purpose of this study was to test shear bond strength of three endodontic sealers (Diaket, AH Plus and Endo-REZ). The coronal two thirds of ninety extracted human third molars were removed. The smear layer of the exposed dentin surfaces were removed using 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCl and the teeth were randomly divided into two groups (n = 45). Group 1 was kept as control and in group 2, uniform smear layer was created using waterproof polishing papers. Three-mm long sections of polyethylene tubing were filled with freshly mixed sealer and placed on the dentin surfaces for conducting a shear bond strength test. The data was calculated as MPa and was statistically analyzed using a two way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. A significant difference was found among the bond strength of the sealers, smear layer, and control groups. AH Plus sealer showed the highest bond strength in smear layer removed surfaces (p < 0.05). Pretreatment with EDTA/NaOCl affected bond strength of AH Plus. AH Plus had the highest bond to dentin with or without smear layer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.don.0000140577.99708.c8DOI Listing
April 2005

Effect of EDTA and citric acid solutions on the microhardness and the roughness of human root canal dentin.

J Endod 2005 Feb;31(2):107-10

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Selcuk, Turkey.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of citric acid and EDTA solutions on the microhardness and the roughness of human root canal dentin. Forty-five human teeth sectioned longitudinally were used. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups of 30 teeth each and were treated as follows: (a) one molar (19%) citric acid (C6H8O7) for 150 s followed by 5.25% NaOCl; (b) 17% EDTA for 150 s and rinsed with 5.25% NaOCl; (c) rinsed with distilled water and served as control. Three groups were then divided into two subgroups of 15 specimens each. The specimens, in first subgroup were subjected to Vicker's testing whereas the second subgroup underwent surface roughness testing. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Significant differences were observed in microhardness among the test groups, citric acid group being the least hard (p 0.05). Also, citric acid significantly increased surface roughness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.don.0000136212.53475.adDOI Listing
February 2005

Pulpal temperature rise during light-activated bleaching.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2005 Feb;72(2):254-9

Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

The purpose of this study was to measure intrapulpal temperature rise induced by two kinds of bleaching gels when the tooth was exposed to a variety of light-curing units and a diode laser in vitro. The root portions of 80 extracted intact human maxillary central incisors were sectioned with a carborundum disk approximately 2 mm below the cementoenamel junction perpendicular to the long axis of the teeth. Two bleaching agents containing heat-enhancing colorant was applied to the labial surface. Light-curing units used were a conventional halogen (40 s), a high-intensity halogen (30 s), a light-emitting diode unit (40 s), and a diode laser (15 s). The temperature rise was measured in the pulpal chamber with a J-type thermocouple wire that was connected to a data logger. Ten specimens were used for each system and bleaching-agent combination. Differences between the starting temperature and highest temperature reading were taken and the calculated temperature changes were averaged to determine the mean value in temperature rise. Temperature rise values were compared using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a preset alpha of 0.05. Temperature rise varied significantly depending on curing unit and diode laser used. The diode laser induced significantly higher temperature increases than any other curing unit (11.7 degrees C). The light-emitting diode unit produced the lowest temperature changes (6.0 degrees C); however, there were no statistically significant differences among the curing units and there were no statistically significant differences between bleaching agents. Light activation of bleaching materials with diode laser caused higher temperature changes as compared to other curing units and the temperature rise detected was viewed as critical for pulpal health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.30144DOI Listing
February 2005

Effect of solvents on bonding to root canal dentin.

J Endod 2004 Aug;30(8):589-92

Department of Endodontics, Selçuk University Faculty of Dentistry, Konya, Turkey.

The long-term success of resin cementation of post/cores is likely increased with improvement in resin-root canal dentin bonding. The adverse effect of some irrigation constituents (NaOCl, H2O2) or medications (eugenol) on the bond strengths of resins to dentin have been reported. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two gutta-percha solvents (chloroform versus halothane) on microtensile bond strength to root canal dentin. Thirty, extracted, human, single-rooted teeth were instrumented to a #70 file and randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. The root canals were treated with water, chloroform, or halothane for 60 s. All root canals were obturated using C&B Metabond. After 24 h of storage in distilled water, serial 1-mm-thick cross-sections were cut and trimmed. Microtensile bond strength to apical, middle, and coronal root canal dentin were measured using an Instron machine. Using pooled data, the results indicated that water-treated roots had significantly higher resin-dentin bond strengths compared with chloroform or halothane treatment groups (control: 23.9 MPa; chloroform: 18.3 MPa; halothane: 17 MPa; p < 0.05). Gutta-percha solvents have an adverse effect on bond strengths of adhesive cements to root canal dentin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.don.0000121613.52816.03DOI Listing
August 2004

Effect of gutta-percha solvents on mineral contents of human root dentin using ICP-AES technique.

J Endod 2004 Jan;30(1):54-6

Department of Endodontics, Selcuk University, Faculty of Dentistry, Konya, Turkey.

The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the mineral contents of root-canal dentin before and after treatment with two commonly used gutta-percha solvents: chloroform and halothane. Twenty extracted human premolars, whose crowns and apical thirds had been removed, were used. Pulp tissues were removed and the teeth were randomly divided into two groups including 10 teeth each. Root canals were enlarged with Gates Glidden burs (#1, 2, and 3). Dentin chips were obtained and saved in plates to serve as a control. Root-canal-dentin walls were then treated with chloroform or halothane for 15 min. Dentin chips were again obtained using Gates Glidden burs (#4, 5, and 6). The levels of five elements, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, and sulfur, in each specimen were analyzed using ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry) technique. Changes in the levels of the chemical elements were recorded. Differences between the groups were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. There was a significant decrease in Ca level and significant increase in Mg level after treatment with halothane (p < 0.05). There was a significant increase in Mg level after treatment with chloroform. The changes in other elements levels after treatment with gutta-percha solvents were minimal and statistically not significant (p > 0.05). As a result it was concluded that gutta-percha solvents have effect on mineral contents of root dentin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004770-200401000-00012DOI Listing
January 2004
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