Publications by authors named "Aya Ishibashi"

17 Publications

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Augmented muscle glycogen utilization following a single session of sprint training in hypoxia.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Sports Research, Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Kita-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: This study determined the effect of a single session of sprint interval training in hypoxia on muscle glycogen content among athletes.

Methods: Ten male college track and field sprinters (mean ± standard error of the mean: age, 21.1 ± 0.2 years; height, 177 ± 2 cm; body weight, 67 ± 2 kg) performed two exercise trials under either hypoxia [HYPO; fraction of inspired oxygen (FO), 14.5%] or normoxia (NOR: FO, 20.9%). The exercise consisted of 3 × 30 s maximal cycle sprints with 8-min rest periods between sets. Before and immediately after the exercise, the muscle glycogen content was measured using carbon magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius muscles. Moreover, power output, blood lactate concentrations, metabolic responses (respiratory oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output), and muscle oxygenation were evaluated.

Results: Exercise significantly decreased muscle glycogen content in both trials (interaction, P = 0.03; main effect for time, P < 0.01). Relative changes in muscle glycogen content following exercise were significantly higher in the HYPO trial (- 43.5 ± 0.4%) than in the NOR trial (- 34.0 ± 0.3%; P < 0.01). The mean power output did not significantly differ between the two trials (P = 0.80). The blood lactate concentration after exercise was not significantly different between trials (P = 0.31).

Conclusion: A single session of sprint interval training (3 × 30 s sprints) in hypoxia caused a greater decrease in muscle glycogen content compared with the same exercise under normoxia without interfering with the power output.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-021-04748-8DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparisons Between Serum Levels of Hepcidin and Leptin in Male College-Level Endurance Runners and Sprinters.

Front Nutr 2021 31;8:657789. Epub 2021 May 31.

Division of Preventive Medicine, Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, Japan.

Hepcidin-25 is a 25 amino acid hepatokine and a key regulator of iron metabolism related to iron deficiency anemia. Recent studies have suggested that an elevated hepcidin level is correlated with low energy availability. Leptin is an appetite-suppressing adipokine and has been reported to stimulate hepcidin production in animals and cultured cells. While leptin is modulated by exercise, it is known that endurance runners and sprinters practice different types of exercise. This study investigated and compared the relationships between hepcidin and leptin levels, iron status, and body fat to understand better the risk of iron deficiency anemia in endurance runners and sprinters. Thirty-six male college track and field athletes (15 endurance runners and 21 sprinters) were recruited for this study. Dietary intake, body composition, and blood levels of ferritin, hepcidin-25, leptin, and adiponectin were measured. Correlations between hepcidin levels and ferritin, body fat, leptin, and adiponectin were evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient for each group. The endurance runners had lower hepcidin levels and higher leptin and adiponectin levels compared with sprinters. Ferritin was positively correlated with hepcidin-25 levels in both the endurance and sprinter groups. A positive correlation was observed between hepcidin-25 and body fat or leptin levels only in sprinters. This is the first study investigating the relationship between blood levels of hepcidin and leptin in athletes. The positive correlation between hepcidin-25 and leptin was observed in sprinters but not endurance runners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.657789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202679PMC
May 2021

Insulin resistance and the Adiponectin/Leptin Ratio as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance in Japanese collegiate baseball players.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Graduate School of Health Management, Nagasaki International University, Sasebo-shi, Nagasaki, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.21.12001-8DOI Listing
January 2021

Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and dynamic cerebral autoregulation in acute response to glycemic control following breakfast in young men.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 01 28;320(1):R69-R79. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Faculty of Life Sciences and Education, University of South Wales, Pontypridd, United Kingdom.

We examined the acute impact of both low- and high-glycemic index (GI) breakfasts on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) compared with breakfast omission. Ten healthy men (age 24 ± 1 yr) performed three trials in a randomized crossover order; omission and Low-GI (GI = 40) and High-GI (GI = 71) breakfast conditions. Middle cerebral artery velocity (transcranial Doppler ultrasonography) and arterial pressure (finger photoplethysmography) were continuously measured for 5 min before and 120 min following breakfast consumption to determine dCA using transfer function analysis. After these measurements of dCA, venous blood samples for the assessment of plasma BDNF were obtained. Moreover, blood glucose was measured before breakfast and every 30 min thereafter. The area under the curve of 2 h postprandial blood glucose in the High-GI trial was higher than the Low-GI trial ( < 0.01). The GI of the breakfast did not affect BDNF. In addition, both very-low (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) transfer function phase or gains were not changed during the omission trial. In contrast, LF gain (High-GI < 0.05) and normalized gain (Low-GI < 0.05) were decreased by both GI trials, while a decrease in VLF phase was observed in only the High-GI trial ( < 0.05). These findings indicate that breakfast consumption augmented dCA in the LF range but High-GI breakfast attenuated cerebral blood flow regulation against slow change (i.e., the VLF range) in arterial pressure. Thus we propose that breakfast and glycemic control may be an important strategy to optimize cerebrovascular health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00059.2020DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of low energy availability during three consecutive days of endurance training on iron metabolism in male long distance runners.

Physiol Rep 2020 06;8(12):e14494

Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Kitaku, Tokyo, Japan.

We investigated the effect of low energy availability (LEA) during three consecutive days of endurance training on muscle glycogen content and iron metabolism. Six male long distance runners completed three consecutive days of endurance training under LEA or neutral energy availability (NEA) conditions. Energy availability was set at 20 kcal/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day for LEA and 45 kcal/kg FFM/day for NEA. The subjects ran for 75 min at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake ( O ) on days 1-3. Venous blood samples were collected following an overnight fast on days 1-4, immediately and 3 hr after exercise on day 3. The muscle glycogen content on days 1-4 was evaluated by carbon-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In LEA condition, the body weight and muscle glycogen content on days 2-4, and the FFM on days 2 and 4 were significantly lower than those on day1 (p < .05 vs. day1), whereas no significant change was observed throughout the training period in NEA condition. On day 3, muscle glycogen content before exercise was negatively correlated with serum iron level (immediately after exercise, 3 hr after exercise), serum hepcidin level immediately after exercise, and plasma IL-6 level immediately after exercise (p < .05). Moreover, serum hepcidin level on day 4 was significantly higher in LEA condition than that in NEA condition (p < .05). In conclusion, three consecutive days of endurance training under LEA reduced the muscle glycogen content with concomitant increased serum hepcidin levels in male long distance runners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322269PMC
June 2020

Muscle Glycogen Content during Endurance Training under Low Energy Availability.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2020 01;52(1):187-195

Graduate School of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, JAPAN.

Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of three consecutive days of endurance training under conditions of low energy availability (LEA) on the muscle glycogen content, muscle damage markers, endocrine regulation, and endurance capacity in male runners.

Methods: Seven male long-distance runners (19.9 ± 1.1 yr, 175.6 ± 4.7 cm, 61.4 ± 5.3 kg, maximal oxygen uptake [V˙O2max]: 67.5 ± 4.3 mL·kg·min) completed two trials consisting of three consecutive days of endurance training under LEA (18.9 ± 1.9 kcal·kg FFM·d) or normal energy availability (NEA) (52.9 ± 5.0 kcal·kg FFM·d). The order of the two trials was randomized, with a 2-wk interval between trials. The endurance training consisted of 75 min of treadmill running at 70% of V˙O2max. Muscle glycogen content, respiratory gas variables, and blood and urine variables were measured in the morning for three consecutive days of training (days 1-3) and on the following morning after training (day 4). As an indication of endurance capacity, time to exhaustion at 19.0 ± 0.8 km·h to elicit 90% of V˙O2max was evaluated on day 4.

Results: During the training period, body weight, fat-free mass, and skeletal muscle volume were significantly reduced in LEA (P = 0.02 for body weight and skeletal muscle volume, P = 0.01 for fat-free mass). Additionally, muscle glycogen content was significantly reduced in LEA (~30%, P < 0.001), with significantly lower values than those in NEA (P < 0.001). Time to exhaustion was not significantly different between the two trials (~20 min, P = 0.39).

Conclusions: Three consecutive days of endurance training under LEA decreased muscle glycogen content with lowered body weight. However, endurance capacity was not significantly impaired.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002098DOI Listing
January 2020

Effects of diet before endurance exercise on hepcidin response in young untrained females.

J Exerc Nutrition Biochem 2018 Dec;22(4):55-61

Purpose: We examined the effects of diet before endurance exercise on hepcidin response in young untrained females.

Methods: Ten young untrained females [age: 20.6 ± 0.8 y, height: 157.5 ± 1.0 cm, weight: 54.4 ± 1.5 kg, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 35.9 ± 1.1 mL/kg/min] were involved in two experimental conditions with a crossover design. The two conditions were separated by approximately 1 month, and each condition was performed during the follicular phase. Subjects completed 60 min of pedaling at 65% of VO2max after consuming a meal (FED) or not consuming a meal (CON). Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 3 h after exercise.

Results: Serum ferritin levels before exercise did not differ between the two conditions (P > 0.05). Blood glucose and lactate levels were significantly elevated immediately after exercise only under the FED condition (P < 0.05). Serum iron levels were significantly elevated after exercise under both conditions. However, the plasma interleukin-6 and serum hepcidin levels were not significantly different 3 h after exercise under either condition (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: Consuming a meal before endurance exercise at moderate intensity did not affect exercise-induced hepcidin elevation in young untrained females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20463/jenb.2018.0030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343765PMC
December 2018

Flavanol-rich cocoa consumption enhances exercise-induced executive function improvements in humans.

Nutrition 2018 02 28;46:90-96. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan; Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan; Graduate School of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan.

Objective: Aerobic exercise is known to acutely improve cognitive functions, such as executive function (EF) and memory function (MF). Additionally, consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been reported to acutely improve cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine whether high cocoa flavanol (CF; HCF) consumption would enhance exercise-induced improvement in cognitive function. To test this hypothesis, we examined the combined effects of HCF consumption and moderate-intensity exercise on EF and MF during postexercise recovery.

Methods: Ten healthy young men received either an HCF (563 mg of CF) or energy-matched low CF (LCF; 38 mg of CF) beverage 70 min before exercise in a single-blind counterbalanced manner. The men then performed moderate-intensity cycling exercise at 60% of peak oxygen uptake for 30 min. The participants performed a color-word Stroop task and face-name matching task to evaluate EF and MF, respectively, during six time periods throughout the experimental session.

Results: EF significantly improved immediately after exercise compared with before exercise in both conditions. However, EF was higher after HCF consumption than after LCF consumption during all time periods because HCF consumption improved EF before exercise. In contrast, HCF consumption and moderate-intensity exercise did not improve MF throughout the experiment.

Conclusion: The present findings demonstrated that HCF consumption before moderate-intensity exercise could enhance exercise-induced improvement in EF, but not in MF. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of HCF consumption and aerobic exercise may be beneficial for improving EF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2017.08.017DOI Listing
February 2018

Postexercise serum hepcidin response to repeated sprint exercise under normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2018 Mar 29;43(3):221-226. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

a Graduate School of Sports and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, 525-8577, Japan.

We determined the effects of repeated sprint exercise under normoxic and hypoxic conditions on serum hepcidin levels. Ten male athletes (age: 20.9 ± 0.3 years; height: 175.7 ± 6.0 cm; weight: 67.3 ± 6.3 kg) performed 2 exercise trials under normoxic (NOR; fraction of inspiratory oxygen (FiO): 20.9%) or hypoxic conditions (HYPO; FiO: 14.5%). The exercise consisted of 3 sets of 5 × 6 s of maximal pedaling (30-s rest periods between sprints, 10-min rest periods between sets). Blood samples were collected before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 1 and 3 h after exercise. Serum hepcidin levels were significantly elevated after exercise in both trials (both P < 0.01), with no significant difference between the trials. The postexercise blood lactate levels were significantly higher in the HYPO than the NOR (P < 0.05). Both trials caused similar increases in plasma interleukin-6 and serum iron levels (P < 0.001), with no significant difference between the trials. A significant interaction (trial × time) was apparent in terms of serum erythropoietin (EPO) levels (P = 0.003). The EPO level was significantly higher in the HYPO than the NOR at 3 h after exercise (P < 0.05). In conclusion, repeated sprint exercise significantly increased serum hepcidin levels to similar extent in 2 trials, despite differences in the inspired oxygen concentrations during both the exercise and the 3-h postexercise period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2017-0418DOI Listing
March 2018

Post-exercise serum hepcidin levels were unaffected by hypoxic exposure during prolonged exercise sessions.

PLoS One 2017 22;12(8):e0183629. Epub 2017 Aug 22.

Graduate School of Sports and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan.

The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of hypoxic exposure during prolonged endurance exercise sessions (79 min in total) on post-exercise hepcidin levels in trained male endurance athletes. Ten endurance athletes (mean ± standard deviation; height: 169.8 ± 7.1 cm, weight: 57.1 ± 5.0 kg) conducted two endurance exercise sessions under either a normobaric hypoxic condition [inspired O2 fraction (FiO2) = 14.5%] or a normoxic condition (FiO2 = 20.9%). Exercise consisted of 10 × 3 min running on a treadmill at 95% of maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) with 60s of active rest at 60% of [Formula: see text]. After 10 min of rest, they subsequently performed 30 min of continuous running at 85% of [Formula: see text]. Running velocities were significantly lower in the HYPO than in the NOR (P < 0.0001). Exercise-induced blood lactate elevation was significantly greater in the HYPO (P < 0.01). There were significant increases in plasma interleukin-6, serum iron, and blood glucose levels after exercise, with no significant difference between the trials [interaction (trial × time) or main effect for trial, P > 0.05]. Serum hepcidin levels increased significantly 120 min after exercise (HYPO: from 10.7 ± 9.4 ng/mL to 15.8 ± 11.2 ng/mL; NOR: from 7.9 ± 4.7 ng/mL to 13.2 ± 7.9 ng/mL, P < 0.05), and no difference was observed between the trials. In conclusion, endurance exercise at lower running velocity in hypoxic conditions resulted in similar post-exercise hepcidin elevations as higher running velocity in normoxic conditions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0183629PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5567555PMC
October 2017

Iron Supplementation during Three Consecutive Days of Endurance Training Augmented Hepcidin Levels.

Nutrients 2017 Jul 30;9(8). Epub 2017 Jul 30.

Graduate School of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan.

Iron supplementation contributes an effort to improving iron status among athletes, but it does not always prevent iron deficiency. In the present study, we explored the effect of three consecutive days of endurance training (twice daily) on the hepcidin-25 (hepcidin) level. The effect of iron supplementation during this period was also determined. Fourteen male endurance athletes were enrolled and randomly assigned to either an iron-treated condition (Fe condition, = 7) or a placebo condition (Control condition; CON, = 7). They engaged in two 75-min sessions of treadmill running at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake on three consecutive days (days 1-3). The Fe condition took 12 mg of iron twice daily (24 mg/day), and the CON condition did not. On day 1, both conditions exhibited significant increases in serum hepcidin and plasma interleukin-6 levels after exercise ( < 0.05). In the CON condition, the hepcidin level did not change significantly throughout the training period. However, in the Fe condition, the serum hepcidin level on day 4 was significantly higher than that of the CON condition ( < 0.05). In conclusion, the hepcidin level was significantly elevated following three consecutive days of endurance training when moderate doses of iron were taken.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9080820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5579614PMC
July 2017

Appetite Regulations After Sprint Exercise Under Hypoxic Condition in Female Athletes.

J Strength Cond Res 2019 Jul;33(7):1773-1780

Graduate School of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan.

Kojima, C, Kasai, N, Ishibashi, A, Murakami, Y, Ebi, K, and Goto, K. Appetite regulations after sprint exercise under hypoxic condition in female athletes. J Strength Cond Res 33(7): 1773-1780, 2019-The present study determined changes in appetite-regulating hormones and energy intake after high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) under hypoxic conditions (HYP) in trained female athletes. Fifteen female athletes completed 3 trials on different days of either HIIT under HYP, HIIT under normoxic conditions (NOR), or rest in normoxia (CON). Exercise trials consisted of 2 successive sets of 8 repeated bouts of a 6-second maximal sprint separated by a 30-second rest. Blood samples were obtained to measure plasma acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and metabolite concentrations. Energy intake during an ad libitum buffet meal test was evaluated 30 minutes after exercise or rest. Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations decreased significantly after exercise (p ≤ 0.001), but no difference was observed between the HYP and NOR. Plasma GLP-1 concentrations did not differ after exercise, with no difference between the HYP and NOR. Although absolute energy intake in the HYP (634 ± 67 kcal) and NOR (597 ± 63 kcal) was significantly lower than that in the CON (756 ± 63 kcal, p = 0.006), no difference was observed between the HYP and NOR. These results show that HIIT under hypoxic and NOR lowered plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations and energy intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002131DOI Listing
July 2019

Elevated Serum Hepcidin Levels during an Intensified Training Period in Well-Trained Female Long-Distance Runners.

Nutrients 2017 Mar 14;9(3). Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Graduate School of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan.

Iron is essential for providing oxygen to working muscles during exercise, and iron deficiency leads to decreased exercise capacity during endurance events. However, the mechanism of iron deficiency among endurance athletes remains unclear. In this study, we compared iron status between two periods involving different training regimens. Sixteen female long-distance runners participated. Over a seven-month period, fasting blood samples were collected during their regular training period (LOW; middle of February) and during an intensified training period (INT; late of August) to determine blood hematological, iron, and inflammatory parameters. Three-day food diaries were also assessed. Body weight and lean body mass did not differ significantly between LOW and INT, while body fat and body fat percentage were significantly lower in INT ( < 0.05). Blood hemoglobin, serum ferritin, total protein, and iron levels, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation did not differ significantly between the two periods. Serum hepcidin levels were significantly higher during INT than LOW ( < 0.05). Carbohydrate and iron intakes from the daily diet were significantly higher during INT than LOW ( < 0.05). In conclusion, an elevated hepcidin level was observed during an intensified training period in long-distance runners, despite an apparently adequate daily intake of iron.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9030277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5372940PMC
March 2017

Comparison of Site-Specific Bone Mineral Densities between Endurance Runners and Sprinters in Adolescent Women.

Nutrients 2016 Nov 30;8(12). Epub 2016 Nov 30.

Graduate School of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu 525-8577, Japan.

We aimed to compare site-specific bone mineral densities (BMDs) between adolescent endurance runners and sprinters and examine the relationship of fat-free mass (FFM) and nutrient intake on BMD. In this cross-sectional study, 37 adolescent female endurance runners and sprinters (16.1 ± 0.8 years) were recruited. BMD and FFM were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Nutrient intake and menstrual state were evaluated by questionnaires. After adjusting for covariates, spine and total bone less head (TBLH) BMDs were significantly higher in sprinters than endurance runners (TBLH, 1.02 ± 0.05 vs. 0.98 ± 0.06 g/cm²; spine, 0.99 ± 0.06 vs. 0.94 ± 0.06 g/cm²; < 0.05). There was no significant difference between groups in other sites. The rate of menstrual abnormality was higher in endurance runners compared with sprinters (56.3% vs. 23.8%; < 0.05). FFM was a significant covariate for BMD on all sites except the spine ( < 0.05). Dietary intake of vitamin D was identified as a significant covariate only for pelvic BMD ( < 0.05). The BMDs of different sites among endurance runners and sprinters were strongly related to FFM. However, the association of FFM with spine BMD cannot be explained by FFM alone. Other factors, including nutrition and/or mechanical loading, may affect the spine BMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu8120781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5188436PMC
November 2016

The Effect of a 20 km Run on Appetite Regulation in Long Distance Runners.

Nutrients 2016 Oct 26;8(11). Epub 2016 Oct 26.

Graduate School of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan.

The purpose of the present study was to investigate appetite-related hormonal responses and energy intake after a 20 km run in trained long distance runners. Twenty-three male long-distance runners completed two trials: either an exercise trial consisting of a 20 km outdoor run (EX) or a control trial with an identical period of rest (CON). Blood samples were collected to determine plasma acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and other hormonal and metabolite concentrations. Energy intake during a buffet test meal was also measured 30 min after the exercise or rest periods. Although plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations were significantly decreased after the 20 km run ( < 0.05), plasma PYY did not change significantly following exercise. Absolute energy intake during the buffet test meal in EX (1325 ± 55 kcal) was significantly lower than that in CON (1529 ± 55 kcal), and there was a relatively large degree of individual variability for exercise-induced changes in energy intake (-40.2% to 12.8%). However, exercise-induced changes in energy intake were not associated with plasma acylated ghrelin or PYY responses. The results demonstrated that a 20 km run significantly decreased plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations and absolute energy intake among well-trained long distance runners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu8110672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5133060PMC
October 2016

A 3-day high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet does not alter exercise-induced growth hormone response in healthy males.

Growth Horm IGF Res 2015 Dec 10;25(6):304-11. Epub 2015 Sep 10.

Graduate School of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan; Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of 3 days isoenergetic high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet (HF-LC) relative to low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet (LF-HC) on the exercise-induced growth hormone (GH) response in healthy male subjects.

Design: Ten healthy young males participated in this study. Each subject consumed the HF-LC (18±1% protein, 61±2% fat, 21±1% carbohydrate, 2720 kcal per day) for 3 consecutive days after consuming the LF-HC (18±1% protein, 20±1% fat, 62±1% carbohydrate, 2755 kcal per day) for 3 consecutive days. After each dietary intervention period, the hormonal and metabolic responses to an acute exercise (30 min of continuous pedaling at 60% of V˙O2max) were compared. The intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) contents in the vastus lateralis, soleus, and tibialis anterior were evaluated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Results: Serum GH concentrations increased significantly during the exercise after both the HF-LC and LF-HC periods (P<0.05). However, the exercise-induced GH response was not significantly different between the two periods. Fat utilization and lipolytic responses during the exercise were enhanced significantly after the HF-LC period compared with the LF-HC period. IMCL content did not differ significantly in any portion of muscle after the dietary interventions.

Conclusions: We could not show that short-term HF-LC consumption changed significantly exercise-induced GH response or IMCL content in healthy young males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ghir.2015.07.005DOI Listing
December 2015

[About mental health outreach services in Japan].

Nihon Rinsho 2013 Apr;71(4):718-24

Central Rehabilitation Center, The University of Tokyo Hospital.

Outreach services are very important in community mental health care. There are two types for outreach services. One is mental health activities, such as early intervention and consultation, and the other is intended to prevent recurrence and readmission by supporting the daily living activities of a patient in a community. We have 2.73 psychiatric care beds in hospitals per 1,000 population. So, it is just the beginning in changing from hospital centered psychiatry to community mental health care. Outreach services are being tried in several places in our country. In this essay, we describe mental health outreach services in Japan and we have illustrated vocational rehabilitation and outreach job support in our day treatment program.
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April 2013
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