Publications by authors named "Axel Wehrend"

86 Publications

[Naturopathy and complementary medicine in small animal science - definitions and contents].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2021 Jun 22;49(3):206-210. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Klinik für Geburtshilfe, Gynäkologie und Andrologie der Groß- und Kleintiere mit Tierärztlicher Ambulanz, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen.

Naturopathic and complementary procedures attain increasing popularity in veterinary medicine. A common understanding of definitions and contents of these fields is crucial for communication between pet owners and veterinarians. This paper reviews the existing definitions and the various contents of naturopathy and complementary veterinary medicine as well as their assigned treatment options. Naturopathy includes phytotherapy, hydro-therapy, thermotherapy, electrotherapy, manual therapy/chiropractic/osteopathy, and dietetic treatment. Homeopathy, homotoxicology, Traditional Chinese Medicine including acu-puncture and Chinese herbal medicine, neural therapy, organotherapy and Bach flower remedies are known as complementary treatments. The level of evidence based on scientific literature and the opportunity for certification procedures differ between treatment modalities. In the area of small animal medicine, the most extensive body of literature is available on the subject of acupuncture, in part comprising high evidence levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1480-5642DOI Listing
June 2021

Distribution pattern of local immune cells within the lower urinary tract of male sheep lambs.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Jul 25;137:274-280. Epub 2021 May 25.

Institute for Veterinary Anatomy, Embryology and Histology, Frankfurter Str. 98, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

The local immunity of the lower urinary tract (LUT) is often presumed to influence the development of ascending infections and local inflammation. Due to small ruminants being at a higher risk of developing obstructive urolithiasis after early castration, a relationship is expected to exist between disturbed local immunity, castration and disease. However, the underlying pathophysiology and histological correlation of this assumption are unknown. This study examines the local cellular immunity of the LUT in male lambs with respect to castration status or a recent history of obstructive urolithiasis. Various tissue samples were taken and examined. The sample consisted of 34 male lambs, aged six months (n = 11 early and n = 11 late castration; n = 12 intact) and eight rams that had undergone necropsy due to fatal outcome after obstructive urolithiasis. Immunohistochemical stainings for CD3-T-cells, CD79α-B-cells and MAC 387-macrophages were performed and compared among the groups. Whereas no global group differences were evident, significant differences were found for the localizations (P = 0.002) with a significant interaction between group and localization (P = 0.004). The immunohistochemical results suggest that castration did not affect the cell number, but did have an effect on the distribution pattern of local T-cells within the urethra. In the urolithiasis cases, a reduction of CD3-positive cells along the middle part of the urethra was noticeable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2021.05.015DOI Listing
July 2021

Downregulation of testicular function in the goat by altrenogest.

BMC Vet Res 2021 May 4;17(1):183. Epub 2021 May 4.

Clinic of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Andrology of Large and Small Animals with Ambulatory Service, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Frankfurter Strasse 106, 35392, Giessen, Germany.

Background: The present study investigated whether the administration of the progestin altrenogest provides noninvasive, temporary, and reversible suppression of gonadal function in the goat as a potential alternative to chirurgical castration, which is related with irreversibility, risks of complications till death of the animal and welfare issues. Eight sexually mature Peacock goats were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was administered altrenogest (0.088 mg/kg) orally once daily for 7 weeks. The remaining four goats received an oral glucose solution and served as the control group. After completing the administration period, the reversibility of the medication was evaluated for another 7 weeks (observation phase). The treatment effects were assessed by clinical examination; ultrasound examination of the testes, including one-dimensional grayscale analysis, blood testosterone levels, analysis of semen parameters and libido. At the end of the observation period, the animals were castrated and the testicles were examined histologically.

Results: Altrenogest treatment had no significant effect on the physical development of the goats, the sonographic appearance of the testes, the gray values measured in the ultrasound images, or the blood testosterone levels. The effects of treatment on the testicular and semen parameters varied widely in the experimental animals; the testicle volume was significantly lower and the number of pathologically altered sperm in the ejaculate was significantly higher in treated animals.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that daily altrenogest administration at a dose of 0.088 mg/kg does not reliably suppress gonadal function in the goat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-02845-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097835PMC
May 2021

[Investigations on the excretion of antibiotics in goats' milk following therapeutic application].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2021 Apr 26;49(2):101-111. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Institut für Lebensmittelqualität und -sicherheit, Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover.

Objective: Data on the excretion of antibiotic residues following therapeutic drug dosages in lactating goats with clinical signs of bacterial infections are currently lacking. Therefore, this study aimed at monitoring the drug residue excretion of a subset of frequently used antibiotics in the milk of dairy goats following their therapeutic administration.

Material And Methods: Over a period of 4 months, milk samples (udder halves) were collected in 2 goat milk farms from animals treated with antibiotics in routine practice based on the diagnosis of a bacterial infection. The samples were examined up to 3 days following the withdrawal time point. The animals were classified in 3 groups depending on their clinical symptoms and treatment. Goats in group 1 (afebrile goats with various bacterial infections excluding the udder) were treated with intramuscular amoxicillin injection (n = 5). Animals in group 2 (mastitis catarrhalis) were treated with intramammary injection of oxacillin and ampicillin (n = 6). Group 3 consisted of a single goat diagnosed with mastitis. This individual was treated with cefquinome in accordance with the results of the antibiogram. Milk samples were examined qualitatively by using a receptor assay (Betastar) as well as a microbiological inhibitor assay (Brilliant black reduction test, BRT). The latter assay was also used to semiquanti-tatively analyse drug residue levels in samples from group 2.

Results: Following intramuscular treatment with amoxicillin, drug residue levels were estimated to be very similar in both udder halfs. Elimination was complete 3 days after the end of the treatment period. Animals in group 2 showed significant differences between treated and untreated udder halves. However, the untreated halves still exhibited residue levels exceeding the maximum residue limits during the treatment period. In both group 2 and 3, all milk samples were tested negative for drug residues before the end of the withdrawal period.

Conclusion: In the present study, no evidence of prolonged residue excretion into milk of goats following therapeutic administration of antibiotics was detected. Both the receptor test and the BRT represent suitable methods for an efficient antibiotic drug residue testing in goat milk. Reliable testing was merely not attainable in cases of milk samples possessing highly altered organoleptic characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1364-4884DOI Listing
April 2021

Do uterine PTGS2, PGFS, and PTGFR expression play a role in canine uterine inertia?

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Reproductive Unit of the Clinics-Clinic for Small Animals, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Hannover, Germany.

The aetiology of primary uterine inertia (PUI), which is the most common cause of canine dystocia, is still not elucidated. Prostaglandins (PGs) play a crucial role in parturition. We hypothesized that the expression of prostaglandin endoperoxidase synthase 2 (PTGS2), PGF2α synthase (PGFS), and corresponding receptor (PTGFR) is altered in PUI. We investigated PTGS2, PGFS, and PTGFR mRNA expression, and PTGS2 and PGFS protein expression in interplacental (IP) and uteroplacental sites (UP) in bitches with PUI, obstructive dystocia (OD), and prepartum (PC). PTGS2, PGFS, and PTGFR mRNA expression did not differ significantly between PUI and OD (IP/UP). PTGFR ratio in UP was higher in PC than in OD (p = 0.014). PTGS2 immunopositivity was noted in foetal trophoblasts, luminal and superficial glandular epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells of both myometrial layers, and weakly and sporadically in deep uterine glands. PGFS was localized in luminal epithelial cells and in the epithelium of superficial uterine glands. PTGS2 and PGFS staining was similar between PUI and OD, while PGFS protein expression differed between OD and PC (p = 0.0215). For PTGS2, the longitudinal myometrial layer of IP stained significantly stronger than the circular layer, independent of groups. These results do not support a role for PTGS2, PGFS, and PTGFR in PUI. Reduced PGFS expression in IP during parturition compared with PC and the overall lack of placental PGFS expression confirm that PGFS is not the main source of prepartal PGF2alpha increase. The difference in PTGS2 expression between IP myometrial layers warrants further investigation into its physiological relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-021-03427-6DOI Listing
April 2021

[Uroperitoneum in neonatal foals - a review of the literature].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2021 Feb 15;49(1):41-50. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Klinik für Geburtshilfe, Gynäkologie und Andrologie der Groß- und Kleintiere, Klinikum Veterinärmedizin der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen.

Uroperitoneum is a typical disease in newborn foals. An accumulation of urine develops in the abdominal cavity in consequence to a congenital or acquired leakage in the urinary tract. Colts are more frequently affected than fillies. The most common cause of uroperitoneum is a rupture of the dorsal urinary bladder wall. The urinary bladder is affected in 73.1 %, the urachus in 21.6 % and the ureter in 5.2 % of cases. Typical clinical signs occur 2-5 days postpartum, and encompass reduced general condition, abdominal distention, mild colic symptoms and unphysiologic micturition. Ultrasound examination in conjunction with abdominocentesis is considered as the gold standard of diagnostics. Typical laboratory findings are azotemia, metabolic acidosis as well as electrolyte imbalances, particularly hyperkalemia, hyponatriemia and hypochloridemia. Surgical treatment is the only reasonable therapy. Preoperative metabolic disorders and electrolyte abnormalities should be corrected prior to surgery. Especially hyperkalemia leads to a high potential for complications during general anesthesia. Following effective perioperative stabilization, the presence of a defect in the bladder wall or the urachus carries a good prognosis. In total, 63.6 % of the affected foals are healed. Most common complication is a recurrence of uroperitoneum caused by disruption of the suture line or an incomplete closure of the defect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1345-7148DOI Listing
February 2021

[Uterine serosal inclusion cysts in the dog - case report and literature review of canine uterine cysts].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2020 Dec 4;48(6):448-453. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Klinik für Geburtshilfe, Gynäkologie und Andrologie der Groß- und Kleintiere, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen.

In bitches, uterine cysts are usually associated with pathological conditions. Serosal inclusion cysts of the uterus represent an exception to this rule. These thin-walled cysts develop on the uterine surface and occur either as single or multiple cysts. The cysts lack endocrine activity and usually do not cause clinical symptoms. Their occurrence shows no association to the estrus cycle. Serosal inclusion cysts are mainly found in older multiparous bitches and large breeds are more often affected. Diagnosis of serosal inclusion cysts may be achieved by transabdominal sonography. Differentiation between uterine and ovarian serosal inclusion cysts is possibly challenging as serosal inclusion cysts are often located in the area of the tip of the uterine horn. This report presents the case of a breeding bitch with multiple uterine serosal inclusion cysts detected during caesarean section. The concentrations of estradiol 17β and progesterone in the cyst fluid corresponded to the blood concentrations of these hormones in a bitch during parturition. The concentrations of total calcium, zinc, copper, and iron in the cyst fluid were below the reference values in canine blood whereas the concentrations of magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium in the cyst fluid were comparable to pertaining blood levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1274-9256DOI Listing
December 2020

Association of bovine uterine involution disturbances with serum neuropeptide concentrations.

Vet World 2020 Sep 11;13(9):1854-1857. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Clinic for Ruminants Internal Medicine and Surgery, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany.

Background And Aim: Puerperal diseases influence fertility and should be diagnosed as soon as possible. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of serum concentrations of substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and interleukin (IL)1β in the early diagnosis of uterine involution disturbances.

Materials And Methods: Blood serum samples of 86 dairy cows from six different farms were harvested within the first 20 days after calving from cows with uterine involution disturbances and healthy controls, respectively. Serum concentrations for SP, VIP, and IL-1β were determined using commercially available ELISA test kits. Statistical analyses included timely changes in blood serum levels and group comparisons of healthy cows and cows with uterine disease.

Results: SP concentrations increased significantly within 20 days after calving (p<0.04) with no significant difference observed between the groups. Moreover, no significant differences were found between VIP and log IL-1β.

Conclusion: Results showed that none of the examined serum parameters seems suitable as indicator of uterine involution disorders. Due to the timely changes in serum concentrations of SP after calving, a correlation to diseases might not be precluded. Further research is needed as regards the establishment of normative values concerning this parameter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2020.1854-1857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7566235PMC
September 2020

Neuropeptides in the urinary tract of male sheep lambs.

Res Vet Sci 2020 Dec 18;133:307-312. Epub 2020 Oct 18.

Clinic for Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Andrology of Large and Small Animals with Veterinary Ambulance, Frankfurter Str. 104/106, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Small ruminants are often presumed to be at a higher risk of developing obstructive urolithiasis after early castration. However, the underlying pathophysiology and histological correlation of this assumption is unknown. This study examines the neuropeptide distribution of the lower urinary tract in male lambs in respect to castration status or a recent history of obstructive urolithiasis. Various tissue samples were taken and examined. The sample consisted of 34 male lambs, aged six months (n = 11 early and n = 11 late castration; n = 12 intact), and 8 rams that had undergone necropsy due to fatal outcome after obstructive urolithiasis. Immunohistochemical stainings for substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and neurofilaments (NF) were performed and compared between the groups. A significant reduction in immunoreactive signals of SP, VIP and NF was evident in the urolithiasis group (SP and NF: P < 0.0001; VIP: P = 0.02). The results of immunohistochemistry suggest that castration had no effect on the content of neuropeptides, as well as the innervation density of the urethra in the male lambs. In the case of. obstructive urolithiasis, the pattern of neuropeptide distribution was severely disturbed and cell damage lead to a reduction in detectable periurethral bundles of nerve fibers. The severe tissue damage was assumed to have a negative impact on the outcome of treatment, leading to complications such as urethral strictures. These, in turn, often result in relapses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2020.10.013DOI Listing
December 2020

Canine mammary tumours: Size matters-a progression from low to highly malignant subtypes.

Vet Comp Oncol 2020 Sep 17. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Small Animal Clinic Hofheim, Hofheim am Taunus, Germany.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a possible association between mammary tumour size and increasing degree of malignancy. Data of 625 dogs with a total of 1459 mammary tumours were analysed retrospectively. 80.3% dogs were intact, mean age at diagnosis was 9.7 ± 2.5 years, 75.8% were pure breed dogs. Median body weight was 20.0 kg. Malignant tumours (n = 580) were significantly larger than their benign counterparts (1.94 cm vs 0.90 cm in mean, respectively; P ≤ .0001), resulting in a positive correlation between increasing tumour size and a change from benign to malignant (P ≤ .0001; r  = 0.214). When malignant tumours were grouped into four degrees of increasing malignancy (complex/simple/solid/anaplastic carcinomas) a significant positive correlation between increasing tumour size and more malignant tumour degree (P ≤ .0001; r  = 0.195) could be demonstrated. In a number of cases, highly malignant tumours were found to arise within less malignant lesions, supporting the concept of a further progression within the malignant tumour subtypes. In patients with multiple tumours, mean tumour sizes for malignant tumours were significantly smaller compared to patients with only one tumour (1.67 vs 2.71 cm in mean, respectively; P < .0001). These findings suggest that mammary tumours progress not only from benign to malignant but also from low to highly malignant. An increase in diameter of only a few millimetres may therefore have a big impact on the patient's outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vco.12649DOI Listing
September 2020

[Influence factors on the results of a semiquantitative rapid test for immunoglobulin G concentration measurement in bovine calf serum].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2020 Aug 21;48(4):249-252. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Klinik für Geburtshilfe, Gynäkologie und Andrologie der Groß- und Kleintiere, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen.

Objective: The Fassisi Bovine IgG Test is a rapid blood test for the measurement of IgG levels in calves. The present study examined the influences of examiner subjectivity as well as time period between test begin and interpretation on the test results.

Materials And Methods: A single serum sample was obtained from each of 36 calves up to 10 days of age. Six veterinarians evaluated the serum samples obtained from 12 of the animals (inter-individual comparison). For the remaining 24 calves, the result was interpreted by one person after 10 minutes (manufacturer's information) as well as after 20 and 30 minutes (intra-individual comparison).

Results: In the inter-individual comparison, test interpretation differed in 4 out of 12 samples (33.3 %) between the different examiners. The intra-individual comparison showed that in 5 out of 24 samples (20.8 %) the test result were higher or lower when the time period from test begin to its interpretation was longer than the manufacturer's recommendation. In the majority of cases, the discrepancy amounted to maximally one level and the differences were not found to be statistically significant.

Clinical Relevance: Interpretation of the presented test was shown to be subject to subjective variations. Careful attention must be paid to adhering to the time period from test begin to its interpretation as specified by the manufacturer. Further studies verifying the presented results by a larger number of samples are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1178-7900DOI Listing
August 2020

Viability assessment of spermatozoa in large falcons (Falco spp.) using various staining protocols.

Reprod Domest Anim 2020 Oct 17;55(10):1383-1392. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Viability assessment is an important part of semen analysis, and various live/dead staining protocols have been used in semen of avian species. Results of live/dead count differed between dyes, staining protocols and bird species, impeding comparability between studies and requiring species-specific comparisons of viability stains. In raptor semen, similar comparisons are absent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare eight conventional viability stains. Eosin blue 2% [EB], eosin blue 2% with the addition of 3% sodium citrate [EB2], eosin blue-nigrosin 5% [EBN5], eosin yellow-nigrosin 5% [EYN5], eosin yellow-nigrosin 10% [EYN10], eosin blue-aniline blue [EBA], eosin yellow-aniline blue [EYA] and bromophenol blue-nigrosin [BBN] were evaluated in comparison with the fluorescence stain SYBR Green-propidium iodide [SYBR-PI] in spermatozoa of falcons. The comparison was performed using conventional light microscopy which is applicable in breeding centres, veterinary practices and field studies. Additionally, live/dead stains were correlated to motility values of the same samples to validate sperm viability. Light microscopy using EB and using SYBR-PI enabled an effective and clear differentiation between alive and dead spermatozoa of falcons. Motility values correlated significantly and strongly with EB only (r = .629; p < .001), but not with any other stain used in the study. Therefore, our results suggest EB as the most suitable stain for viability assessment in the semen of large falcons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/rda.13785DOI Listing
October 2020

Assessing efficacy of N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine-Sodium Hydroxide on bacterial viability and enhanced recovery of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from bovine colostrum.

J Microbiol Methods 2020 08 29;175:105968. Epub 2020 May 29.

Institute of Veterinary Food Science, Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Frankfurter Street 92, D-35392 Gießen, Germany.

The standard procedure for the improved cultural recovery of viable Mycobacterium spp. from diverse samples mainly depends on reducing the viability of background microbiota using different chemical compounds. This study was designed to i) evaluate the efficacy and comparison between N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine-Sodium hydroxide (NALC-2% NaOH) and hexadecylpyridinium chloride (0.75% HPC) treatment and exposure time on reducing the viability of undesirable microorganisms with minimal impact on colostrum consistency; and ii) assess the impact of NALC-2% NaOH on improved and enhanced recovery of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in spiked postpartum colostrum samples and consistency of colostrum. A total of 40 samples, each treated with NALC-2% NaOH for 15 min or 0.75% HPC for 5 h, were investigated for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) and enterobacteria (EB) (CFU mL). The results showed that treatment of colostrum samples with NALC-2% NaOH completely eliminated EB and significantly reduced MAB (3.6 log CFU mL). Conversely, samples treated with 0.75% HPC produced a complex mixture following interaction with the colostrum protein and showed non-significant and variable results. In addition, the spiked colostrum treated with NALC-2% NaOH for 15 min revealed recovery of viable MAP cells with a minimum limit of detection of 1.36 log CFU 10 mL where no change in the consistency of colostrum was observed. In conclusion, 15-min NALC-2% NaOH treatment of colostrum may significantly reduce the viability of undesirable microorganisms and help to enhance the efficient recovery of MAP without impacting the consistency of high quality postpartum colostrum. This rapid procedure is suitable for efficient recovery and early detection of MAP as well as preventing its transmission to neonates and young calves in MAP infected herds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2020.105968DOI Listing
August 2020

Assessment of methane emission traits in ewes using a laser methane detector: genetic parameters and impact on lamb weaning performance.

Arch Anim Breed 2020 16;63(1):113-123. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Institute of Animal Breeding and Pet Genetics, University of Giessen, 35390 Giessen, Germany.

The aim of the present study was to derive individual methane ( ) emissions in ewes separated in respiration and eructation traits. The generated longitudinal data structure was used to estimate phenotypic and genetic relationships between ewe records and energy efficiency indicator traits from same ewes as well as from their lambs (intergenerational perspective). In this regard, we recorded emissions via mobile laser methane detector (LMD) technique, body weight (EBW), backfat thickness (BFT) and body condition score (BCS) from 330 ewes (253 Merinoland (ML), 77 Rhön sheep (RH)) and their 629 lambs (478 ML, 151 RH). The interval between repeated measurements (for ewe traits and lamb body weight (LBW)) was 3 weeks during lactation. For methane concentration ( L L ) determinations in the exhaled air, we considered short time measurements (3 min). Afterwards, emissions were portioned into a respiration and eructation fraction, based on a double normal distribution. Data preparation enabled the following trait definitions: mean concentration during respiration and eructation ( ), mean concentration during respiration ( ), mean concentration during eructation ( ), sum of concentrations per minute during respiration ( ), sum of concentrations per minute during eructation ( ), maximal concentration during respiration ( ), maximal concentration during eructation ( ), and eructation events per minute ( ). Large levels of ewe emissions representing energy losses were significantly associated with lower LBW ( ), lower EBW ( ) and lower BFT ( ). For genetic parameter estimations, we applied single- and multiple-trait animal models. Heritabilities and additive genetic variances for traits were small, i.e., heritabilities in the range from <0.01 ( , , , ) to 0.03 ( ). We estimated negative genetic correlations between traits and EBW in the range from 0.44 ( ) to 0.05 ( ). Most of the traits were genetically negatively correlated with BCS ( 0.81 for ) and with BFT ( 0.72 for ), indicating same genetic mechanisms for output and energy efficiency indicators. Addressing the intergenerational aspect, genetic correlations between emissions from ewes and LBW ranged between 0.35 ( ) and 0.01 ( , ), indicating that breeding on reduced emissions (especially eructation traits) contribute to genetic improvements in lamb weaning performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/aab-63-113-2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191252PMC
April 2020

[Measurement of IgG concentration in bovine colostrum by immunoturbidimetric assay in comparison to ELISA-based assessment].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2020 Apr 23;48(2):73-79. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Klinik für Gynäkologie, Andrologie und Geburtshilfe der Groß- und Kleintiere mit Tierärztlicher Ambulanz, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen.

Objective: The aim of the presented study was to compare the results of IgG measurements using a turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA), a newly developed laboratory-independent method for direct immunoglobulin determination in colostrum, with measurements obtained via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Material And Methods: In colostrum samples from 59 cows, IgG concentration was measured using TIA and ELISA.

Results: Correlation analysis according to Pearson revealed a correlation coefficient of r = 0.74 (p < 0.0001) between the 2 methods. The Bland-Altman analysis showed that measurement by TIA resulted in significantly lower mean IgG levels than the ELISA-based quantification. This difference was more pronounced in high IgG concentration ranges. By means of a double-logarithmized data transformation it was calculated that the TIA-determined IgG-values on average amounted to 66.4 % of the IgG-values measured by ELISA. Although colostrum with low IgG concentration could be quantified with satisfactory reliability (sensitivity 100 %), high-quality colostrum was not sufficiently assessed in the TIA-based IgG measurements (specificity 40.4 %).

Conclusion And Clinical Relevance: Based on the results of the presented study, IgG measurement by TIA cannot be recommended. In comparison to ELISA-based assessment, this technique does not exhibit higher correlations than established indirect rapid evaluation methods (density and viscosity determination).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1120-3236DOI Listing
April 2020

Quantitative assessment of German Holstein dairy cattle colostrum and impact of thermal treatment on quality of colostrum viscosity and immunoglobulins.

BMC Res Notes 2020 Mar 30;13(1):191. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Institute of Food Quality and Food Safety, Research Center for Emerging Infections and Zoonoses (RIZ), University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bünteweg 17, 30559, Hannover, Germany.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the color, fat, viscosity, IgG concentration, %Brix and refractive index of fresh postpartum colostrum of German Holstein dairy cattle and assess the impact of different thermal treatments on the visual and dynamic viscosity, in association to IgG concentration, of colostrum that can be used for pasteurization process.

Results: Of the total 40 fresh postpartum colostrum, the color of colostrum (ranging from white-pale yellow to yellow and dark-yellowish), fat (1.4-8.2 100 g), IgG (4-116 mg mL), %Brix (8.5-35.4%), refractive index (1.3454-1.3905 nD), visual (ranging from watery to liquid and thick) and dynamic (4.9-219 cp) viscosity, were recorded. Statistical analysis between visual and dynamic viscosity of fresh colostrum showed significant correlation coefficients (r = 634). Moreover, a significant correlation between viscosity and three IgG concentrations was also observed. Heat-treated colostrum showed dynamic viscosity ranged from 25 to 3066 cP, where dynamic viscosity of colostrum before- and after heat-treatment showed no significant correlation. Treated colostrum at 60 °C/60 min and 63.5 °C/30 min containing IgG concentration ≤ 80 mg mL and ≤ 68 mg mL showed no significant change in the viscosity and can successfully be applied for pasteurization of first postpartum colostrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05019-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7106573PMC
March 2020

Fertility following uterine torsion in dairy cows: A cross-sectional study.

Vet World 2020 Jan 11;13(1):92-95. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Clinic for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Andrology of Large and Small Animals with Veterinary Ambulance, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Frankfurter Straße 106, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Background And Aim: Dairy cows with uterine torsion often are susceptible to reduced fertility resulting in more costs and effort to restore the economy of those cows. The aim of our study was to examine and evaluate the possible associations between uterine torsion and consequent uterine involution disturbances, on the one hand, and between the degree and duration of uterine torsion with fertility parameters, on the other hand.

Materials And Methods: Within 1.5 years, 115 dairy cows (German Browns, German Holsteins, and German Fleckvieh) that were suffering from uterine torsion were examined to evaluate the incidence of involution disturbances of the uterus and to examine the fertility after calving. Statistical analysis included correlation analyses between the degree and duration of torsion and fertility parameters (days open, days to conception, conception rate and services per conception, and intercalving interval) as well as incidence of involution disturbances.

Results: The study revealed no statistically significant correlation between uterine involution and degree of uterine torsion. However, involution processes were significantly correlated to the time of the expulsion of the fetal membranes. Days to conception and intercalving intervals were significantly influenced by the presence of uterine torsion.

Conclusion: Concerning fertility after uterine torsion, it was shown that reduced fertility is associated with the duration of uterine torsion (p=0.02) and time to drop of fetal membranes (p=0.02) but not with the degree of torsion (p=0.27).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2020.92-95DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7020130PMC
January 2020

[Surgical resection in a case of vaginal fold prolapse during oestrus in a Great Dane].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2020 Feb 14;48(1):39-43. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Trakia University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria.

The surgical procedure for a grade IV oestrogen-related vaginal fold prolapse in a Great Dane is described. Furthermore, the possibilities of conservative therapy for this disease are presented and a more recent surgical technique as well as the dog's postoperative course are discussed. The principle of conservative treatment is to shorten the bitch's cycle by means of medically inducing ovulation and thus subsequently reducing the influence of estrogens on the prolapsed tissue. Advantages of both therapeutic approaches are discussed. The presented case's interesting aspect is that conservative therapy did not lead to a successful outcome for which the cause is not clear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1067-3780DOI Listing
February 2020

[Occurrence and importance of colostral leukocytes].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2020 Feb 14;48(1):35-44. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Klinik für Geburtshilfe, Gynäkologie und Andrologie der Groß- und Kleintiere, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen.

Leukocytes have been identified as a physiological component of colostrum in numerous animal species. In each of the examined species, they have been shown to occur in a typical amount exhibiting slight differences in the composition of leukocyte subpopulations. According to previous opinions, colostral leukocytes merely accidentally transfer from blood to milk or represent a sign of mastitis. In contrast to this, it is now considered to be current knowledge that special mechanisms exist enabling these leukocytes to actively transfer into colostrum. The presented review provides an overview of the recent literature and demonstrates the significance of colostral leucocytes. In analogy to the passage of maternal immunoglobulins, colostral leukocytes migration also leads to a transition of immunity. The cells are enterally absorbed and distributed throughout the neonatal organism. Colostral leukocytes are found to accumulate in certain tissues and organs without losing their immunologic function. Merely the leucocytes of the own mother are absorbed and these cells complement the newborns' immune system. As several studies have demonstrated, this is not solely due to the cells' mere immunological function but also a consequence of a regulatory effect on the neonatal immune system. Especially T-helper and further regulatory cell types transferred via colostrum may help the newborn in optimizing and maturing their immunological situation. Colostral treatment methods such as mixing, freezing, heating and acidifying modifications warrant re-evaluation taking the above aspects under consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1067-3980DOI Listing
February 2020

[Retained placenta in mares - an analysis of 121 cases].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2019 Dec 6;47(6):373-379. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Klinikum Veterinärmedizin, Klinik für Geburtshilfe, Gynäkologie und Andrologie der Groß- und Kleintiere mit tierärztlicher Ambulanz, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen.

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze data concerning history, clinical course, and prognosis of retained fetal membranes in mares.

Material Und Methods: Patient records of 121 hospitalized mares with retained placenta were evaluated. In 82 cases, additional blood examinations were performed and analyzed.

Results: There was no significant correlation between age, parity or course of parturition and retained placenta. Eighty-one mares (66.9 %) were presented solely with retained fetal membranes, 40 mares (33.1 %) had additional diseases at presentation, most commonly injuries of the labia, followed by perineal tears and lochiometra. During hospitalization 50 mares (41.3 %) developed one or more diseases, most frequently lochiometra (23 mares, 19 %), laminitis (17 mares, 14 %) and thrombophlebitis (11 mares, 9.1 %). Eight mares (6.6 %) were euthanized due to the course of their diesease. Blood examinations revealed a mean leucocyte concentration of 9.8 ± 3.9 G/l at presentation. Mean concentration of serum ionized calcium amounted to 1.5 ± 0.2 mmol/l. There was no statistically significant influence of blood parameters on clinical course or development of additional diseases.

Conclusion And Clinical Relevance: Retained placenta is a common disorder in the puerperium of the mare. In the presented study, most cases developed additional diseases and in 10 % of the mares, the clinical course led to euthanasia. No risk factors for the occurrence of retained fetal membranes or its clinical course could be identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1019-7345DOI Listing
December 2019

Freezing and storage effects on enzyme, electrolyte, and mineral compositions in canine prostatic fluid.

Vet Clin Pathol 2019 Dec 27;48(4):691-694. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Clinic for Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Andrology of Large and Small Animals with Veterinary Ambulance, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.

Background: There is a paucity of information about the storage stability of seminal plasma components in literature.

Objectives: This study investigates the potential effects of storage at -18.0°C on the enzyme activities and concentrations of selected electrolytes and minerals in canine prostatic fluid.

Methods: Semen was obtained in fractions from ten male dogs, and the third ejaculate fraction was analyzed immediately after sampling and after storage at -18.0°C for 7 days. The following analytes were assessed: gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, total calcium, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, zinc, and copper.

Results: Whereas electrolyte and mineral concentrations were not affected by freezing and 7 days of storage, effects on the enzyme activities were variable. ALP, AST, and LDH activities were significantly decreased (P < .05) in the post-thaw samples compared with the freshly prepared samples.

Conclusions: Because freezing and storage of seminal plasma at -18°C had an impact on the activity of some enzymes, analyses should be performed in fresh, not frozen samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12803DOI Listing
December 2019

Principles and Clinical Uses of Real-Time Ultrasonography in Female Swine Reproduction.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Nov 11;9(11). Epub 2019 Nov 11.

New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 382 West Street Road, Kennett Square, PA 19348, USA.

Within the past 30 years, through ongoing technology and portability developments, real-time (b-mode) ultrasonography (RTU) has increasingly become a valuable diagnostic tool in assessing the female reproductive tract in swine. Initially applied in swine production to visually determine pregnancy status, RTU use has expanded to include assessment of the peri-pubertal and mature non-pregnant females as well. Transabdominal and transrectal modalities to visualizing the reproductive tract in swine have been reported with the transabdominal approach more common due to the fact of its ease of accessibility, animal/personnel safety, and reduced time to perform. Adjustable frequency transducers are preferred as they allow optimization of image quality at various depths. If a single transducer frequency must be selected, a 5 MHz probe provides the best versatility for visualizing the reproductive tract in swine. Other basic requirements for ultrasound equipment which will be used on commercial swine farms include being light weight and easy to handle, readily cleanable and disinfectable, long battery-life, and good durability. When using RTU for pregnancy determination, diagnosis is based upon a combination of the animal's breeding records, the presence of embryonic fluid, and, depending upon gestational stage, fetal structures. If RTU is used as a diagnostic tool in assessing reproductive problems in an individual or a group of animals, sonographic evaluation of both the uterus and ovaries is performed. Tissues are delineated and assessed based upon their echogenicity, echotexture, and size. Uses of RTU in clinical practice may include assessment of delayed puberty, prolonged wean-to-estrus interval, absence of post-weaning estrus, herd disruptions in conception and farrowing rates, vulval discharge, peripartum and puerperal disorders. This review aims to provide an overview on principles and clinical uses of RTU with respect to application to address female reproductive performance issues in commercial swine operations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9110950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6912286PMC
November 2019

A pilot study to assess the feasibility of endoscopic placement of a transurethral urinary balloon catheter in male sheep cadavers.

Acta Vet Scand 2019 Nov 4;61(1):52. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Clinic for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Andrology of Large and Small Animals, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, 35392, Giessen, Germany.

Surgery of obstructive urolithiasis in small ruminants is often unsatisfactory due to postoperative development of strictures. The present study aimed to establish an endoscopic technique for the placement of a transurethral urinary catheter into the bladder of rams. This catheter was used as a removable stent-like drainage. The procedure was performed in three sheep rams that were euthanized and placed for surgery in 45° Trendelenburg position. In one ram, cystotomy was performed via right paramedian laparotomy. A 3 mm flexible fiberscope was introduced into the urinary bladder and advanced via urethra to the tip of the penis. Placing a guide wire through the endoscopic working channel into the urethra enabled the retrograde insertion of a transurethral urinary catheter into the bladder. In two rams, retrograde insertion of a fiberscope was performed. Again, a guidewire was used to insert a balloon catheter into the bladder. Paramedian right laparotomy was performed to ascertain the correct position of the balloon. Both techniques, antero- and retrograde endoscopy, were possible and could be successfully performed. Mucous membranes and urinary microliths were easily observed. Repeated advancing of the endoscope or the catheter resulted in marked damage of the mucous membranes. The patency of the urethra may be restored by means of endoscopic placement of a transurethral catheter in male small ruminants. The applicability and clinical outcome of this procedure as well as the effects on stricture formation should be further examined with controlled clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13028-019-0487-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6827208PMC
November 2019

Effect of temperature and time after collection on buck sperm quality.

BMC Vet Res 2019 Oct 22;15(1):355. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Clinic for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Andrology of Large and Small Animals with Ambulatory Service, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.

Background: Different parameters are assessed as part of the semen analysis but a standard protocol for evaluation of goat semen is still missing. The aim of this study was to analyse two different factors affecting buck sperm quality in the post-collection period prior to adding the extender. Here we examined the effects of two handling temperatures (20 °C, 37 °C) and various examination time points (3-30 min) after semen collection.

Results: Examination time point had a significant influence on raw sperm viability (p < 0.05), motility (p < 0.05) and on semen pH (p < 0.05). The two different handling temperatures had no significant effect on sperm viability (p > 0.05), motility (p > 0.05), with the exception of fast moving sperm (p = 0.04), or on semen pH (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Examination time point was identified as factor strongly influencing raw peacock buck semen after collection. Raw goat semen can tolerate room temperatures for at least 10 min without impacting overall semen quality. In order to obtain comparable results, semen samples should always be examined within 10 min after collection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2135-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6823624PMC
October 2019

[Immunoglobulin concentration in equine colostrum and blood of newborn foals as well as clinically relevant IgG evaluation methods - An overview].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2019 Oct 21;47(5):298-307. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Klinik für Geburtshilfe, Gynäkologie und Andrologie der Groß- und Kleintiere der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen.

Due to the special structure of the equine placenta, foals depend on an adequate intake of high-quality colostrum post natum in order to ensure the development of passive immunity. The quality of the colostrum is determined, among other things, by the IgG content. This may be evaluated in the colostrum by direct and indirect methods (density and refractive index). The density of the colostrum is measured by a colostrometer and should amount to at least 1060 g/l. Refractometry is suitable for assessing the relative density or refractive index. Good equine colostrum has a Brix value of at least 23 %. The IgG concentration in the blood of the foal may also be determined by direct and indirect methods. The SNAP-Test is regarded as a direct semi-quantitative measurement method, with values > 800 mg/dl indicating an adequate IgG concentration. Furthermore, the radial immuno-diffusion test, the latex agglutination test, and the immunoturbimetry are direct methods that may be applied. Indirect methods include the zinc sulphate turbidity test, the glutaraldehyde coagulation test, as well as the measurement of total protein, globulin concentration and γ-glutamyl transferase activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1005-0004DOI Listing
October 2019

[Administration of meloxicam to cows experiencing dystocia does not increase the incidence of retained placenta].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2019 Oct 21;47(5):281-284. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Clinic for Veterinary Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Van Yüzüncü Yil.

Objective: The post partum use of analgesics in cows has increased in consequence to society's increased awareness of animal welfare. However, it is known that the post partum administration of a subset of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to cows may lead to an increased rate of retained placenta. Therefore, the aim of this study was clarify, whether a single administration of meloxicam to cows that experienced dystocia results in an increased rate of this disease.

Material And Methods: The study was conducted in 63 Holstein-Friesian cows in 4 farms with random allocation into 2 groups: In animals of the treatment group (n = 27) a single subcutaneous injection of meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg) was administered within 2-8 hours after calving. The animals of the control group (n = 36) received the same volume of a bovine infusion solution (Amynin, bovine infusion solution, Boehringer Ingelheim) subcutaneously. A clinical examination of the cows was performed on the day of parturition and on the 21st day post partum. Findings on the days in between were obtained by questioning of the farmers. The exact Fisher-test was calculated in order to test for statistical differences between the treatment and control groups.

Results: In cows of the treatment group, retained placenta was not observed more frequently than in cows of the control group.

Conclusion And Clinical Relevance: A single administration of meloxicam to cows that experienced dystocia does not increase the incidence of retained placenta.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0986-3800DOI Listing
October 2019

Survival and fertility of bitches undergoing caesarean section.

Vet Rec 2020 Apr 3;186(13):416. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Department of Animal Reproduction with Clinic, Uniwersytet Warminsko-Mazurski, Olsztyn, Poland.

Background: With the increasing popularity of planned caesarean section, the need for knowledge regarding this surgery has become increasingly important. The reported death and survival rates for caesarean sections vary widely. Another important aspect is the fertility rate in subsequent oestrous after caesarean section. The aim of this study was to investigate the mortality and survival rate of bitches during caesarean section. Additionally, the fertility of bitches after caesarean sections was determined.

Methods: Caesarean sections which were performed in the years 1997-2009 at two university clinics were evaluated retrospectively. A distinction was made between bitches in which a conservative caesarean section was performed and bitches with a caesarean section followed by an ovariohysterectomy.

Results: A total of 482 caesarean sections were included in the study. The overall mortality rate was 3.11 per cent, with 2.59 per cent during or after a conservative caesarean section and 4.19 per cent during or after caesarean section with ovariohysterectomy. The reason for ovariohysterectomy was the owner's preference in 63 bitches (47.01 per cent); in 71 (52.98 per cent) bitches, ovariohysterectomy was performed due to a medical indication. The fertility rate after caesarean section was 100 per cent.

Conclusion: The results show a high mortality rate during and after caesarean section. On the other hand, caesarean section does not seem to have a big impact on further fertility. Further studies are needed to investigate possible reduction of litter sizes and the suitability of caesarean section in subsequent pregnancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.105123DOI Listing
April 2020

[Sonographic topography of abdominal organs and structures in equine neonates].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2019 Aug 21;47(4):230-243. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Klinik für Geburtshilfe, Gynäkologie und Andrologie der Groß- und Kleintiere mit tierärztlicher Ambulanz, Klinikum Veterinärmedizin, Fachbereich Veterinärmedizin der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen.

Objective: The study aimed to present a systematic and standardized examination for neonatal foals' abdominal sonography and to describe physiological topographic conditions of some abdominal organs and structures.

Material And Methods: A standardized sonographic examination of the abdomen was performed in 57 foals in left and right lateral recumbency. Left and right intercostal spaces as well as the ventral abdomen which was divided into 6 segments (left, middle and right cranial, left middle and right caudal abdomen) were examined. The locations, in which the various organs could be found, were described. Furthermore death foals were examined sonographically followed by a necropsy to verify the organs' topography.

Results: A standardized systematic examination for abdominal ultrasonography in neonatal foals could be developed and the extension of some abdominal organs could be described. The umbilical vein is localized in the middle cranial segment, the urachus in the middle caudal segment. The umbilical arteries start in the middle caudal segment und spread into the left and right one. The bladder is constantly found in the caudal aspect of the abdomen and extents, depending on its filling, in the middle or in the left and right segments as well. The right kidney is located in the 15th to 17th intercostal space (ICS), the left kidney in the 16th and 17th ICS. The spleen can be visualized in the left 10th to 16th ICS and often in the left cranial abdominal segment. The liver is found in the middle and right cranial segment and the right 16th to 17th ICS and in the left 7th ICS. The stomach is located in the left and middle cranial segment and in the left 9th to 11th ICS, the duodenum constantly in the right 12th ICS. The jejunum can be found in the left caudal and the middle abdominal segments. Caecum is in the right 15th ICS to the fossa paralumbalis and the colon in both right segments and the middle caudal one.

Conclusion And Clinical Relevance: By examining the neonatal foals' abdomen in a systematic ultrasonographic way the most important abdominal organs can be visualized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0959-1961DOI Listing
August 2019

The effect of GnRH on the pregnancy ratio in low-yielding local race cows: comparison of different injection times.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2020 Mar 6;52(2):497-502. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Clinic for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Andrology, University of Justus-Liebig, Giessen, Germany.

The objective of this article was to investigate the efficiency of GnRH administrations at different time points after induced luteolysis on pregnancy rates in low-yielding subfertile cows. One thousand six hundred and ten healthy and subfertile dairy cows of different ages and races were used in this study. Cows were randomly divided into 4 groups. Estrus cycles were synchronized by two, with 11-day intervals, injections of the prostaglandin F2α-analogue (PG). The artificial inseminations (AIs) of all animals were achieved at the 72nd and 96th hours following the last PG injection. The animals in groups I (n 257), II (n 337), and III (n 675) were used for the administration of a single dose of GnRH at different time points. Accordingly, GnRH was applied at 48th, 64th, and 72nd hours following the last PG injection in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Group IV was accepted as a control without GnRH injection (n 341). The pregnancy rates in groups I, II, III, and IV after transrectal pregnancy examinations were found to be 89.88%, 91.09%, 83.25%, and 77.12%, respectively. In our study, maximal pregnancy rates could be obtained with GnRH injections performed at 48th and 64th hours following luteolysis induction (P < 0.001). There was a 6-8% decrease in pregnancy rates due to the injection of GnRH in the 72nd hour (P < 0.001). These dramatic losses and gains in pregnancy rates in our study emphasized the necessity of taking the time of injection into account when using GnRH to stimulate ovulation. It can be said that the success of GnRH stimulation of ovulation is directly related to the follicle wave dynamics at the time of injection point and the character of a dominant follicle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-02034-6DOI Listing
March 2020

Lochial and endometrial cytological changes during the first 10 days post-partum with special reference to the nature of foaling and puerperium in equine.

Theriogenology 2019 Nov 22;139:43-48. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, Clinic for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Andrology of Large and Small Animals, Justus-Liebig-University, Frankfurter Str. 106, Giessen, 35392, Germany. Electronic address:

During the puerperium, pregnancy-associated changes of the uterus need to be reversed. The duration of this process is of importance in terms of breeding efficiency and thus monitoring and treatment of the disturbed puerperium are essential. Aim of this investigation was to identify changes over time in the cellular composition of samples from endometrium and lochia in 120 mares with different obstetrical and puerperal history. In regular examinations up to 10 days post-partum the uterine involution was assessed by transrectal palpation and ultrasound. The vagina and cervix were examined using a speculum. Mares were classified as having an undisturbed or disturbed puerperium based on history and clinical findings. Uterine cytology samples were obtained with a cytology brush and lochia were obtained by manual withdrawal. Smears were done by rolling the brush or the swab on slides. They were stained using Hemacolor®-staining. In total, 238 cytology and 150 lochia smears were examined. Endometrial cells, neutrophils, and erythrocytes were distinguished by light-microscopy. Changes in the neutrophil granulocyte count in cytology and lochia smears were determined. The correlation between the number of neutrophils in cytology and lochia smears was not significant (p = 0.22). There was a significant influence of the puerperium on the percentage of neutrophils in the cytology samples (p = 0.001) but not in the lochia smears (p = 0.83). A significant decline of erythrocytes was detected in cytologies (p < 0.0001) and lochia smears (p = 0.12) of mares after eutocia but not after dystocia. Retention of fetal membranes (p = 0.0004) and time (p = 0.0034) had a significant influence on the percentage of neutrophils in the endometrial cytology. The type of birth (p = 0.0018) and the time (p = 0.0011) significantly affected the decrease in neutrophils in the cytology samples but not in the lochia smears. The influence of time was also found for the decrease of erythrocytes in cytology (p < 0.0001) and lochia (p = 0.0082) samples. A constant decline in neutrophils (p < 0.001) was found in the cytologies of mares with an undisturbed puerperium. Therefore, endometrial cytology seems to be more appropriate than lochia assessment for the evaluation of puerperal development in mares.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2019.07.023DOI Listing
November 2019