Publications by authors named "Avraham Shotan"

51 Publications

Direct Admission of Patients With ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction to the Catheterization Laboratory Shortens Pain-to-Balloon and Door-to-Balloon Time Intervals but Only the Pain-to-Balloon Interval Impacts Short- and Long-Term Mortality.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jan 21;10(1):e018343. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Heart InstituteHillel Yaffe Medical Center Hadera Israel.

Background Shortening the pain-to-balloon (P2B) and door-to-balloon (D2B) intervals in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is essential in order to limit myocardial damage. We investigated whether direct admission of PPCI-treated patients with STEMI to the catheterization laboratory, bypassing the emergency department, expedites reperfusion and improves prognosis. Methods and Results Consecutive PPCI-treated patients with STEMI included in the ACSIS (Acute Coronary Syndrome in Israel Survey), a prospective nationwide multicenter registry, were divided into patients admitted directly or via the emergency department. The impact of the P2B and D2B intervals on mortality was compared between groups by logistic regression and propensity score matching. Of the 4839 PPCI-treated patients with STEMI, 1174 were admitted directly and 3665 via the emergency department. Respective median P2B and D2B were shorter among the directly admitted patients with STEMI (160 and 35 minutes) compared with those admitted via the emergency department (210 and 75 minutes, <0.001). Decreased mortality was observed with direct admission at 1 and 2 years and at the end of follow-up (median 6.4 years, <0.001). Survival advantage persisted after adjustment by logistic regression and propensity matching. P2B, but not D2B, impacted survival (<0.001). Conclusions Direct admission of PPCI-treated patients with STEMI decreased mortality by shortening P2B and D2B intervals considerably. However, P2B, but not D2B, impacted mortality. It seems that the D2B interval has reached its limit of effect. Thus, all efforts should be extended to shorten P2B by educating the public to activate early the emergency medical services to bypass the emergency department and allow timely PPCI for the best outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018343DOI Listing
January 2021

Optimal Timing for Coronary Intervention in Patients With Transient ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Am J Cardiol 2019 12 26;124(12):1821-1826. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Heart Institute, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel.

STEMI patients admitted urgently to the hospital but experience early complete resolution of both ischemic symptoms and ST-elevations on the electrocardiogram are diagnosed as transient STEMI (TSTEMI). Current evidence indicates that primary intervention is plausible but in certain circumstances intervention can be delayed. We sought to examine whether there is a time limit to such a delay that may affect long-term outcome. Study population included prospectively admitted TSTEMI patients whose demographics, pertinent medical history, and clinical and angiographic features were recorded. Study patients were divided by the median time interval from admission to intervention and their characteristics and long-term survival were compared. Study population comprised 260 consecutive patients (age: 57±10 years, men: 84%) diagnosed as TSTEMI who were included from January 2000 to June 2019, which represent 6% of all STEMI patients. Coronary angiography was performed in 254 patients. The median time interval from admission to angiography was 17 hours (IQR: 7.2 to 38.7 hours). Early (<17 hours from admission) and late (>17 hours from admission) study groups were comparable. One patient died during admission and 41 throughout the long follow-up period of 8.5 ± 5.2 years (median: 8.2 years, IQR: 3.4 to 13.1). Mortality of early-treated TSTEMI patients (11.2%) was significantly lower than of the late-treated patients (21.6%, p <0.04). The Kaplan-Meier curve demonstrated a clear tendency toward improved survival in early-treated TSTEMI patients (p <0.09). In conclusion, the present data suggest that TSTEMI patients should be treated, if not by primary coronary intervention, then at least within 17 hours from admission to achieve better long-term outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.09.005DOI Listing
December 2019

The impact of left ventricular ejection fraction on heart failure patients with pulmonary hypertension.

Heart Lung 2019 Nov - Dec;48(6):502-506. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Cardiovascular Institute, B Padeh Medical Center, Poriya, Israel; The Azriely Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Zefat, Israel. Electronic address:

Background: The most common cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in developed countries is left heart disease (LHD, group 2 PH). The development of PH in heart failure (HF) patients is indicative of worse outcomes.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term outcomes of HF patients with PH in a national long-term registry.

Methods: Study included 9 cardiology centers across Israel between 01/2013-01/2015, with a 12-month clinical follow-up and 24-month mortality follow-up. Patients were age ≥18 years old with HF and pre-inclusion PH due to left heart disease determined by echocardiography [estimated systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) ≥ 50 mmHg]. Patients were categorized into 3 groups: HF with reduced (HFrEF < 40%), mid-range (HFmrEF 40-49%), and preserved (HFpEF ≥ 50%) ejection fraction.

Results: The registry included 372 patients, with high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Median HF duration was 4 years and 65% were in severe HF New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification ≥3. Mean systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) was 62 ± 11 mmHg. During 2-years of follow-up, 54 patients (15%) died. Univariable predictors of mortality included NYHA grade 3-4, chronic renal failure, and SPAP ≥ 65 mmHg. Severe PH was associated with mortality in HFpEF, but not HFmrEF or HFrEF, and remained significant after multivariable adjustment with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.99, (95%CI 1.29-6.91, p = 0.010).

Conclusions: The combination of HFpEF with severe PH was independently associated with increased mortality. Currently, HFpEF patients are included with group 2 PH patients. Defining HFpEF with severe PH as a sub-class may be more appropriate, as these patients are at increased risk and deserve special consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrtlng.2019.05.006DOI Listing
March 2020

Acute diagonal-induced ST-elevation myocardial infarction and electrocardiogram-guidance in the era of primary coronary intervention: New insights into an old tool.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2020 Dec 1;9(8):827-835. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Heart Institute, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center Affiliated with Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Background: Previous studies, published before the advent of primary reperfusion, described the electrocardiographic features of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) caused by total diagonal artery occlusion, as demonstrated at pre-discharge coronary angiography. We aimed to assess the electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features in STEMI unequivocally attributed to a diagonal lesion in the era of primary coronary intervention.

Methods: The electrocardiograms and echocardiograms of patients sustaining STEMI caused by diagonal artery involvement were compared with those of patients with STEMI attributed to proximal or mid left anterior descending artery (LAD) lesions. ST-segment deviations were measured at four different points in each lead and analyzed against TIMI flow and SNuH score. The electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features of each group were mapped.

Results: In contrast to previous studies claiming an ever-present incidence of at least 1-mm ST-segment elevation in leads I and aVL with diagonal STEMI, we report 86% of any ST-elevation in leads I, aVL and V2 (64-71% for ST-elevation >1 mm). Both higher SNuH score and pre-intervention TIMI flow were associated with larger lateral ST-elevations (85.7% and 86.4-95.5%, respectively). Higher prevalence of ST-depression in the inferior leads reflecting reciprocal changes was observed in patients with diagonal-induced STEMI (57-76% . 24-51% in LAD obstructions, <0.05).

Conclusion: The most sensitive and predictive sign for acute ischemia was any degree of ST-deviation measured 1 mm beyond the J point. ST-elevations in I, aVL and V, sparing V-V, strongly favor isolated diagonal lesion. Proximal LAD lesion lacking ST-segment elevations in leads I and aVL is primarily due to wraparound LAD anatomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2048872619828291DOI Listing
December 2020

[DIRECT ADMISSION OF STEMI PATIENTS TO THE CARDIAC CARE UNIT VERSUS ADMISSION VIA THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT FOR PRIMARY CORONARY INTERVENTION IMPROVES SHORT AND LONG-TERM SURVIVAL].

Harefuah 2019 Jan;158(1):35-40

Heart Institute, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel, affiliated to the Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa - Israel.

Introduction: Shortening door-to-balloon time intervals in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is necessary in order to limit myocardial damage. Direct admission to the cardiac care unit (CCU) facilitates this goal. We compared characteristics and short- and long-term mortality of PPCI-treated STEMI patients admitted directly to the CCU with those admitted via the emergency department (ED).

Methods: To compare 303 patients admitted directly to the CCU (42%) with 427 admitted via the ED (58%) included in the current registry comprising 730 consecutive PPCI-treated STEMI patients.

Results: Groups were similar regarding demographics, medical history and risk factors. Pain-to-CCU time was 151±164 minutes (median-94) for patients admitted directly and 242±226 minutes (160) for those admitted via the ED, while door-to-balloon intervals were 69±42 minutes (61) and 133±102 minutes (111), respectively. LVEF evaluated during admission (48.3±13% [47.5%] vs. 47.7±13.7% [47.5%]) and mean CK level (893±1157 [527] vs. 891±1255 [507], p=0.45) were similar between groups. Mortality was 4.2% vs. 10.3% at 30-days (p<0.002), 7.6% and 14.3% at one-year (p<0.01), reaching 12.2% and 21.9% at 3.9±2.3 years (median-3.5, p<0.004) among directly-admitted patients vs. those admitted via the ED, respectively. Long-term mortality was 4.1%, 9.4%, 21.4%, and 16% for pain-to-balloon quartiles of <140 min, 141-207 min, 208-330 min, and >330 mins, respectively (p=0.026).

Conclusions: Direct admission of STEMI patients to the CCU for PPCI facilitated the attainment of guidelines-dictated door-to-balloon time intervals and yielded improved short- and long-term mortality. Longer pain-to-balloon time was associated with higher long-term mortality.
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January 2019

Prediction of readmissions and mortality in patients with heart failure: lessons from the IMPEDANCE-HF extended trial.

ESC Heart Fail 2018 10 10;5(5):788-799. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Heart Institute, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, PO Box 169, Hadera, 38100, Israel, Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion, Haifa, Israel.

Aims: Readmissions for heart failure (HF) are a major burden. We aimed to assess whether the extent of improvement in pulmonary fluid content (ΔPC) during HF hospitalization evaluated by lung impedance (LI), or indirectly by other clinical and laboratory parameters, predicts readmissions.

Methods And Results: The present study is based on pre-defined secondary analysis of the IMPEDANCE-HF extended trial comprising 266 HF patients at New York Heart Association Class II-IV and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35% randomized to LI-guided or conventional therapy during long-term follow-up. Lung impedance-guided patients were followed for 58 ± 36 months and the control patients for 46 ± 34 months (P < 0.01) accounting for 253 and 478 HF hospitalizations, respectively (P < 0.01). Lung impedance, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, weight, radiological score, New York Heart Association class, lung rales, leg oedema, or jugular venous pressure were measured at admission and discharge on each hospitalization in both groups with the difference defined as ΔPC. Average LI-assessed ΔPC was 12.1% vs. 9.2%, and time to HF readmission was 659 vs. 306 days in the LI-guided and control groups, respectively (P < 0.01). Lung impedance-based ΔPC predicted 30 and 90 day HF readmission better than ΔPC assessed by the other variables (P < 0.01). The readmission rate for HF was lower if ΔPC > median compared with ΔPC ≤ median for all parameters evaluated in both study groups with the most pronounced difference predicted by LI (P < 0.01). Net reclassification improvement analysis showed that adding LI to the traditional clinical and laboratory parameters improved the predictive power significantly.

Conclusions: The extent of ΔPC improvement, primarily the LI based, during HF-hospitalization, and study group allocation strongly predicted readmission and event-free survival time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6165944PMC
October 2018

Characteristics, Management, and Outcome of Transient ST-elevation Versus Persistent ST-elevation and Non-ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Am J Cardiol 2018 06 12;121(12):1449-1455. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Heart Institute, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel; Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion- Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Patients with acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs) present as persistent ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or as non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). In some patients with STEMI, ST elevations are transient and resolve before coronary intervention (transient ST-elevation myocardial infarction [TSTEMI]). We analyzed our registry comprising all consecutive patients with AMI admitted during 2009 to 2014, and compared the characteristics, management, and outcome of patients with TSTEMI with those of patients with STEMI and NSTEMI. Of 1,847 patients with AMI included in the registry, 1,073 patients sustained a STEMI (58%), 649 had a NSTEMI (35%), and 126 presented with TSTEMI (6.9%). Patients with TSTEMI were younger than patients with NSTEMI and STEMI (56.5 vs 62.8, p <0.001, and 59.5 years, p <0.02, respectively), smoked more (77.8 vs 54.0, p <0.001, and 62.1%, p <0.0005), and fewer were hypertensive (52.4 vs 74.2% and 58.8%, both p <0.001) and diabetic (26.2% vs 47.7%, p <0.0001, and 36.9%, p <0.02). The extent of coronary artery disease in patients with TSTEMI was similar to that of patients with STEMI except for less involvement of the left anterior descending artery (p <0.001), but less extensive than in NSTEMI patients. TSTEMI involved less myocardial damage by troponin-T level (p <0.005) with better cardiac function (LVEF 61% vs 55% and 49%, both p <0.0001). Mortality was lower among TSTEMI both in-hospital (0 vs 2.3% [p = NS] and 4.2% [p <0.01]) and long-term (4.8% vs 14.7% and 14.2%, both p <0.003) at a median of 36 months. In conclusion, TSTEMI is an acute coronary syndrome distinct from NSTEMI and STEMI, characterized by fewer risk factors, a similar extent of coronary artery disease to STEMI, but is associated with less myocardial damage and portends a better outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2018.02.029DOI Listing
June 2018

Enhancement of Standard ECGs by a New Method for Multi-Cycle Superimposition and Summation.

Isr Med Assoc J 2018 Jan;20(1):14-19

Department of Cardiology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, affiliated with Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Background: Since the introduction of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in 1902, the fundamentals of ECG data acquisition, display, and interpretation in the clinical arena have not changed much.

Objectives: To present a new method to enhance and improve acquisition, analysis, and display of the standard ECG.

Methods: We performed ECG enhancement by superimposition and summation of multiple standard ECG cycles of each lead, by temporal alignment to peak R wave and voltage alignment to an improved baseline, at the T-P segment.

Results: We enhanced ECG recordings of 504 patients who underwent coronary angiograms for routine indications. Several new ECG features were noted on the enhanced recordings. Examination of a subgroup of 152 patients with a normal rest 12-lead ECG led to the discovery of a new observation, which may help to distinguish between patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD): namely, a spontaneous cycle-to-cycle voltage spread (VS) at the S-T interval, normalized to VS at the T-P interval. The mean normalized VS was significantly greater in those with CAD (n=61, 40%) than without (n=91, 60%), 5.61 ± 3.79 vs. 4.01 ± 2.1 (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Our novel method of multiple ECG-cycle superimposition enhances the ECG display and improves detection of subtle electrical abnormalities, thus facilitating the standard rest ECG diagnostic power. We describe, for the first time, voltage spread at the S-T interval, an observed phenomenon that can help detect CAD among individuals with normal rest 12-lead ECG.
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January 2018

Device Motion Indication: A Novel Image-Based Tool to Measure Relative Device Motion During Coronary Intervention.

J Invasive Cardiol 2017 Dec 15;29(12):421-424. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Department of Cardiology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center Affiliated with Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Background: Movement of the stent delivery system in the coronary bed as a result of the cardiac cycle is a well-known clinical observation that usually is either underestimated or ignored. This effect may potentially jeopardize precise stent deployment. We used a novel technology to objectively measure the relative intracoronary device motion in the different coronary segments throughout the cardiac cycle.

Methods: A total of 193 patients undergoing coronary angiography were enrolled and their studies were analyzed for device movement using the SyncVision System (Philips Volcano). The SyncVision System is an add-on image-processing system with unique enhancement and stabilization capabilities. A new feature, the device-motion indication, can precisely display the predeployment device movement measurement (DMM). The device movements within the three segments of each coronary artery were recorded.

Results: We identified 218 branch point sites. Median axial displacement was 2.97 mm at the right coronary artery (RCA), 2.22 mm at the left circumflex, and 1.84 mm at the left anterior descending segments. The most movable segments were mid and distal RCA (P<.05). Both heart rate and cardiac contractility significantly affected DMM.

Conclusions: The study demonstrates an innovative feature of the SyncVision System as a tool to precisely measure relative device displacement. We claim that the relative device movement is an important quality metric to consider for achieving an effective stent implantation process.
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December 2017

Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Versus In-hospital thrombolysis as Reperfusion Therapy in Early-Arriving Low-risk STEMI Patients.

Isr Med Assoc J 2017 Jun;19(6):345-350

Heart Institute, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel.

Background: Trials have shown superiority of primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI) over in-hospital thrombolysis in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated within 6-12 hours from symptom onset. These studies also included high-risk patients not all of whom underwent a therapeutic intervention.

Objectives: To compare the outcome of early-arriving stable STEMI patients treated by thrombolysis with or without coronary angiography to the outcome of PPCI-treated STEMI patients.

Methods: Based on six biannual Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Surveys comprising 5474 STEMI patients, we analyzed the outcome of 1464 hemodynamically stable STEMI patients treated within 3 hours of onset. Of these, 899 patients underwent PPCI, 383 received in-hospital thrombolysis followed by angiography (TFA), and 182 were treated by thrombolysis only.

Results: Median time intervals from symptom onset to admission were similar while door-to-reperfusion intervals were 63, 45 and 52.5 minutes for PPCI, TFA and thrombolysis only, respectively (P < 0.001). The 30-day composite endpoint of death, post-infarction angina and myocardial infarction occurred in 77 patients of the PPCI group (8.6%), 64 patients treated by TFA (16.7%), and 36 patients of the thrombolysis only group (19.8%, P < 0.001), with differences mostly due to post-infarction angina. One-year mortality rate was 27 (3%), 13 (3.4%) and 11 (6.1%) for PPCI, TFA and thrombolysis only, respectively (P = 0.12).

Conclusions: PPCI was superior to thrombolysis in early-arriving stable STEMI patients with regard to 30-day composite endpoint driven by a decreased incidence of post-infarction angina. No 1 year survival benefit for PPCI over thrombolysis was observed in early-arriving stable STEMI patients.
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June 2017

The Management and Outcome of Hospitalized and Ambulatory Israeli Heart Failure Patients Compared to European Heart Failure Patients: Results from the ESC Heart Failure Long-Term Registry.

Isr Med Assoc J 2017 Apr;19(4):225-230

Department of Cardiology, Padeh Medical Center, Poriya, Tiberias.

Background: The treatment of patients hospitalized with heart failure (HHF) and ambulatory chronic heart failure (CHF) differs in various countries.

Objectives: To evaluate the management and outcomes of patients with HFF and CHF in Israel compared to those in other European countries who were included in the ESC-HF Long-Term Registry.

Methods: From May 2011 to April 2013, heart failure patients - 467 Israelis and 11,973 from other countries - were evaluated. The Israeli patients included 178 with HHF and 289 with CHF. One year outcomes, including all-cause and cardiovascular mortality as well as HHF, were evaluated.

Results: The HHF Israeli patients were older than their CHF Israeli counterparts, had more co-morbidities, included more women, and were treated less frequently with medications suggested by European guidelines. The Israeli HHF patients had similar all-cause 1 year mortality rates compared to HHF patients from other participating countries, but their cardiovascular (CV) mortality was lower, while a significantly higher rate of all-cause and HHF was noted. The Israeli CHF patients were older, suffered from more co-morbidities and had prior cardio-electronic implantable devices. In addition, they had higher mortality rates, especially non-CV, and were more frequently hospitalized, compared to CHF patients from other countries.

Conclusions: The Israeli patients with heart failure differed in their baseline characteristics and the therapeutic approach. Despite high usage of treatments recommended by official guidelines, especially among CHF patients, mortality, particularly in HHF patients, remained high.
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April 2017

Two-dimensional strain echocardiography for diagnosing chest pain in the emergency room: a multicentre prospective study by the Israeli echo research group.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2017 Sep;18(9):1016-1024

Devision of Cardiology, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Aims: Left ventricular (LV) two-dimensional longitudinal strain (2DLS) analysis by echocardiography has been suggested as a useful tool for the detection of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Our aim was to determine whether 2DLS analysis could assist in triage of patients with chest pain (CP) in the emergency department (ED).

Methods And Results: We prospectively enrolled patients presenting to the ED with CP and suspected ACS but without a diagnostic ECG or elevated troponin. An echocardiogram was performed within 24 h of CP. For each patient, a histogram of LV myocardial peak systolic strain (PSS) was generated and the value identifying the 20% worst strain values (PSS20%) was determined. A predefined value of greater than -17% was considered abnormal. 2DLS analysis was available for 605 patients (mean age 58 ± 9 years, 70% males), of which 74 (12.2%) had ACS. During a 6-month follow-up, MACE occurred in 4 (5.8%) patients with and in 3 (0.6%) without ACS. An abnormal PSS20% was present in 60/74 patients with ACS (sensitivity 81%, negative predictive value 91%), but also in 391/531 patients without ACS (specificity 26%, positive predictive value 13%). Similar results were found for global longitudinal strain (GLS). Receiver-operating characteristic curves showed an area under curve of 0.59 for PSS20% and 0.6 for GLS (P= 0.3). Independent predictors of abnormal 2DLS were male gender, body mass index, heart rate, and mean tissue Doppler e', but not ACS.

Conclusion: In this large multicentre prospective study, 2DLS was not a useful tool to rule out ACS in the ED.

Clinical Trial Registration: http://clinicaltrials.gov.

Unique Identifier: NCT01163019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jew168DOI Listing
September 2017

Ventricular tachyarrhythmia during pregnancy in women with heart disease: Data from the ROPAC, a registry from the European Society of Cardiology.

Int J Cardiol 2016 Oct 23;220:131-6. Epub 2016 Jun 23.

Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Fellow of the European Society of Cardiology, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: To describe the incidence, onset, predictors and outcome of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VTA) in pregnant women with heart disease.

Background: VTA during pregnancy will cause maternal morbidity and even mortality and will have impact on fetal outcome. Insufficient data exist on the incidence and outcome of VTA in pregnancy.

Methods And Results: From January 2007 up to October 2013, 99 hospitals in 39 countries enrolled 2966 pregnancies in women with structural heart disease. Forty-two women (1.4%) developed clinically relevant VTA during pregnancy, which occurred mainly in the third trimester (48%). NYHA class >1 before pregnancy was an independent predictor for VTA. Heart failure during pregnancy was more common in women with VTA than in women without VTA (24% vs. 12%, p=0.03) and maternal mortality was respectively 2.4% and 0.3% (p=0.15). More women with VTA delivered by Cesarean section than women without VTA (68% vs. 47%, p=0.01). Neonatal death, preterm birth (<37weeks), low birthweight (<2500g) and Apgar score <7 occurred more often in women with VTA (4.8% vs. 0.3%, p=0.01; 36% vs. 16%, p=0.001; 33% vs. 15%, p=0.001 and 25% vs. 7.3%, p=0.001, respectively).

Conclusions: VTA occurred in 1.4% of pregnant women with cardiovascular disease, mainly in the third trimester, and was associated with heart failure during pregnancy. NYHA class before pregnancy was predictive. VTA during pregnancy had clear impact on fetal outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.06.061DOI Listing
October 2016

Non-Invasive Lung IMPEDANCE-Guided Preemptive Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial (IMPEDANCE-HF Trial).

J Card Fail 2016 Sep 4;22(9):713-22. Epub 2016 Apr 4.

Heart Institute, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion, Haifa, Israel.

Background: Previous investigations have suggested that lung impedance (LI)-guided treatment reduces hospitalizations for acute heart failure (AHF). A single-blind 2-center trial was performed to evaluate this hypothesis (ClinicalTrials.gov-NCT01315223).

Methods: The study population included 256 patients from 2 medical centers with chronic heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% in New York Heart Association class II-IV, who were admitted for AHF within 12 months before recruitment. Patients were randomized to a control group treated by clinical assessment and a monitored group whose therapy was also assisted by LI, and followed for at least 12 months. Noninvasive LI measurements were performed with a new high-sensitivity device. Patients, blinded to their assignment group, were scheduled for monthly visits in the outpatient clinics. The primary efficacy endpoint was AHF hospitalizations; the secondary endpoints were all-cause hospitalizations and mortality.

Results: There were 67 vs 158 AHF hospitalizations during the first year (P < .001) and 211 vs 386 AHF hospitalizations (P < .001) during the entire follow-up among the monitored patients (48 ± 32 months) and control patients (39 ± 26 months, P = .01), respectively. During the follow-up, there were 42 and 59 deaths (hazard ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.78, P = .002) with 13 and 31 of them resulting from heart failure (hazard ratio 0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.58 P < .001) in the monitored and control groups, respectively. The incidence of noncardiovascular death was similar.

Conclusion: Our results seem to validate the concept that LI-guided preemptive treatment of chronic heart failure patients reduces hospitalizations for AHF as well as the incidence of heart failure, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2016.03.015DOI Listing
September 2016

Novel Method for Real Time Co-Registration of IVUS and Coronary Angiography.

J Interv Cardiol 2016 Apr 29;29(2):225-31. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

Department of Cardiology, Rambam Medical Center, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion- Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3109601, Israel.

Objectives: We present our experience with a novel method for real time co-registration of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and coronary angiography.

Background: A major limitation of the current practice of concomitant use of coronary angiography and IVUS is that the locations of the acquired IVUS images are not correlated with their exact locations on the vessel roadmap obtained by coronary angiography.

Methods: Phantoms simulating the coronary tree were used to test the accuracy and potential of co-registration. Subsequently we examined patients who underwent IVUS during cardiac catheterization. Analysis and feasibility were performed in 42 arteries of 36 patients.

Results: The statistical validation in phantoms resulted in a co-registration accuracy of 1.12 mm. The length measurement on an angiogram resulted in an accuracy of 0.38 mm. Co-registration in patients was successful in all cases and four categories were assisted by 1(bad) to 5 (good) grading. Accuracy (the co-registration precision in pointing at the exact corresponding location): 4.8±0.41; Ease of use and workflow: 4.74±0.44; Stent landing zone detection and evaluation: 4.58±0.5; Stent landing zone length and diameter measurement: 4.94±0.23. The co-registration error was estimated as no more than 1 mm.

Conclusion: In this pilot study, we found that the novel IVUS and coronary angiography co-registration method is accurate, easy to use, fast and user-friendly. This method precludes the need to use motorized automated pull back device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joic.12279DOI Listing
April 2016

Shortness of Breath During Pregnancy: Could a Cardiac Factor Be Involved?

Clin Cardiol 2015 Oct 28;38(10):598-603. Epub 2015 Sep 28.

Department of Cardiology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel, Affiliated With the Technion School of Medicine, Haifa, Israel.

Background: Shortness of breath (SOB) is common among healthy women with normal pregnancies. However, when no overt cardiac or extra cardiac etiology is found, a subtle cardiac source must be excluded.

Hypothesis: Pregnancy may induce or unmask myocardial dysfunction that may cause SOB.

Methods: Healthy pregnant women with significant SOB were recruited for this study. We performed a comprehensive echocardiographic assessment including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and 2- dimensional strain imaging (2DS). The echocardiographic data obtained were compared with that of a control group of pregnant women without SOB.

Results: Thirty pregnant women with SOB were enrolled in the study (age, 31.8 ± 4.9 years, and gestation, 38.2 ± 2.8 weeks) for whom no overt etiology for SOB was detected. Patients with SOB compared with controls had thicker hearts (septum: 10.1 ± 1.1 vs 8.9 ± 0.9 mm; P < 0.001; posterior wall: 9.4 ± 1.1 vs 8.9 ± 0.9 mm; P < 0.01), shorter E-wave deceleration time (158.0 ± 50.1 vs 187.1 ± 37.6 msec; P = 0.01), and higher pulmonary artery pressure (26.8 ± 6.2 vs 19.0 ± 6.5 mm Hg, P < 0.01). Women with SOB tended to have a lower S' velocity TDI (P = 0.05) and a trend toward increased torsion on 2DS (P = 0.09).

Conclusions: Significant SOB during otherwise normal pregnancy is associated with significant echocardiographic findings that may suggest a subtle cardiac involvement. Further investigation is necessary to verify such an association, which may have therapeutic implications for treating SOB of pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.22452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6490843PMC
October 2015

Aortic dimensions by multi-detector computed tomography vs. echocardiography.

J Cardiol 2016 Apr 4;67(4):365-70. Epub 2015 Sep 4.

Department of Radiology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel(1). Electronic address:

Objective: Clinical follow-up of aortic dimensions is performed interchangeably by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and by cardiac echocardiography (ECHO). This study assesses the relationship between measurements of the aortic diameter by MDCT and ECHO at various predetermined locations using several methods.

Methods: The aortic diameter was measured at 6 locations between the aortic annulus and the aortic arch in 49 patients who underwent both MDCT and ECHO. Measurements were performed by three methods: internal-to-internal edge (INT), external-to-internal edge (MIX), and external-to-external edge (EXT). Measurements by MDCT and ECHO were made by an experienced radiologist and cardiologist, respectively, both blinded to results and images from the other modality.

Results: The average aortic diameter at all locations was significantly different between the MDCT and ECHO by all three methods (INT: 30.0±5.8mm vs. 27.8±5.9mm; MIX: 31.5±5.8mm vs. 30.8±5.8mm; EXT: 32.9±6.6mm vs. 33.8±6.5mm, p<0.002 for all). While mean absolute differences between INT and EXT methods were similar (3.5±3.1mm and 3.4±2.7mm, respectively), the absolute difference using the MIX method was significantly smaller (3.1±2.8mm; p<0.001 for INT vs. MIX; p<0.05 for EXT vs. MIX).

Conclusions: There is considerable variability between MDCT and ECHO measurements of the ascending aorta. Measuring the aortic diameter by the MIX provides the closest measurements and is advised for long-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2015.06.008DOI Listing
April 2016

Thrombolysis-facilitated primary percutaneous coronary intervention as a therapeutic approach to stent thrombosis.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2015 Jul-Aug;16(5):272-5. Epub 2015 May 6.

Heart Institute, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, affiliated to the Rappaport Medical School, The Technion- Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Background: Stent thrombosis is a clinically significant event occurring days to weeks or, infrequently, months or years after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Current therapeutic approach is immediate PCI aimed to recanalize the occluded artery in order to restore flow and diminish irreversible myocardial damage.

Methods: We evaluated the coronary patency, TIMI flow and TIMI myocardial perfusion grade (TMPG) in 6 patients presenting with STEMI due to stent thrombosis treated by thrombolysis followed by immediate PCI. These were compared with control patients treated conventionally by primary PCI.

Results: Immediate or early coronary angiography in the treatment group showed good coronary flow in 5 of 6 implicated arteries, whereas immediate angiography in the control group demonstrated 8 completely occluded coronary arteries of 9 with stent thrombosis. The pre-intervention TIMI flow in the control study group was 0.2±0.5 (median-0), and TMPG was 0.1±0.3 (median-0) compared with 2.1±1.1 (median-2.3, p<0.001) and 1.8±1.0 (median-2, p<0.001) in the treatment group, respectively. This striking difference in the rate of coronary patency, pre-procedural TIMI flow and TMPG, however, did not translate into better cardiac function in the treatment group.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that thrombolysis-facilitated PCI may confer benefit and need not be considered contraindicated when treating stent thrombosis. This therapeutic approach should be evaluated as a viable therapeutic approach to stent thrombosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2015.04.010DOI Listing
July 2016

Derivation of baseline lung impedance in chronic heart failure patients: use for monitoring pulmonary congestion and predicting admissions for decompensation.

J Clin Monit Comput 2015 Jun 6;29(3):341-9. Epub 2014 Sep 6.

Heart Institute, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, P.O. Box 169, 38100, Hadera, Israel,

The instantaneous lung impedance (ILI) is one of the methods to assess pulmonary congestion or edema (PCE) in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. Due to usually existing PCE in CHF patients when evaluated, baseline lung impedance (BLI) is unknown. Therefore, the relation of ILI to BLI is unknown. Our aim was to evaluate methods to calculate and appraise BLI or its derivative as reflecting the clinical status of CHF patients. ILI and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class were assessed in 222 patients (67 ± 11 years, LVEF <35 %) during 32 months of frequent outpatient clinic visits. ILI, measured in 120 asymptomatic patients at NYHA class I, with no congestion on the chest X-ray and a low-normal 6-min walk, was defined as BLI. Using measured BLI and ILI values in these patients, formulas for BLI calculation were derived based on logistic regression analysis or on the disparity between BLI and ILI values at different NYHA stages. Both models were equally reliable with <3 % difference between measured and calculated BLI (p = NS). ΔLIR = (ILI/BLI - 1) × 100 % reflected the degree of PCE, or deviation from baseline, correlated with NYHA class (r = -0.9, p < 0.001) and could serve for monitoring. Of study patients, 123 were re-hospitalized for PCE during follow up. Their ΔLIR decreased gradually from -21.7 ± 8.2 % 4 weeks pre-admission to -37.8 ± 9.3 % on admission (p < 0.001). Patients improved during hospital stay (NYHA 3.7 ± 0.5 to 2.9 ± 0.8, p < 0.0001) with ΔLIR increasing to -29.1 ± 12.0 % (p < 0.001). ΔLIR based on calculated BLI correlated with the clinical status of CHF patients and allowed the prediction of hospitalizations for PCE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10877-014-9610-6DOI Listing
June 2015

Mortality in heart failure with worsening anemia: a national study.

Isr Med Assoc J 2013 Jul;15(7):368-72

Department of Medicine, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Anemia is common in heart failure (HF), but there is controversy regarding its contribution to morbidity and mortality.

Objective: To examine the association of mild and severe anemia with acute HF severity and mortality.

Methods: Data were prospectively collected for patients admitted to all departments of medicine and cardiology throughout the country during 2 months in 2003 as part of the Heart Failure Survey in Israel. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin (Hb) < 12 g/dl for women and < 13 g/dl for men; Hb < 10 g/dl was considered severe anemia. Mortality data were obtained from the Israel population registry. Median follow-up was 33.6 months.

Results: Of 4102 HF patients, 2332 had acute HF and available hemoglobin data. Anemia was common (55%) and correlated with worse baseline HF. Most signs and symptoms of acute HF were similar among all groups, but mortality was greater in anemic patients. Mortality rates at 6 months were 14.9%, 23.7% and 26.3% for patients with no anemia, mild anemia and severe anemia, respectively (P < 0.0001), and 22.2%, 33.6% and 39.9% at one year, respectively (P < 0.0001). Compared to patients without anemia, multivariable adjusted hazard ratio was 1.35 for mild anemia and 1.50 for severe anemia (95% confidence interval 1.20-1.52 and 1.27-1.77 respectively).

Conclusions: Anemia is common in patients with acuteHF and is associated with increased mortality correlated with the degree of anemia.
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July 2013

Relation of the systemic blood pressure to the collateral pressure distal to an infarct-related coronary artery occlusion during acute myocardial infarction.

Am J Cardiol 2013 Feb 22;111(3):319-23. Epub 2012 Nov 22.

Heart Institute, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel.

Collaterals to occluded coronary arteries have been observed early after the onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The pressure distal to the occluded segment of the culprit coronary artery (P(d)) is generated by collateral flow from the feeding coronary artery supplied by the systemic circulation. The aim of the study was to assess the relation between systemic blood pressure (BP) and P(d). Systemic BP and P(d) were measured simultaneously during intervention of totally occluded coronary arteries in 152 patients admitted for AMI. Patients were divided into groups by time from symptom onset to P(d) measurement. There was a significant positive correlation between P(d) and the systolic, diastolic, and mean BPs measured during the first 3 hours from symptom onset (n = 60; p <0.05, p <0.006, and p <0.005, respectively), from 3 to 12 hours (n = 56; p <0.02 for all), and >12 hours after symptom onset (n = 36; p <0.003 for all). The collateral flow, represented by calculated collateral flow index (mean 0.37 ± 0.14, median 0.36), was correlated with mean BP (p = 0.05) but not with diastolic or systolic BP (p = NS) in the overall study population. A direct relation was established during AMI between systemic BP and P(d) at all time intervals from symptom onset. Collateral flow index correlated with mean BP and was strongly associated with P(d) at all time intervals. In conclusion, the relation between P(d) and systemic BP suggests caution when administering therapy that may lower systemic BP during AMI before restoring flow in the occluded culprit artery, as it may compromise collateral pressure and exacerbate myocardial ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.10.005DOI Listing
February 2013

Pre-admission NT-proBNP improves diagnostic yield and risk stratification - the NT-proBNP for EValuation of dyspnoeic patients in the Emergency Room and hospital (BNP4EVER) study.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2012 Jun;1(2):99-108

Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel.

Background: Amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level is useful to diagnose or exclude acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in dyspnoeic patients presenting to the emergency department (ED).

Aim: To evaluate the impact of ED NT-proBNP testing on admission, length of stay (LOS), discharge diagnosis and long-term outcome.

Methods: Dyspnoeic patients were randomized in the ED to NT-proBNP testing. Admission and discharge diagnoses, and outcomes were examined.

Results: During 17 months, 470 patients were enrolled and followed for 2.0±1.3 years. ADHF likelihood, determined at study conclusion by validated criteria, established ADHF diagnosis as unlikely in 86 (17%), possible in 120 (24%), and likely in 293 (59%) patients. The respective admission rates in these subgroups were 80, 91, and 96%, regardless of blinding, and 61.9% of blinded vs. 74.5% of unblinded ADHF-likely patients were correctly diagnosed at discharge (p=0.029), with similar LOS. 2-year mortality within subgroups was unaffected by test, but was lower in ADHF-likely patients with NT-proBNP levels below median (5000 pg/ml) compared with those above median (p=0.002). Incidence of recurrent cardiac events tracked NT-proBNP levels.

Conclusion: ED NT-proBNP testing did not affect admission, LOS, 2-year survival, or recurrent cardiac events among study patients but improved diagnosis at discharge, and allowed risk stratification even within the ADHF-likely group. (ClinicalTrials.gov#NCT00271128).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2048872612447049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3760533PMC
June 2012

Usefulness of lung impedance-guided pre-emptive therapy to prevent pulmonary edema during ST-elevation myocardial infarction and to improve long-term outcomes.

Am J Cardiol 2012 Jul 4;110(2):190-6. Epub 2012 Apr 4.

Heart Institute, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion, Haifa, Israel.

Patients sustaining an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) frequently develop pulmonary congestion or pulmonary edema (PED). We previously showed that lung impedance (LI) threshold decrease of 12% to 14% from baseline during admission for STEMI marks the onset of the transition zone from interstitial to alveolar edema and predicts evolution to PED with 98% probability. The aim of this study was to prove that pre-emptive LI-guided treatment may prevent PED and improve clinical outcomes. Five hundred sixty patients with STEMI and no signs of heart failure underwent LI monitoring for 84 ± 36 hours. Maximal LI decrease throughout monitoring did not exceed 12% in 347 patients who did not develop PED (group 1). In 213 patients LI reached the threshold level and, although still asymptomatic (Killip class I), these patients were then randomized to conventional (group 2, n = 142) or LI-guided (group 3, n = 71) pre-emptive therapy. In group 3, treatment was initiated at randomization (LI = -13.8 ± 0.6%). In contrast, conventionally treated patients (group 2) were treated only at onset of dyspnea occurring 4.1 ± 3.1 hours after randomization (LI = -25.8 ± 4.3%, p <0.001). All patients in group 2 but only 8 patients in group 3 (11%) developed Killip class II to IV PED (p <0.001). Unadjusted hospital mortality, length of stay, 1-year readmission rate, 6-year mortality, and new-onset heart failure occurred less in group 3 (p <0.001). Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, left ventricular ejection fraction, risk factors, peak creatine kinase, and admission creatinine and hemoglobin levels showed improved clinical outcome in group 3 (p <0.001). In conclusion, LI-guided pre-emptive therapy in patients with STEMI decreases the incidence of in-hospital PED and results in better short- and long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.03.009DOI Listing
July 2012

Novel acute collateral flow index in patients with total coronary artery occlusion during ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

Circ J 2012 6;76(2):414-22. Epub 2011 Dec 6.

Heart Institute, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel.

Background: The effect of collaterals to occluded coronary arteries during ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unclear. The conventional CVP-based formula to calculate collateral flow index during STEMI yields values higher than in elective patients, which prompted derivation of a modified formula, pertinent in STEMI when left ventricular mean diastolic pressure (LVMDP) is the extravascular pressure limiting collateral flow. We aimed to evaluate this new LVMDP-based acute collateral flow index (ACFI).

Methods And Results: The pressure distal to coronary artery occlusion (P(d)) was measured during intervention in 111 consecutive STEMI patients, 67 (61%) of whom underwent primary intervention, followed for 58 months. ACFI (0.18 ± 0.17, median 0.15) correlated with both P(d) and collateral grade (P<0.0001). Higher creatine kinase levels and white cell counts were measured in the lowest ACFI tertile compared with the highest tertile group (P<0.012). ACFI correlated slightly with early regional but not with global left ventricular ejection fraction or with long-term coronary events and mortality.

Conclusions: The ACFI is appropriate for evaluating collateral function during STEMI. Collateral flow during STEMI may marginally limit myocardial damage but had no effect on left ventricular contraction or long-term mortality, most likely because of the low flow provided by emerging collaterals and the high proportion of patients undergoing intervention before the beneficial effect of collaterals could be realized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.cj-11-0804DOI Listing
May 2012

Use of intravenous morphine for acute decompensated heart failure in patients with and without acute coronary syndromes.

Acute Card Care 2011 Jun;13(2):76-80

Department of Cardiology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital and the Lea Weissman Cardiology Research Institute, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Background: Current guidelines regarding the use of intravenous morphine (IM) in the management of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are discordant; whereas the American guidelines reserve IM for terminal patients, the European guidelines recommend its use in the early stage of treatment. Our aim was to determine the impact of IM on outcomes of ADHF patients.

Methods: Stepwise logistic regression and propensity score analysis of ADHF patients with and without use of IM was performed in a national heart failure survey.

Results: Of the 4102 enrolled patients, we identified 2336 ADHF patients, of whom 218 (9.3%) received IM. IM patients were more likely to have acute coronary syndromes, acute rather than exacerbation of chronic heart failure, and diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. They had higher heart rate, were less likely to receive diuretics and more likely to receive aspirin and statins. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality rates were 11.5% versus 5.0% for patients who did or did not receive IM, and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for in-hospital death was: 2.0 (1.1 – 3.5, P = 0.02). Using propensity analysis, we identified 218 matched pairs of patients who did or did not receive IM. In multivariable analysis accounting for the propensity score (c-statistic 0.82), IM was not associated with increased in-hospital death (OR: 1.2 (0.6 – 2.4), P = 0.55).

Conclusion: IM was used sparingly in our ADHF cohort, and was independently associated with increased in-hospital death in multivariable analysis, but not in propensity score analysis. Thus, IM may be used in ADHF, but with caution. Further randomized trials are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/17482941.2011.575165DOI Listing
June 2011

Outcomes of acute heart failure associated with acute coronary syndrome versus other causes.

Acute Card Care 2011 Jun 28;13(2):87-92. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

Lea Wiessman Clinical Cardiology Research Center, Department of Cardiology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Background: By and large, prior registries and randomized trials have not distinguished between acute heart failure (AHF) associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) versus other causes.

Aims: To examine whether the treatments and outcomes of ACS-associated AHF are different from non-ACS-associated AHF.

Methods: We examined in a prospective, nationwide hospital-based survey the adjusted outcomes of AHF patients with and without ACS as its principal cause.

Results: Of the 4102 patients in our national heart failure survey, 2336 (56.9%) had AHF, of whom 923 (39.5%) had ACS-associated AHF. These patients were more likely to receive intravenous inotropes and vasodilators and to undergo coronary angiography and revascularization, but less likely to receive intravenous diuretics. The unadjusted in-hospital, 30-day, one-year, and four-year mortality rates for AHF patients with or without ACS were 6.5% versus 5.0% (P = 0.13), 10.3% versus 7.5% (P = 0.02), 26.6% versus 31.0% (P = 0.02), and 55.3% versus 63.3% (P = 0.0001), respectively. In the multivariate analysis, the adjusted mortality risk for patients with ACS at the respective time points were 1.46 (0.99-2.10), 1.67 (1.22-2.30), 1.02 (0.86-1.20), and 0.93 (0.82-1.04).

Conclusions: Patients with ACS-associated AHF seem to have a unique clinical course and perhaps should be distinguished from other AHF patients in future trials and registries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/17482941.2011.567284DOI Listing
June 2011

A novel radiological score to assess lung fluid content during evolving acute heart failure in the course of acute myocardial infarction.

Acute Card Care 2011 Jun 25;13(2):81-6. Epub 2011 Apr 25.

Heart Institute, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel.

Background: Monitoring of lung fluid content (LFC) in order to predict acute heart failure (AHF) during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an unmet challenge.

Aim: To evaluate in AMI patients the ability of proposed radiological score (RS), which is the sum of selected radiological signs of congestion, to reflect correctly LFC, as assessed with repeat physical examinations and lung impedance (LI) measurements.

Methods: Chest X-rays were taken at baseline, when rales were detected, whenever indicated, and at conclusion of monitoring. RS grading for LFC assessment was: RS = 0-1 for normal X-ray, RS = 2-4 for interstitial congestion, and RS values of 5-6, 7-8 and 9-10 signified mild, moderate and severe alveolar edema, respectively.

Results: 624 AMI patients without AHF at baseline were monitored (94 ± 42 h). 476 patients (76%) with baseline RS of 0.3 ± 0.5 did not develop AHF. Overt AHF developed in 148 patients (24%) during monitoring; baseline RS (0.6 ± 0.8) reached 5.4 ± 0.7, 7.0 ± 0.8, and 9.8 ± 0.5 at the stages of mild, moderate, and severe alveolar edema, respectively. AHF resolved with treatment. RS decreased to 1.5 ± 1.3 (P < 0.01) and correlated with physical examination (r = 0.6, P < 0.01) and LI (r = -0.9, P < 0.01).

Conclusion: RS correlated well with findings on physical examination during AHF and closely correlated with LI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/17482941.2011.567279DOI Listing
June 2011

Comparison of outcome of recurrent versus first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (from national Israel surveys 1998 to 2006).

Am J Cardiol 2011 Jun 12;107(12):1730-7. Epub 2011 Apr 12.

Heart Institute, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel.

Patients with recurrent acute myocardial infarction (AMI), who represent ≤35% of hospitalized patients with AMI, are at an increased risk of complications and death. Our study purpose was to compare the treatment and outcome of patients hospitalized with recurrent acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) from 1998 to 2006 with those of patients with a first STEMI. We performed 5 biennial nationwide 2-month surveys during 1998 to 2006, collecting data prospectively from all patients hospitalized for AMI or acute coronary syndrome in all 25 coronary care units in Israel. The present cohort included 4,543 patients with STEMI, 3,679 (76%) with first and 864 (24%) with recurrent STEMI. The patients with recurrent STEMI were older (66 ± 13 vs 62 ± 13 years), had greater rates of diabetes, hypertension, and previous angina, had a worse Killip class on admission, and experienced more in-hospital complications. The all-cause hospital crude mortality rate was 8.1% in patients with recurrent STEMI versus 5.5% in those with a first STEMI (adjusted odds ratio 1.71 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 2.44), and the 1-year mortality rate was 18.9% versus 10.9%, respectively (hazard ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval 1.41 to 2.43). From 1998 to 2006, an insignificant trend toward a 1-year mortality reduction among patients with recurrent STEMI was seen and those with a first STEMI had a significant mortality decrease. In conclusion, patients admitted for recurrent STEMI have worse in-hospital and 1-year outcomes that did not improve during the study period. An improved therapeutic approach is needed for these high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.02.332DOI Listing
June 2011