Publications by authors named "Aurora Daniele"

80 Publications

Physical Activity Regulates TNFα and IL-6 Expression to Counteract Inflammation in Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 28;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche, Farmaceutiche, Università della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", 81100 Caserta, Italy.

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common inherited diseases. It is characterised by a severe decline in pulmonary function associated with metabolic perturbations and an increased production of inflammatory cytokines. The key role of physical activity (PA) in improving the health status of CF patients and reducing lung function decline has recently been demonstrated. This study evaluated interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) expression in two subgroups of CF patients classified based on PA.

Methods: We selected 85 CF patients; half of them regularly undertook supervised PA in the three years leading up to the study and half of them were not physically active. Patients were analysed for serum IL-6 and TNFα levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

Results: We found that the expression levels of IL-6 and TNFα differed in terms of their regulation by PA. In particular, TNFα levels negatively correlated with FEV1% decrease/year and FEV1% decrease ( = 0.023 and = 0.02, respectively), and positively correlated with serum fasting glucose ( = 0.019) in PA CF patients. In contrast, in the NPA subgroup, TNFα levels were positively correlated with IL-6 ( = 0.001) and negatively correlated with adiponectin ( = 0.000). In addition, multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that PA is an independent modulator of the inflammatory state.

Conclusions: PA modulates inflammatory processes in CF patients by regulating the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and thus ameliorating lung function. Our data show that PA is a useful complementary strategy in the management of CF and that TNFα may be a marker of these effects of PA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094691DOI Listing
April 2021

microRNA-377-3p downregulates the oncosuppressor T-cadherin in colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.

Cell Biol Int 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania "L. Vanvitelli", Caserta, Italy.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of death of malignant tumors worldwide. Recent studies point to a role for the adiponectin-receptor axis in colorectal carcinogenesis, and in particular to the oncosuppressive properties of the T-cadherin receptor. In addition, the loss of T-cadherin expression in tumor tissues has been linked to cancer progression and attributed to aberrant methylation of its promoter. Recognizing the pivotal role of microRNAs in CRC, this study explores their possible contribution to the downregulation of T-cadherin. A systematic bioinformatics analysis, restricted by microRNA expression data in the colon or in cultured colorectal cell lines, predicted twelve top-ranking target miRNA sites within the 3' UTR of T-cadherin. Experimental validation analyses based on luciferase reporter constructs and miRNA mimic or miRNA inhibitor transfections toward colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines indicated that miR-377-3p was able to directly bind to the T-cadherin sequence, and thus downregulating its expression. Given the oncogenic activity of miR-377 and the oncosuppressive activity of T-cadherin in CRC, the regulatory circuit highlighted in this study may add new insights into molecular mechanisms driving colorectal carcinogenesis, and perspectively it could be exploited to identify novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbin.11605DOI Listing
April 2021

Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Microbiota: Which Impact on Lung Cancer?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 1;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Università della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via G. Vivaldi 42, 81100 Caserta, Italy.

Lung cancer still represents the leading cause of cancer-related death, globally. Likewise, malnutrition and inactivity represent a major risk for loss of functional pulmonary capacities influencing overall lung cancer severity. Therefore, the adhesion to an appropriate health lifestyle is crucial in the management of lung cancer patients despite the subtype of cancer. This review aims to summarize the available knowledge about dietary approaches as well as physical activity as the major factors that decrease the risk towards lung cancer, and improve the response to therapies. We discuss the most significant dietary schemes positively associated to body composition and prognosis of lung cancer and the main molecular processes regulated by specific diet schemes, functional foods and physical activity, i.e., inflammation and oxidative stress. Finally, we report evidence demonstrating that dysbiosis of lung and/or gut microbiome, as well as their interconnection (the gut-lung axis), are strictly related to dietary patterns and regular physical activity playing a key role in lung cancer formation and progression, opening to the avenue of modulating the microbiome as coadjuvant therapy. Altogether, the evidence reported in this review highlights the necessity to consider non-pharmacological interventions (nutrition and physical activity) as effective adjunctive strategies in the management of lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967729PMC
March 2021

COVID-19: Role of Nutrition and Supplementation.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 17;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology and Unit of Dietetics and Sports Medicine, Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", 80131 Naples, Italy.

At the end of 2019, a new coronavirus (COVID-19) appeared on the world scene, which mainly affects the respiratory system, causing pneumonia and multi-organ failure, and, although it starts with common symptoms such as shortness of breath and fever, in about 2-3% of cases it leads to death. Unfortunately, to date, no specific treatments have been found for the cure of this virus and, therefore, it is advisable to implement all possible strategies in order to prevent infection. In this context, it is important to better define the role of all behaviors, in particular nutrition, in order to establish whether these can both prevent infection and improve the outcome of the disease in patients with COVID-19. In the literature, it is widely shown that states of malnutrition, overweight, and obesity negatively affect the immune system, leading to viral infections, and several studies have shown that nutritional interventions can act as immunostimulators, helping to prevent viral infections. Even if several measures, such as the assumption of a specific diet regimen, the use of dietary supplements, and other similar interventions, are promising for the prevention, management, and recovery of COVID-19 patients, it is important to highlight that strong data from randomized clinical trials are needed to support any such assumption. Considering this particular scenario, we present a literature review addressing several important aspects related to diet and SARS-CoV-2 infection, in order to highlight the importance of diet and supplementation in prevention and management of, as well as recovery from COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13030976DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002713PMC
March 2021

Dietary influence on adiponectin in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Eur J Clin Invest 2021 Apr 2:e13548. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.

Background: Here, we evaluate the effects of a diet rich in low-glycaemic index carbohydrates and fibre (CHO/Fibre diet) or monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA diet), on fasting and postprandial adiponectin concentrations and their relationship with the beneficial effects of the experimental diets on postprandial glucose metabolism and liver fat in type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods: Fasting and postprandial adiponectin plasma concentrations were measured before and after dietary interventions in the participants to a randomized controlled trial (NCT01025856), wherein 37 men and 8 women with T2D, aged 35-70 years, followed a CHO/Fibre diet or a MUFA diet for an 8-week period. Hepatic fat content by H NMR and fasting and postprandial plasma glucose and insulin measurements were also available.

Results: Fasting adiponectin plasma levels did not change after both diets. Postprandial adiponectin significantly increased after the CHO/fibre diet (9.9 ± 1.6 μg/mL vs. 10.8 ± 2.3 μg/mL; P = .033) but not after the MUFA diet (10.6 ± 1.8 μg/mL vs. 10.6 ± 1.6 μg/mL; P = .935) with a significant difference between changes (P = .035). In the combined CHO/Fibre and MUFA groups, fasting and postprandial adiponectin significantly and inversely correlated with postprandial insulin iAUC at baseline and after intervention, and with liver fat content after intervention.

Conclusions: A diet rich in CHO/Fibre increased postprandial plasma adiponectin significantly more than a MUFA diet in patients with T2D. Independently of diet, adiponectin levels associated with postprandial insulin concentrations. The dietary interventions modulated the relationship between adiponectin and liver fat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13548DOI Listing
April 2021

Correction to: Adiponectin in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients Affected by Multiple Sclerosis Is Correlated with the Progression and Severity of Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali Biologiche Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi della Campania, "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via G. Vivaldi 42, 81100, Caserta, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02331-yDOI Listing
February 2021

Adiponectin and leptin exert antagonizing effects on proliferation and motility of papillary thyroid cancer cell lines.

J Physiol Biochem 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali Biologiche Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi della Campania, "Luigi Vanvitelli,", Via G. Vivaldi 42, 81100, Caserta, Italy.

Adiponectin (Acrp30) and leptin, adipokines produced and secreted mainly by the adipose tissue, are involved in human carcinogenesis. Thyroid carcinomas are frequent endocrine cancers, and several evidences suggest that they are correlated with obesity. In this study, we first analyzed the expression levels and prognostic values of Acrp30, leptin, and their receptors in thyroid cancer cells. Then, we investigated the role of Acrp30 and leptin in proliferation, migration, and invasion. We found that Acrp30 treatment alone inhibits cell proliferation and cell viability in a time and dose-dependent manner; leptin alone does not influence thyroid cancer cells (BCPAP and K1) proliferation, but the combined treatment reverts Acrp30-induced effects on cell proliferation. Additionally, through wound healing and Matrigel Matrix invasion assays, we unveiled that Acrp30 inhibits thyroid cancer cell motility, while leptin induces the opposite effect. Importantly, in the combined treatment, Acrp30 and leptin exert antagonizing effects on papillary thyroid cancer cells' migration and invasion in both BCPAP and K1 cell lines. Highlights of these studies suggest that Acrp30 and leptin could represent therapeutic targets and biomarkers for the management of thyroid cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13105-021-00789-xDOI Listing
February 2021

Dysregulation of lipid metabolism and pathological inflammation in patients with COVID-19.

Sci Rep 2021 02 3;11(1):2941. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

CEINGE - Biotecnologie Avanzate s.c.ar.l., Via Gaetano Salvatore, 486, 80145, Naples, Italy.

In recent months, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread throughout the world. COVID-19 patients show mild, moderate or severe symptoms with the latter ones requiring access to specialized intensive care. SARS-CoV-2 infections, pathogenesis and progression have not been clearly elucidated yet, thus forcing the development of many complementary approaches to identify candidate cellular pathways involved in disease progression. Host lipids play a critical role in the virus life, being the double-membrane vesicles a key factor in coronavirus replication. Moreover, lipid biogenesis pathways affect receptor-mediated virus entry at the endosomal cell surface and modulate virus propagation. In this study, targeted lipidomic analysis coupled with proinflammatory cytokines and alarmins measurement were carried out in serum of COVID-19 patients characterized by different severity degree. Serum IL-26, a cytokine involved in IL-17 pathway, TSLP and adiponectin were measured and correlated to lipid COVID-19 patient profiles. These results could be important for the classification of the COVID-19 disease and the identification of therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82426-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859398PMC
February 2021

Adiponectin in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients Affected by Multiple Sclerosis Is Correlated with the Progression and Severity of Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jan 23. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali Biologiche Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi della Campania, "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via G. Vivaldi 42, 81100, Caserta, Italy.

Adiponectin exerts relevant actions in immunity and is modulated in several disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we characterized adiponectin expression and profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from MS patients to investigate its potential relationship with the severity and progression of the disease. Total adiponectin in CSF was measured by ELISA in 66 unrelated CSF MS patients and compared with 24 age- and sex-matched controls. Adiponectin oligomer profiles were analysed by Western blotting and FPLC chromatography. Total CSF adiponectin was significantly increased in MS patients compared with controls (9.91 ng/mL vs 6.02 ng/mL) (p < 0.001). Interestingly, CSF adiponectin positively correlated with CSF IgG, and CSF/serum albumin directly correlated with CSF/serum adiponectin. Our data demonstrated that CSF adiponectin predicts a worse prognosis: patients with the progressive form of MS had higher levels compared with the relapsing remitting form; patients with higher EDSS at baseline and a higher MS severity score at 4.5-year follow-up had significantly elevated adiponectin levels with respect to patients with a less severe phenotype. Finally, the adiponectin oligomerization profile was altered in CSF from MS patients, with a significant increase in HMW and MMW. The correlation of CSF adiponectin with the severity and prognosis of MS disease confirmed the role of this adipokine in the inflammatory/immune processes of MS and suggested its use as a complementary tool to assess the severity, progression and prognosis of the disease. Further studies on larger MS cohorts are needed to clarify the contribution of adiponectin to the etiopathogenesis of MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02287-zDOI Listing
January 2021

Urtica dioica L. leaf chemical composition: A never-ending disclosure by means of HR-MS/MS techniques.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Feb 6;195:113892. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via Vivaldi 43, I, 81100, Caserta, Italy.

The metabolite profiling of plant extracts always represents an exciting challenge, as the chemical diversity of natural products is still far beyond the researchers' imagination, even focusing on a plant that is thought to have already been broadly investigated. Herein UHPLC-HRMS/MS techniques were applied to an alcoholic crude extract from nettle leaves and proved to be a precious tool for the disclosure of secondary metabolites never found before. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were the most representative constituents, with a 2-caffeoilisocitric acid cyclodimer described for the first time, besides four C-glycosylated flavones, bearing a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl function. This deep investigation paves the way for the isolation and full characterization of these molecules by means of spectroscopic techniques. Moreover, based on preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation, further research on the use of this nettle extract as a valuable nutraceutical product is encouraged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.113892DOI Listing
February 2021

Case Report: Concurrent Resistance and Aerobic Training Regulate Adiponectin Expression and Disease Severity in Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Study.

Front Neurosci 2020 22;14:567302. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Caserta, Italy.

Adapted exercise is an effective non-pharmacological tool to improve functional, cognitive, and psychological parameters in multiple sclerosis (MS), in association with increased quality of life (QoL) and decreased disease severity. Adipose tissue, through the production of different adipokines, is involved in regulating energy metabolism and inflammation. Adiponectin, increased in MS, circulates as oligomers of low (LMW), medium (MMW), and high molecular weight (HMW), the latter mediating the main biological effects. The aim of study was to evaluate the effects of 4 months training at moderate intensity [65% heart rate reserve (HRR)] on BMI, adiponectin, and QoL in a volunteer with secondary progressive MS. The parameters were evaluated before (T0), after 4 months training (T1), and 6 months after the end of training (T2); total serum adiponectin and its oligomeric profile were evaluated. We found a reduction in BMI (-0.9%) and FAT (-2.6%), an improvement in perceived QoL and a reduced expression of total adiponectin and HMW oligomers together with decreased MS disability level at T1 measured by EDSS. Despite the limitations of a case study, this represent a starting point to understand the influence of exercise in MS and the relationship with adiponectin expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.567302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783198PMC
December 2020

Metabolic Perturbations and Severe COVID-19 Disease: Implication of Molecular Pathways.

Int J Endocrinol 2020 28;2020:8896536. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali Biologiche Farmaceutiche, Università Degli Studi Della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via G. Vivaldi 42, Caserta 81100, Italy.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, which can result in serious respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia leading to respiratory failure. It was first reported in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in December 2019 and rapidly spread globally, becoming a pandemic in March 2020. Among comorbidities observed in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, hypertension (68.3%) and type 2-diabetes (30.1%) are the most frequent conditions. Although symptoms are highly heterogeneous (ranging from absence of symptoms to severe acute respiratory failure), patients with metabolic-associated diseases often experience worse COVID-19 outcomes. This review investigates the association between metabolic disorders and COVID-19 severity, exploring the molecular mechanisms potentially underlying this relationship and those that are responsible for more severe COVID-19 outcomes. In addition, the role of the main biological processes that may connect metabolic alterations to SARS-CoV-2 infection such as hyperglycemia, immune system deregulation, ACE-2 receptor modulation, and inflammatory response is described. The impact of metabolic disorders on the prognosis of COVID-19 has major implications in public health especially for countries affected by a high incidence of metabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8896536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7703458PMC
November 2020

Adiponectin is Associated with Neutrophils to Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

COPD 2021 Feb 11;18(1):70-75. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Università della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Caserta, Italy.

Disproportionate systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with declining lung functions and comorbidities. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have emerged as valuable markers of the systemic inflammation in COPD. Adiponectin (Acpr30) circulates in serum as complexes of different molecular weight (HMW, MMW, LMW) with multifaceted metabolic and anti-inflammatory properties implicated in airway pathophysiology. We aimed to investigate the association between Acpr30 and its oligomers and the NLR and PLR in COPD patients. Seventy stable COPD patients were enrolled. Acrp30 serum levels and the HMW oligomers as well as hematological parameters and their ratio were evaluated. Both NLR and PLR are associated with lower BMI. Interestingly, total Acpr30 is negatively associated with NLR but not with PLR; after adjusting for age, BMI and FEV1, Acpr30 was independently associated with NLR. Conversely, HMW Acpr30 and HMW/Acpr30 ratio were positively correlated to NLR. The association of Acpr30, HMW Acpr30 and HMW/totalAcpr30 ratio with NLR but not with PLR in COPD patients indicates that Acrp30 oligomerization could represent a biological mechanism interfering with systemic inflammation in COPD. Further studies in larger cohorts of patients are required to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15412555.2020.1857718DOI Listing
February 2021

Differently expressed microRNA in response to the first Ig replacement therapy in common variable immunodeficiency patients.

Sci Rep 2020 12 8;10(1):21482. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche (DISTABIF), Università della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via Vivaldi 43, 81100, Caserta, Italy.

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a complex primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a high clinical and genetic heterogeneity. The molecular underlying causes of CVID are not still now clear and the delays in diagnosis and treatment worsen the prognosis of the patients. MicroRNAs are non-coding, endogenous small RNAs often deregulated in human diseases, such as autoimmune and other immune-based disorders. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate miRNAs associated with the CVID and, in particular, with the response to the first Ig replacement therapy. To this aim, we compared miRNA profile obtained by serum samples of treatment-naïve CVID patients before and 24 h after the first Ig replacement therapy. For the first time, using a microarray assay followed by an integrated bioinformatics/biostatistics analysis, we identified five microRNAs (hsa-miR-6742, hsa-miR-1825, hsa-miR-4769-3p, hsa-miR-1228-3p, hsa-miR-1972) differently modulated in CVID patients by Ig infusion. All of them were down-regulated, excepted miR-6742 which was up-regulated. The latter may be of particular interest, since its functions are related to pathways involving Class I MHC mediated antigen processing and adaptive as well as innate Immune System. In conclusion, this study shows for the first time the modulation of miRNAs involved in CVID patients after the first Ig replacement therapy. Further studies are needed to assess whether such miRNAs could represent novel potential biomarkers in management and therapy of CVID patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77100-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722869PMC
December 2020

Adiponectin Role in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Focus on Nutrition Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 4;21(23). Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Piazza Miraglia 2, 80138 Naples, Italy.

Adiponectin is an adipokine produced by adipose tissue. It has numerous beneficial effects. In particular, it improves metabolic effects and glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, and is involved in the regulation of cytokine profile and immune cell production, having anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory effects. Adiponectin's role is already known in immune diseases and also in neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, are a set of diseases of the central nervous system, characterized by a chronic and selective process of neuron cell death, which occurs mainly in relation to oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Lifestyle is able to influence the development of these diseases. In particular, unhealthy nutrition on gut microbiota, influences its composition and predisposition to develop many diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, given the importance of the "gut-brain" axis. There is a strong interplay between Adiponectin, gut microbiota, and brain-gut axis. For these reasons, a healthy diet composed of healthy nutrients such as probiotics, prebiotics, polyphenols, can prevent many metabolic and inflammatory diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and obesity. The special Adiponectin role should be taken into account also, in order to be able to use this component as a therapeutic molecule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7729837PMC
December 2020

ACE2: The Major Cell Entry Receptor for SARS-CoV-2.

Lung 2020 12 10;198(6):867-877. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche Traslazionali, University of Campania "L. Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy.

Despite the unprecedented effort of the scientific community, the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected more than 46 million people worldwide, killing over one million two hundred thousand. Understanding the mechanisms by which some individuals are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and why a subgroup of them are prone to experience severe pneumonia, and death should lead to a better approach and more effective treatments for COVID-19. Here, we focus our attention on ACE2, a primary receptor of SARS-CoV-2. We will discuss its biology, tissue expression, and post-translational regulation that determine its potential to be employed by SARS-CoV-2 for cell entry. Particular attention will be given to how the ACE2 soluble form can have a great impact on disease progression and thus be used in a potential therapeutic strategy. Furthermore, we will discuss repercussions that SARS-CoV-2/ACE2 binding has on the renin-angiotensin system and beyond. Indeed, although mostly neglected, ACE2 can also act on [des-Arg 937]-bradykinin of the kinin-kallikrein system regulating coagulation and inflammation. Thorough comprehension of the role that ACE2 plays in different pathways will be the key to assess the impact that SARS-CoV-2/ACE2 binding has on organismal physiology and will help us to find better therapies and diagnostic tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00408-020-00408-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653219PMC
December 2020

Molecular mechanisms involved in the positive effects of physical activity on coping with COVID-19.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2020 Dec 3;120(12):2569-2582. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via A. Vivaldi, 81100, Caserta, Italy.

Purpose: Physical activity (PA) represents the first line of defence against diseases characterised by increased inflammation status, such as metabolic and infectious diseases. Conversely, a sedentary lifestyle-associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders-negatively impacts on general health status, including susceptibility to infections. At a time of a pandemic SARS-CoV2 infection, and in the context of the multiorgan crosstalk (widely accepted as a mechanism participating in the pathophysiology of all organs and systems), we examine the complex interplay mediated by skeletal muscle contraction involving the immune system and how this contributes to control health status and to counteract viral infections. In so doing, we review the molecular mechanisms and expression of molecules modulated by PA, able to provide the proper molecular equipment against viral infections such as the current SARS-CoV2.

Methods: A critical review of the literature was performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and mediators induced by PA that potentially impact on viral infections such as SARS-CoV2.

Results: We showed the effects mediated by regular moderate PA on viral adverse effects through the regulation of biological processes involving the crosstalk between skeletal muscle, the immune system and adipose tissue. Evidence was provided of the effects mediated by modulation of the expression of inflammation markers.

Conclusion: A tigth association between PA and reduction in inflammation status allows effective counteracting of SARS-CoV2 infection. It is therefore essential to persuade people to keep active.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-020-04484-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7471545PMC
December 2020

Impact of Physical Activity on Cognitive Functions: A New Field for Research and Management of Cystic Fibrosis.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Jul 18;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 18.

CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate SCarl, Via Gaetano Salvatore 486, 80145 Napoli, Italy.

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease inherited by an autosomal recessive mechanism and characterized by a progressive and severe multi-organ failure. Mutations in Cystic Fibrosis Conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein cause duct obstructions from dense mucus secretions and chronic inflammation related to organ damage. The progression of the disease is characterized by a decline of lung function associated with metabolic disorders and malnutrition, musculoskeletal disorders and thoracic deformities, leading to a progressive decrement of the individual's quality of life. The World Health Organization (WHO) qualifies Physical Activity (PA) as a structured activity produced by skeletal muscles' movements that requires energy consumption. In the last decade, the number of studies on PA increased considerably, including those investigating the effects of exercise on cognitive and brain health and mental performance. PA is recommended in CF management guidelines, since it improves clinic outcomes, such as peripheral neuropathy, oxygen uptake peak, bone health, glycemic control and respiratory functions. Several studies regarding the positive effects of exercise in patients with Cystic Fibrosis were carried out, but the link between the effects of exercise and cognitive and brain health in CF remains unclear. Animal models showed that exercise might improve learning and memory through structural changes of brain architecture, and such a causal relationship can also be described in humans. Indeed, both morphological and environmental factors seem to be involved in exercise-induced neural plasticity. An increase of gray matter volume in specific areas is detectable as a consequence of regular training in humans. Neurobiological processes associated with brain function improvements include biochemical modifications, such as neuromodulator or neurohormone release, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) production and synaptic activity changes. From a functional point of view, PA also seems to be an environmental factor enhancing cognitive abilities, such as executive functions, memory and processing speed. This review describes the current state of research regarding the impacts of physical activity and exercise on cognitive functions, introducing a possible novel field of research for optimizing the management of Cystic Fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10070489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400241PMC
July 2020

Adiponectin Is Inversely Associated With Tumour Grade in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

Anticancer Res 2020 Jul;40(7):3751-3757

Department of Environmental, Biological, and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania, "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy

Background/aim: Colorectal cancer is frequently associated with metabolic diseases. Adiponectin (APN) is an insulin-sensitizing adipokine circulating as low molecular weight (LMW), medium molecular weight (MMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) oligomers; the latter are the most bio-active oligomers. APN, through AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and T-cadherin receptors, regulates inflammation, and proliferation. Considering the anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties of APN, we investigated the involvement of the "APN system" in colorectal cancer.

Materials And Methods: A total of 44 colorectal cancer patients and 51 healthy controls were recruited. We analysed APN and HMW oligomers in sera, AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and T-cadherin expression in non-cancerous and cancerous colon tissues.

Results: we found statistically lower levels of APN in patients compared to controls, with a specific decrease of HMW oligomers. Importantly, APN correlated to cancer grade. AdipoR1 was found overexpressed in cancerous compared to non-cancerous tissues while AdipoR2 and T-cadherin were down-regulated.

Conclusion: The deregulated expression of the "APN system" in colorectal cancer with a specific correlation to tumor grade suggests APN as a promising biomarker in colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14364DOI Listing
July 2020

Implications of the Adiponectin System in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients: A Case-Control Study.

Biomolecules 2020 06 18;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Campania "L. Vanvitelli", 80131 Naples, Italy.

Alterations of adipose tissue occurring in obesity have been recognized as a major risk factor for several cancers. The relationship between adipose tissue and lung cancer, which is the main cancer-related cause of death worldwide, still requires investigation. Perturbations in the adipokine system are likely to interfere with inter-organ crosstalk in lung cancer, which may influence the lung tumor microenvironment. Adiponectin (Acrp30) expression is deregulated in several cancer types. Acrp30 circulates as oligomers with a Low (LMW), Medium (MMW), and High Molecular Weight (HMW), with the latter mediating the main biological effects. Acrp30 acts through AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 receptors. T-cadherin has been described as a non-signaling receptor. This study's aim was to investigate the regulation of serum Acrp30 and its receptors in sample tissue from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We recruited 72 NSCLC patients and 60 healthy controls, whom we evaluated in terms of their Acpr30 levels and oligomeric profile. In addition, the expression of AdipoRs in tissues from lung cancer specimens was also measured and compared to coupled healthy lung samples. Our findings show a significant reduction of total Acrp30 levels in NSCLC patients compared to normal subjects, with a specific down-regulation of HMW oligomers. Acrp30 expression was lower in lung adenocarcinoma than other subtypes, regardless of other factors. A significantly higher expression of AdipoR1 was observed, while no differences in R2 and a lower expression of T-cadherin were found in lung cancer specimens compared to normal healthy lung tissues. Involvement of the Acrp30 system in lung cancer may provide new insight into the interaction between adipose tissue and lung and sheds light on its potential ability to influence the lung tumor microenvironment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356727PMC
June 2020

Adapted recreational football small-sided games improve cardiac capacity, body composition and muscular fitness in patients with type 2 diabetes.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2020 Sep 12;60(9):1261-1268. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Human Movement Sciences and Wellbeing, Parthenope University, Naples, Italy -

Background: The usefulness of adapted small-sided games (SSGs) in improving cardiac function in subjects with T2DM is still debated. Here we evaluated the effects of 18 weeks indoor muscular activation training (6 weeks; IMA) followed by adapted SSGs football training (12 weeks) on cardiac function, muscular fitness, body composition and adiponectin expression in sedentary T2DM volunteers.

Methods: Six T2DM patients underwent IMA protocol of 6 weeks, twice a week followed by 12 weeks SSGs (5-a-side, once a week) training. Glucose, lipid profile and serum homocysteine concentration, body composition (BC), bone mineral density (DEXA), were determined at baseline and after 18 weeks (IMA+SSGs). VO2max and muscular fitness were recorded at baseline and after IMA (6 weeks) and SSGs (12 weeks), respectively.

Results: No significant differences were found for VO2max and muscular fitness after 6weeks of IMA. After 18 weeks (6 weeks IMA + 12 weeks SSGs) of training, significant improvements were found in the following parameters: work capacity, VO2peak, Ventilation (VEpeak), breathing reserve consumption and oxygen uptake efficiency slope (P<0.05); leg fitness (P<0.05), BC (P<0.05), vertebral column T-score (P<0.01) and adiponectin (total and high-molecular-weight; P<0.05). Compared to baseline, a reduction in serum homocysteine occurred after 18 weeks of training (P<0.05).

Conclusions: We evidenced that weekly adapted SSGs friendly football matches for 12 weeks improve cardiorespiratory capacity and the expression of independent markers associated with cardiovascular risk in T2DM patients, suggesting an overall reduced CVD-risk in these patients. These preliminary data encourage us to test the efficacy of this type of exercise in a larger population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.20.10498-5DOI Listing
September 2020

AdipoRon Affects Cell Cycle Progression and Inhibits Proliferation in Human Osteosarcoma Cells.

J Oncol 2020 22;2020:7262479. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Dipartimento di Medicina di Precisione, Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via L. De Crecchio 7, Naples 80138, Italy.

AdipoRon (AdipoR) is the first synthetic molecule acting as a selective and potent adiponectin receptor agonist. Recently, the possible pharmacological use of AdipoR in different pathological conditions has been addressed. Interestingly, initial evidence suggests that AdipoR may have anticancer properties in different preclinical models, such as pancreatic and ovarian cancer. To our knowledge, so far no research has been directed at determining the impact of AdipoR on osteosarcoma, the most aggressive and metastatic bone malignancy occurring in childhood and adolescence age. Here, we investigate the possible antitumor effects of AdipoR in osteosarcoma cell lines. MTT and cell growth curve assays clearly indicate that AdipoR inhibits, at different extents, proliferation in both U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cell lines, the latter being more sensitive. Moreover, flow cytometry-based assays point out a significant G0/G1 phase accumulation and a contemporary S phase decrease in response to AdipoR. Consistent with the different sensitivity, a strong subG1 appearance in Saos-2 after 48 and 72 hours of treatment is also observed. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms highlights a common and initial ERK1/2 activation in response to AdipoR in both Saos-2 and U2OS cells. Interestingly, a simultaneous and dramatic downregulation of p70S6K phosphorylation, one of the main targets of mTORC1 pathway, has also been observed in AdipoR-treated Saos-2, but not in U2OS cells. Importantly, a strengthening of AdipoR-induced effects was reported upon everolimus-mediated mTORC1 perturbation in U2OS cells. In conclusion, our findings provide initial evidence of AdipoR as an anticancer molecule differently affecting various signaling pathways involved in cell cycle and cell death in osteosarcoma cells and encourage the design of future studies to further understand its pattern of activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7262479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204133PMC
January 2020

The Important Role of Adiponectin and Orexin-A, Two Key Proteins Improving Healthy Status: Focus on Physical Activity.

Front Physiol 2020 22;11:356. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

Exercise represents the most important integrative therapy in metabolic, immunologic and chronic diseases; it represents a valid strategy in the non-pharmacological intervention of lifestyle linked diseases. A large body of evidence indicates physical exercise as an effective measure against chronic non-communicable diseases. The worldwide general evidence for health benefits are both for all ages and skill levels. In a dysregulated lifestyle such as in the obesity, there is an imbalance in the production of different cytokines. In particular, we focused on Adiponectin, an adipokine producted by adipose tissue, and on Orexin-A, a neuropeptide synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus. The production of both Adiponectin and Orexin-A increases following regular and structured physical activity and both these hormones have similar actions. Indeed, they improve energy and glucose metabolism, and also modulate energy expenditure and thermogenesis. In addition, a relevant biological role of Adiponectin and Orexin A has been recently highlighted in the immune system, where they function as immune-suppressor factors. The strong connection between these two cytokines and healthy status is mediated by physical activity and candidates these hormones as potential biomarkers of the beneficial effects induced by physical activity. For these reasons, this review aims to underly the interconnections among Adiponectin, Orexin-A, physical activity and healthy status. Furthermore, it is analyzed the involvement of Adiponectin and Orexin-A in physical activity as physiological factors improving healthy status through physical exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188914PMC
April 2020

Hempseed Lignanamides Rich-Fraction: Chemical Investigation and Cytotoxicity towards U-87 Glioblastoma Cells.

Molecules 2020 Feb 26;25(5). Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Environmental Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via Vivaldi 43, I-81100 Caserta, Italy.

The weak but noteworthy presence of (poly)phenols in hemp seeds has been long overshadowed by the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids and digestible proteins, considered responsible for their high nutritional benefits. Instead, lignanamides and their biosynthetic precursors, phenylamides, seem to display interesting and diverse biological activities only partially clarified in the last decades. Herein, negative mode HR-MS/MS techniques were applied to the chemical investigation of a (poly)phenol-rich fraction, obtained from hemp seeds after extraction/fractionation steps. This extract contained phenylpropanoid amides and their random oxidative coupling derivatives, lignanamides, which were the most abundant compounds and showed a high chemical diversity, deeply unraveled through high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HR-MS/MS) tools. The effect of different doses of the lignanamides-rich extract (LnHS) on U-87 glioblastoma cell line and non-tumorigenic human fibroblasts was evaluated. Thus, cell proliferation, genomic DNA damage, colony forming and wound repair capabilities were assessed, as well as LnHS outcome on the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. LnHS significantly inhibited U-87 cancer cell proliferation, but not that of fibroblasts, and was able to reduce U-87 cell migration, inducing further DNA damage. No modification in cytokines' expression level was found. Data acquired suggested that LnHS acted in U-87 cells by inducing the apoptosis machinery and suppressing the autophagic cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179246PMC
February 2020

Effects of Very Low Calorie Ketogenic Diet on the Orexinergic System, Visceral Adipose Tissue, and ROS Production.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2019 Dec 13;8(12). Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology and Unit of Dietetics and Sports Medicine, Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", 80100 Naples, Italy.

Background: Caloric restriction is a valid strategy to reduce the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) content in obese persons. Hypocretin-1 (orexin-A) is a neuropeptide synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus that strongly modulates food intake, thus influencing adipose tissue accumulation. Therapeutic diets in obesity treatment may combine the advantages of caloric restriction and dietary ketosis. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of a very low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) in a population of obese patients.

Methods: Adiposity parameters and orexin-A serum profiling were quantified over an 8 week period. The effect of the VLCKD on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell viability was evaluated, in vitro, by culturing Hep-G2 cells in the presence of VLCKD sera.

Results: Dietary intervention induced significant effects on body weight, adiposity, and blood chemistry parameters. Moreover, a selective reduction in VAT was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Orexin-A levels significantly increased after dietary treatment. Hep-G2 cell viability was not affected after 24, 48, and 72 h incubation with patients' sera, before and after the VLCKD. In the same model system, ROS production was not significantly influenced by dietary treatment.

Conclusion: The VLCKD exerts a positive effect on VAT decrease, ameliorating adiposity and blood chemistry parameters. Furthermore, short-term mild dietary ketosis does not appear to have a cytotoxic effect, nor does it represent a factor capable of increasing oxidative stress. Finally, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that shows an effect of the VLCKD upon the orexinergic system, supporting the usefulness of such a therapeutic intervention in promoting obesity reduction in the individual burden of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6943716PMC
December 2019

Adiponectin Receptors and Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Are Modulated in Common Variable Immunodeficiency Patients: Correlation With Ig Replacement Therapy.

Front Immunol 2019 27;10:2812. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali Biologiche Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli," Caserta, Italy.

Adiponectin exerts beneficial pleiotropic effects through three receptors, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, and T-cadherin; it also exerts immunomodulatory effects. We previously demonstrated that adiponectin levels are altered in common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID). The purpose of the present study was to investigate further the specific involvement of adiponectin in CVID by characterizing (i) the expression profile of adiponectin receptors on peripheral blood mononuclear cells; (ii) the levels of another relevant adipokine, namely leptin; (iii) the levels of five other cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα, and IFNγ) in 24 patients on maintenance therapy, in 18 treatment-naïve patients (before and 24 h after the first Ig infusion) and in 28 healthy controls. We found that (i) adiponectin was down-expressed in patients on maintenance therapy and in treatment-naïve patients, and that it increased in treatment-naïve patients 24 h after the first Ig infusion; (ii) leptin expression did not differ between maintenance patients and controls either before or after the first Ig infusion; (iii) AdipoR1 expression was significantly higher on B lymphocytes, monocytes and NK cells of CVID patients than in controls; (iv) the expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 on B lymphocytes, monocytes and NK cells was higher after the first Ig infusion than in treatment-naïve patients; (v) T-cadherin expression did not differ between treatment- naïve CVID patients and controls, and was not affected by Ig infusion; and (vi) IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNFα levels were differently expressed in CVID patients on therapy maintenance and were not affected by the first Ig replacement therapy. This is the first study to demonstrate that the expression of AdipoRs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CVID patients differs from that of controls, and changes after the first Ig infusion. The specificity of adiponectin involvement in CVID is supported by the absence of changes in leptin levels and in the levels of the cytokines investigated. Taken together, these results suggest that the adiponectin system plays an important and specific role in CVID. A better understanding of adiponectin as a link in the cross-talk between the immune system and adipose tissue may provide additional benefits for the management of CVID patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6890605PMC
November 2020

Nutritional factors influencing plasma adiponectin levels: results from a randomised controlled study with whole-grain cereals.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2020 Jun 22;71(4):509-515. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Napoli, Italy.

Data from intervention studies about the effects of a high intake of whole-grain cereals on adiponectin expression are still inconclusive. We evaluated the effects of whole-grain or refined cereals on fasting and postprandial serum adiponectin in people at high cardiovascular risk. According to a randomised controlled parallel group design, participants with metabolic syndrome were assigned to an isoenergetic diet based on either whole-grain cereal (WGC) or refined cereal (RC) products for 12-weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical measures were taken. Compared to baseline, fasting and postprandial serum adiponectin levels increased after both RC and WGC. In the WGC and RC groups combined, adiponectin concentrations significantly increased after 12-week intervention, and are directly associated with plasma SCFAs and acetate. Only increasing whole-grain cereals may not influence adiponectin levels, which could be modified by a fibre rich, low-fat, low-glycemic index diet, possibly through changes in gut microbiota, as suggested by the relation with SCFAs.Clinical Trials number: NCT00945854.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2019.1680959DOI Listing
June 2020

Adiponectin Expression Is Modulated by Long-Term Physical Activity in Adult Patients Affected by Cystic Fibrosis.

Mediators Inflamm 2019 9;2019:2153934. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche, Farmaceutiche, Università della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Caserta 81100, Italy.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterized by progressive decline of lung function and chronic airway inflammation. Adipose tissue, through adiponectin and leptin, exerts several effects on energy metabolism and inflammatory processes. This study evaluated the levels of adiponectin and leptin in adult healthy subjects, in patients with CF and their correlation with long-term physical activity. CF patients were divided into two groups (sedentary versus active) based on their regular physical activity over 3 years. Anthropometric and serum biochemical profiles of CF patients and controls were evaluated and compared. Total serum adiponectin and leptin levels were measured by ELISA; adiponectin oligomeric profiles were analysed by western blot. Adiponectin levels were significantly higher while leptin levels were lower in patients with CF than in healthy controls. Furthermore, adiponectin was significantly lower in active compared to sedentary CF ( = 0.047), while leptin was slightly increased in active compared to sedentary CF. In addition, C-reactive protein levels were significantly lower in active than in sedentary CF patients ( = 0.048). Interestingly, only in the active group adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with forced expiratory volume (FEV) 1% decrease/year and FEV1% decrease. Moreover, adiponectin levels negatively correlated with lipid profiles. Our findings indicated that regular, long-term physical activity in CF improves respiratory function, metabolism, and inflammation status. These improvements in patients' conditions are associated with immunometabolic processes involving adiponectin, leptin, and C-reactive protein. Therefore, we propose that both adipokines may be a useful biomarker in the evaluation of metabolic and inflammatory status in patients with CF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/2153934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6754935PMC
March 2020

Adiponectin Expression and Genotypes in Italian People with Severe Obesity Undergone a Hypocaloric Diet and Physical Exercise Program.

Nutrients 2019 Sep 12;11(9). Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche, Farmaceutiche, Università della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", 81100 Caserta, Italy.

Adiponectin exerts positive effects on metabolic and inflammatory processes. Adiponectin levels and some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) seem to be associated with obesity. Here, we investigated the effects of a 4-week Hypocaloric diet and Physical exercise Program (HPP) on 268 young people with severe obesity. We evaluated the relationship between adiponectin levels and anthropometric and biochemical parameters, at baseline and after a 4-week HPP. Finally, we investigated some adiponectin gene variants and their correlation to biochemical parameters. Adiponectin levels were statistically lower in people with severe obesity than in controls. At the end of the HPP, all the people with severe obesity showed a Body Mass Index (BMI) reduction with a statistically significant increase in adiponectin levels. Genotyping, the adiponectin gene demonstrated a significant difference in 3 polymorphisms within the people with severe obesity. Besides, c.11377C>G and c.11391G>A homozygous subjects experienced more advantages by HPP. Furthermore, c.268G>A heterozygous subjects showed an enhancement in lipid profile as well in adiponectin levels. The best predictor of the changes in adiponectin levels was represented by the c.268G>A WT allele. Our study confirmed that a 4-weeks HPP in people with severe obesity results in metabolic amelioration associated with a significant increase of adiponectin levels. Importantly, we found that a specific genetic background in the gene can predispose toward a more significant weight loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11092195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6769478PMC
September 2019

Pulmonary Hypertension and Obesity: Focus on Adiponectin.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Feb 20;20(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Medicine and Health Sciences "Vincenzo Tiberio", University of Molise, Via Francesco De Sanctis, 86100 Campobasso, Italy.

Pulmonary hypertension is an umbrella term including many different disorders causing an increase of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) ≥ 25 mmHg. Recent data revealed a strong association between obesity and pulmonary hypertension. Adiponectin is a protein synthetized by the adipose tissue with pleiotropic effects on inflammation and cell proliferation, with a potential protective role on the pulmonary vasculature. Both in vivo and in vitro studies documented that adiponectin is an endogenous modulator of NO production and interferes with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κβ) signaling preventing endothelial dysfunction and proliferation. Furthermore, adiponectin ameliorates insulin resistance by mediating the biological effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ). Therefore, adiponectin modulation emerged as a theoretical target for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, currently under investigation. Recently, consistent data showed that hypoglycemic agents targeting PPARγ as well as renin⁻angiotensin system inhibitors and mineralocorticoid receptor blockers may influence pulmonary hemodynamics in different models of pulmonary hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6412189PMC
February 2019