Publications by authors named "Aurora D Pryor"

116 Publications

SAGES guidelines for the surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux (GERD).

Surg Endosc 2021 Sep 19;35(9):4903-4917. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is an extremely common condition with several medical and surgical treatment options. A multidisciplinary expert panel was convened to develop evidence-based recommendations to support clinicians, patients, and others in decisions regarding the treatment of GERD with an emphasis on evaluating different surgical techniques.

Methods: Literature reviews were conducted for 4 key questions regarding the surgical treatment of GERD in both adults and children: surgical vs. medical treatment, robotic vs. laparoscopic fundoplication, partial vs. complete fundoplication, and division vs. preservation of short gastric vessels in adults or maximal versus minimal dissection in pediatric patients. Evidence-based recommendations were formulated using the GRADE methodology by subject experts. Recommendations for future research were also proposed.

Results: The panel provided seven recommendations for adults and children with GERD. All recommendations were conditional due to very low, low, or moderate certainty of evidence. The panel conditionally recommended surgical treatment over medical management for adults with chronic or chronic refractory GERD. There was insufficient evidence for the panel to make a recommendation regarding surgical versus medical treatment in children. The panel suggested that once the decision to pursue surgical therapy is made, adults and children with GERD may be treated with either a robotic or a laparoscopic approach, and either partial or complete fundoplication based on surgeon-patient shared decision-making and patient values. In adults, the panel suggested either division or non-division of the short gastric vessels is appropriate, and that children should undergo minimal dissection during fundoplication.

Conclusions: These recommendations should provide guidance with regard to surgical decision-making in the treatment of GERD and highlight the importance of shared decision-making and patient values to optimize patient outcomes. Pursuing the identified research needs may improve future versions of guidelines for the treatment of GERD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08625-5DOI Listing
September 2021

Commentary on 'Crowd-sourced Assessment of Surgical Skill Proficiency in Cataract Surgery'.

J Surg Educ 2021 Jul-Aug;78(4):1089-1090. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Stonybrook University.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2021.03.001DOI Listing
June 2021

The incidence of reintervention and reoperation following Heller myotomy across multiple indications.

Surg Endosc 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Division of Bariatric, Foregut, and Advanced Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Health Sciences Center, T19-053, Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-8191, USA.

Introduction: Achalasia is a debilitating primary esophageal motility disorder. Heller myotomy (HM) is a first-line therapy for the treatment of achalasia patients who have failed other modalities. Other indications for HM include diverticulum, diffuse esophageal spasm, and esophageal strictures. However, long-term outcomes of HM are unclear. This study aims to assess incidence of reintervention, either endoscopically or through minimally invasive or resectional procedures, in patients who underwent HM in New York State.

Methods: The Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) administrative longitudinal database identified 1817 adult patients who underwent HM between 2000 and 2008 for achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, diffuse esophageal spasm, and esophageal strictures, based on ICD-9 and CPT codes. Through the use of unique identifiers, patients requiring reintervention were tracked up to 2016 (for at least 8 years follow-up). Primary outcome was incidence of subsequent procedures following HM. Secondary outcomes were time to reintervention and risk factors for reintervention.

Results: Of the 1817 patients who underwent HM, 320 (17.6%) required subsequent intervention. Of the 320 patients, 234 (73.1%) underwent endoscopic reinterventions, 54 (16.9%) underwent minimally invasive procedures, and 32 (10%) underwent resectional procedures as their initial revisional intervention. Of the 234 patients who underwent endoscopic reintervention as their initial revisional procedure, only 40 (16.8%) required subsequent surgical procedures. Over a mean follow-up of 7.0 years, the mean time to a subsequent procedure was 4.3 ± 3.74 years. Reintervention rates after 10 years following HM for achalasia, diverticulum ,and other indication were 24.4%, 12.6%, and 37%, respectively.

Conclusion: The majority of HM reinterventions were managed solely by endoscopic procedures (60.6%). Heller myotomy remains an excellent procedure to prevent surgical reintervention for achalasia and diverticulum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08357-6DOI Listing
March 2021

International Delphi Expert Consensus on Safe Return to Surgical and Endoscopic Practice: From the Coronavirus Global Surgical Collaborative.

Ann Surg 2021 07;274(1):50-56

Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Departments of Surgery and Medical Education, Springfield, Illinois.

Objective: The aim of this work is to formulate recommendations based on global expert consensus to guide the surgical community on the safe resumption of surgical and endoscopic activities.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused marked disruptions in the delivery of surgical care worldwide. A thoughtful, structured approach to resuming surgical services is necessary as the impact of COVID-19 becomes better controlled. The Coronavirus Global Surgical Collaborative sought to formulate, through rigorous scientific methodology, consensus-based recommendations in collaboration with a multidisciplinary group of international experts and policymakers.

Methods: Recommendations were developed following a Delphi process. Domain topics were formulated and subsequently subdivided into questions pertinent to different aspects of surgical care in the COVID-19 crisis. Forty-four experts from 15 countries across 4 continents drafted statements based on the specific questions. Anonymous Delphi voting on the statements was performed in 2 rounds, as well as in a telepresence meeting.

Results: One hundred statements were formulated across 10 domains. The statements addressed terminology, impact on procedural services, patient/staff safety, managing a backlog of surgeries, methods to restart and sustain surgical services, education, and research. Eighty-three of the statements were approved during the first round of Delphi voting, and 11 during the second round. A final telepresence meeting and discussion yielded acceptance of 5 other statements.

Conclusions: The Delphi process resulted in 99 recommendations. These consensus statements provide expert guidance, based on scientific methodology, for the safe resumption of surgical activities during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189258PMC
July 2021

SAGES guidelines for the use of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for the treatment of achalasia.

Surg Endosc 2021 05 9;35(5):1931-1948. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is increasingly used as primary treatment for esophageal achalasia, in place of the options such as Heller myotomy (HM) and pneumatic dilatation (PD) OBJECTIVE: These evidence-based guidelines from the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) intend to support clinicians, patients and others in decisions about the use of POEM for treatment of achalasia.

Results: The panel agreed on 4 recommendations for adults and children with achalasia.

Conclusions: Strong recommendation for the use of POEM over PD was issued unless the concern of continued postoperative PPI use remains a key decision-making concern to the patient. Conditional recommendations included the option of using either POEM or HM with fundoplication to treat achalasia, and favored POEM over HM for achalasia subtype III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-08282-0DOI Listing
May 2021

The Relationship Between Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting and Early Self-Rated Quality of Life Following Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

J Gastrointest Surg 2021 08 2;25(8):2107-2109. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Division of Bariatric, Foregut, and Advanced Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Health Sciences Center T18-040, Stony Brook Medicine, Renaissance School of Medicine at Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-8191, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-021-04923-4DOI Listing
August 2021

Comparative perioperative and 5-year outcomes of robotic and laparoscopic or open inguinal hernia repair: a study of 153,727 patients in the state of New York.

Surg Endosc 2021 Jan 4. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Surgery, Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Objective: This study aimed to examine the perioperative outcomes of robotic inguinal hernia repair as compared to the open and laparoscopic approaches utilizing large-scale population-level data.

Methods: This study was funded by the SAGES Robotic Surgery Research Grant (2019). The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) administrative database was used to identify all adult patients undergoing initial open (O-IHR), laparoscopic (L-IHR), and robotic (R-IHR) inguinal hernia repair between 2010 and 2016. Perioperative outcome measures [complications, length of stay (LOS), 30-day emergency department (ED) visits, 30-day readmissions] and estimated 1/3/5-year recurrence incidences were compared. Propensity score (PS) analysis was used to estimate marginal differences between R-IHR and L-IHR or O-IHR, using a 1:1 matching algorithm.

Results: During the study period, a total of 153,727 patients underwent inguinal hernia repair (117,603 [76.5%] O-IHR, 35,565 [23.1%] L-IHR; 559 [0.36%] R-IHR) in New York state. Initial univariate analysis found R-IHR to have longer LOS (1.74 days vs. 0.66 O-IHR vs 0.19 L-IHR) and higher rates of overall complications (9.3% vs. 3.6% O-IHR vs 1.1% L-IHR), 30-day ED visits (11.6% vs. 6.1% O-IHR vs. 4.9% L-IHR), and 30-day readmissions (5.6% vs. 2.4% O-IHR vs. 1.2% L-IHR) (p < 0.0001). R-IHR was associated with higher recurrence compared to L-IHR. Following PS analysis, there were no differences in perioperative outcomes between R-IHR and L-IHR, and the difference in recurrence was found to be sensitive to possible unobserved confounding factors. R-IHR had significantly lower risk of complications (Risk difference - 0.09, 95% CI [- 0.13, - 0.056]; p < 0.0001) and shorter LOS (Ratio 0.53, 95% CI [0.45, 0.62]; p < 0.0001) compared to O-IHR.

Conclusion: In adult patients, R-IHR may be associated with comparable to more favorable 30-day perioperative outcomes as compared with L-IHR and O-IHR, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-08211-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Hospitalizations and emergency department visits in heart failure patients after bariatric surgery.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2021 Mar 20;17(3):489-497. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Division of Bariatric, Foregut and Advanced Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York.

Background: Heart failure is a disease with significant healthcare utilization and a prioritized target for readmission prevention. Although obesity is related to heart failure morbidity, the effects of bariatric surgery in obese patients with heart failure are not well studied.

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of bariatric surgery on hospital-based healthcare utilization for patients with heart failure.

Setting: Administrative statewide database.

Methods: The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database was used to identify patients with obesity and heart failure who underwent bariatric surgery from 2005 to 2015. Emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalization records from 1 year presurgery and up to 2 years postsurgery were compared.

Results: Our study identified 899 patients with heart failure who underwent bariatric surgery. In the year presurgery, 11.48% of patients had any ED visit or hospitalization with a primary diagnosis of heart failure. The rate decreased drastically in the first year after surgery, with only 3.70% of patients having any heart failure-related hospital visits. The rate of heart failure-related visits was also lower in the second year postsurgery (3.44%) compared with the year before surgery. The risk of heart failure-related hospital visits was lower in both the first year (odds ratio [OR], .29; 95% confidence interval [CI], .19-.43) and second year postsurgery (OR, .26; 95% CI, .17-.41; P < .0001) than in the year before surgery.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that bariatric interventions might be associated with decreased risks of ED visits or hospitalizations due to heart failure exacerbations in obese patients with preexisting heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2020.11.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Health disparity in access to bariatric surgery.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2021 Feb 16;17(2):249-255. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Division of Bariatric, Foregut and Advanced Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York.

Background: Sociodemographic disparities in terms of access to bariatric surgery are ongoing.

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the trends for bariatric interventions based on patient characteristics from 2011 to 2018 in the state of New York.

Setting: Administrative statewide database.

Methods: This study used the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database to identify all patients with obesity who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) between 2011 and 2018. The trends were studied for the types of bariatric procedures performed across different patient characteristics, including median household income as determined based on ZIP code. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the yearly trends.

Results: We identified 111,793 patients who underwent bariatric surgery. The number of bariatric procedures increased from 9304 in 2011 to 16,946 in 2018. RYGB was the most performed bariatric operation in 2011, but was replaced by SG from 2013 to 2018. Patients living in the highest decile median household income ZIP code areas had the highest increase in SG (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-1.55; P < .0001) and the largest decrease in LAGB (OR, .53; 95% CI, .51-.56; P = .0007).

Conclusions: The use of bariatric surgery increased significantly from 2011 to 2018. However, the disproportionately and substantially increased use of SG and the decreased use of LAGB in patients living in wealthier areas suggest that disparity in the use of bariatric interventions still exists. Public health efforts should be made to equalize access to bariatric surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2020.10.015DOI Listing
February 2021

HbA1C is not directly associated with complications of bariatric surgery.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2021 Feb 14;17(2):271-275. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Division of Bariatric, Foregut and Advanced Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York, United States.

Introduction: Bariatric surgery is effective therapy for weight loss and diabetes control. While patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (T2D) experience significant benefit from bariatric surgery, the impact of hyperglycemia on perioperative risks is unclear.

Objective: This study aims to investigate effect of elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) on perioperative risks for patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB).

Settings: 117,644 patients undergoing RYGB or SG between the years of 2017 and 2018 in the United Stated were analyzed. Data was obtained using the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program (MBSAQIP) database.

Methods: Three commonly used cutoff levels of HbA1C were selected (6.5, 7.0, and 8.5). Complications were compared between groups of patients above and below each HbA1C level. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to account for confounders.

Results: Without risk adjustment, HbA1C is indirectly associated with increased rates of surgical complications. However, after adjusting for underlying co-morbidities, HbA1C is not associated with overall complications, including 30 day readmissions, reoperations, reinterventions, or death at any HbA1C cutoff: 6.5 (odds ratio [OR] 1.041, P value = .219), 7.0 (OR 1.020, P value = .551), or 8.5 (OR 1.051, P value = .208).

Conclusion: There is no direct relationship between HbA1C and early postoperative complications of SG and RYGB. Thus, optimizing preoperative HbA1C values alone, may not translate into decreased surgical complications of bariatric surgery. (Surg Obes Relat Dis 2020;17:271-275.) © 2020 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2020.10.009DOI Listing
February 2021

Bariatric Surgery Lowers the Risk of Major Cardiovascular Events.

Ann Surg 2020 Nov 18. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University Hospital, Stony Brook, New York.

Objective: This study examines the impact of bariatric surgery on the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and a composite of cardiovascular outcomes in a large population cohort. Additionally, the impact of different bariatric surgery procedures on cardiovascular outcomes is assessed and compared.

Summary Background Data: Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve comorbid conditions that are associated with cardiovascular disease and death. Few large studies have examined the impact of bariatric surgery on cardiovascular outcomes, and specifically compared the different bariatric procedures.

Methods: A retrospective, observational, matched-cohort study was conducted in adult patients with obesity in New York state from 2006 to 2012. Patients were stratified into 2 groups, based on utilization of bariatric surgery. Patients were further subgrouped based on the types of primary bariatric surgery. The primary endpoint was the development of specific cardiovascular events - myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke; as well as a composite of both events.

Results: A total of 328,807 patients, including 60,445 who had undergone bariatric surgery, and 268,362 matched nonsurgical controls were the study cohort for comparing surgical and nonsurgical patients. The risk of composite cardiovascular events decreased in the surgical group [hazards ratio (HR) = 0.48, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.45-0.51], as did the risk of MI (HR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.35-0.42), and stroke (HR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.51-0.59). Among the surgical cohort, sleeve gastrectomy patients had a higher risk of developing MI, stroke, and any type of cardiovascular event than gastric bypass patients.

Conclusions: Bariatric surgery is associated with decreased risk of significant cardiovascular events compared to nonsurgical controls. In this exploratory analysis, gastric bypass was associated with a lower risk of all cardiovascular events than sleeve gastrectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004640DOI Listing
November 2020

The Impact of Telemedicine Adoption on a Multidisciplinary Bariatric Surgery Practice During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Ann Surg 2020 12;272(6):e306-e310

Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University Hospital, Stony Brook, NY.

Objective: This study aims to show how full-time telemedicine adoption has impacted patient visit volume and attendance in a comprehensive metabolic and weight loss center.

Summary Background Data: Elective surgical practices have been profoundly impacted by the global COVID-19 pandemic, leading to a rapid increase in the utilization of telemedicine. The abrupt initiation of audio-video telehealth visits for all providers of a multidisciplinary clinic on March 19 2020 provided unique circumstances to assess the impact of telemedicine.

Methods: Data from the clinical booking system (new patient and follow-up visits) for all clinical provider types of the multidisciplinary metabolic center from the pre-telehealth, post-telehealth, and a 2019 comparative period were retrospectively reviewed and compared. The primary outcome is the change in patient visit volume for all clinical providers from before to after the initiation of telemedicine for both new patient, and follow-up visits.

Results: There were a total of 506 visits (162 new patient visits, and 344 follow-ups) in the pre-telehealth period, versus 413 visits (77 new patient visits, and 336 follow-ups) during the post-telehealth period. After telehealth implementation, new visits for surgeons decreased by 75%. Although follow-up visits decreased by 55.06% for surgeons, there was an increase by 27.36% for advanced practitioners. When surgeons were separated from other practitioners, their follow-up visit rate decrease by 55.06%, compared to a 16.08% increase for the group of all other practitioners (P < 0.0001). Dietitians experienced higher rates of absenteeism with new patient visits (10.00% vs 31.42%, P = 0.0128), whereas bariatricians experienced a decrease in follow-up visit absenteeism (33.33% vs 0%, P = 0.0093).

Conclusions: Although new patient visit volume fell across the board, follow-up visits increased for certain nonsurgical providers. This provides a template for adoption of a multidisciplinary telehealth clinic in a post-pandemic world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7668342PMC
December 2020

Postural Stability in Obese Preoperative Bariatric Patients Using Static and Dynamic Evaluation.

Obes Facts 2020 20;13(5):499-513. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA,

Introduction: Globally, 300 million adults have clinical obesity. Heightened adiposity and inadequate musculature secondary to obesity alter bipedal stance and gait, diminish musculoskeletal tissue quality, and compromise neuromuscular feedback; these physiological changes alter stability and increase injury risk from falls. Studies in the field focus on obese patients across a broad range of body mass indices (BMI >30 kg/m2) but without isolating the most morbidly obese subset (BMI ≥40 kg/m2). We investigated the impact of obesity in perturbing postural stability in morbidly obese subjects elected for bariatric intervention, harboring a higher-spectrum BMI.

Subjects And Methods: Traditional force plate measurements and stabilograms are gold standards employed when measuring center of pressure (COP) and postural sway. To quantify the extent of postural instability in subjects with obesity before bariatric surgery, we assessed 17 obese subjects with an average BMI of 40 kg/m2 in contrast to 13 nonobese subjects with an average BMI of 30 kg/m2. COP and postural sway were measured from static and dynamic tasks. Involuntary movements were measured when patients performed static stances, with eyes either opened or closed. Two additional voluntary movements were measured when subjects performed dynamic, upper torso tasks with eyes opened.

Results: Mean body weight was 85% (p < 0.001) greater in obese than nonobese subjects. Following static balance assessments, we observed greater sway displacement in the anteroposterior (AP) direction in obese subjects with eyes open (87%, p < 0.002) and eyes closed (76%, p = 0.04) versus nonobese subjects. Obese subjects also exhibited a higher COP velocity in static tests when subjects' eyes were open (47%, p = 0.04). Dynamic tests demonstrated no differences between groups in sway displacement in either direction; however, COP velocity in the mediolateral (ML) direction was reduced (31%, p < 0.02) in obese subjects while voluntarily swaying in the AP direction, but increased in the same cohort when swaying in the ML direction (40%, p < 0.04).

Discussion And Conclusion: Importantly, these data highlight obesity's contribution towards increased postural instability. Obese subjects exhibited greater COP displacement at higher AP velocities versus nonobese subjects, suggesting that clinically obese individuals show greater instability than nonobese subjects. Identifying factors contributory to instability could encourage patient-specific physical therapies and presurgical measures to mitigate instability and monitor postsurgical balance improvements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7670358PMC
April 2021

Pregnant patients requiring appendectomy: comparison between open and laparoscopic approaches in NY State.

Surg Endosc 2021 Aug 14;35(8):4681-4690. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Division of Bariatric, Foregut and Advanced Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Introduction: Even though acute appendicitis is the most common general surgical condition encountered during pregnancy, the preferred approach to appendectomy in pregnant patients remains controversial. Current guidelines support laparoscopic appendectomy as the treatment of choice for pregnant women with appendicitis, regardless of trimester. However, recent published data suggests that the laparoscopic approach contributes to higher rates of fetal demise. Our study aims to compare laparoscopic and open appendectomy in pregnancy at a statewide population level.

Methods: ICD-9 codes were used to extract 1006 pregnant patients undergoing appendectomy between 2005 and 2014 from the NY Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database. Surgical outcomes (any complications, 30-day readmission rate, length of stay (LOS)) and obstetrical outcomes (antepartum hemorrhage, preterm delivery, cesarean section, sepsis, chorioamnionitis) were compared between open and laparoscopic appendectomy. Multivariable generalized linear regression models were used to compare different outcomes between two surgical approaches after adjusting for possible confounders.

Results: The laparoscopic cohort (n = 547, 54.4%) had significantly shorter LOS than the open group (median ± IQR: 2.00 ± 2.00 days versus 3.00 ± 2.00 days, p value < 0.0001, ratio = 0.789, 95% CI 0.727-0.856). Patients with complicated appendicitis had longer LOS than those with simple appendicitis (p value < 0.0001, ratio = 1.660, 95% CI 1.501-1.835). Obstetrical outcomes (p value = 0.097, OR 1.254, 95% CI 0.961-1.638), 30-day non-delivery readmission (p value = 0.762, OR 1.117, 95% CI 0.538-2.319), and any complications (p value = 0.753, OR 0.924, 95% CI 0.564-1.517) were not statistically significant between the laparoscopic versus open appendectomy groups. Three cases of fetal demise occurred, all within the laparoscopic appendectomy group.

Conclusions: The laparoscopic approach resulted in a shorter LOS. Although fetal demise only occurred in the laparoscopic group, these results were not significant (p value = 0.255). Our large population-based study further supports current guidelines that laparoscopic appendectomy may offer benefits over open surgery for pregnant patients in any trimester due to reduced time in the hospital and fetal and maternal outcomes comparable to open appendectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07911-yDOI Listing
August 2021

Bone mineral density changes after bariatric surgery.

Surg Endosc 2021 Aug 9;35(8):4763-4770. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Division of Bariatric, Foregut, and Advanced Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Health Sciences Center, T19-053, Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-8191, USA.

Introduction: Although bariatric surgery is associated with multiple health benefits, decreased bone mass is a known complication of the procedure. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is associated with significant bone loss and increased fracture risk. However, data on the effect of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on bone mineral changes are sparse. The impact of vitamin D and calcium levels on bone mineral density (BMD) after SG is also unknown.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed to include patients who underwent RYGB or SG from 2014 to 2016 at a single institution. Patients were included if bone densitometry was performed preoperatively and within 2 years postoperatively. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and calcium levels were collected preoperatively and at time of bone densitometry scan. BMD and T-score changes at the femoral neck, femoral trochanter, total hip, and lumbar spine were compared between RYGB and SG patients.

Results: A total of 40 patients were included. 24 (60%) of patients underwent RYGB and 16 (40%) patients underwent SG. No statistically significant difference in baseline characteristics was noted between RYGB and SG patients. All measurements, except for serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, were significantly decreased in RYGB patients, postoperatively. All measurements, except for BMD and T-score at the lumbar spine and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, were significantly decreased in SG patients, postoperatively. The extent of decrease in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was significantly associated with decreased BMD (p = 0.049) and T-score (p = 0.032) at the lumbar spine. The extent of decrease in serum calcium was significantly associated with decreased BMD (p = 0.046) at the femoral neck.

Conclusion: All patients were found to have decreased BMD after RYGB and SG. Surgery type was not a significant risk factor in BMD change. Despite vitamin D and calcium supplementation in all patients, a decrease in vitamin D and calcium levels were associated with a decrease in BMD. Close follow-up and treatment of vitamin D and calcium levels are warranted in all bariatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07953-2DOI Listing
August 2021

Considering delay of cholecystectomy in the third trimester of pregnancy.

Surg Endosc 2021 Aug 1;35(8):4673-4680. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Division of Bariatric, Foregut, and Advanced Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Introduction: Current guidelines support laparoscopic cholecystectomy as the treatment of choice for pregnant women with symptomatic gallbladder disease, regardless of the trimester. Early intervention has remained the standard of care, but recent evidence has challenged this practice in pregnant women. We sought to compare surgical and maternal-fetal outcomes of antepartum versus postpartum cholecystectomy in New York State.

Methods: Between 2005 and 2014, the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database was queried for patients who underwent cholecystectomy within 3 months before (antepartum cholecystectomy, APCCY: n = 82) and after (postpartum cholecystectomy, PPCCY: n = 5040) childbirth to approximate third-trimester operations. All patients who underwent cholecystectomy during pregnancy (n = 971) were extracted to evaluate inter-trimester differences. Subgroup analysis compared APCCY patients who were not hospitalized within 1 year before APCCY (n = 80) and PPCCY patients who were hospitalized within 1 year before childbirth (n = 29) for symptomatic biliary disease. Multivariable generalized linear regression models were used to characterize the association between timing of cholecystectomy and several primary outcomes: length of stay (LOS), 30-day non-pregnancy, non-delivery readmission (NPND), bile duct injury (BDI), composite maternal outcome (antepartum hemorrhage, preterm delivery, cesarean section), any complications, and fetal demise.

Results: Third-trimester APCCY women had longer LOS (Ratio: 1.44, 95% CI [1.26-1.66], p < 0.0001) and greater incidence of preterm delivery (OR 2.54, 95% CI [1.37-4.43], p = 0.0019). Cholecystectomy timing was not independently associated with differences in composite maternal outcome (p = 0.1480), BDI (p = 0.2578), 30-day NPND readmission (p = 0.7579), any complications (p = 0.2506), and fetal demise (2.44% versus 0.44%, p = 0.0545). Subgroup analysis revealed no differences in any of the seven outcomes.

Conclusions: New York Statewide data suggest that although laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe in pregnancy, delay of cholecystectomy should be discussed in the third trimester due to an increased risk for preterm delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07910-zDOI Listing
August 2021

The risk of female-specific cancer after bariatric surgery in the state of New York.

Surg Endosc 2021 Aug 26;35(8):4267-4274. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Division of Bariatric, Foregut and Advanced Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Background: Obesity is a known risk factor for many cancers. Although bariatric surgery has been associated with a decrease in the risk of developing cancer, data on the effect of bariatric surgery on female-specific cancers are limited. This study aimed to assess the impact of bariatric interventions on the development of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer.

Methods: The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database was used to identify all female patients without a pre-existing cancer diagnosis who had a diagnosis of obesity between 2006 and 2012. The risk of having female-specific cancer diagnosis in patients who underwent bariatric surgery were compared with those who had no bariatric interventions using multivariable proportional sub-distribution hazard regression analysis. Subsequent cancer diagnoses were followed up to 2016.

Results: We identified 55,781 and 247,102 obese female patients who had and did not have bariatric surgery, respectively. The overall incidence of female-specific cancer was 2.69% and 2.09% for the non-surgery and surgery groups, respectively (p < 0.0001). Surgery patients were less likely to develop female-specific cancers [hazard ratio (HR) 0.78; 95% CI 0.73-0.83; p < 0.0001]. Patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass had a lower risk of developing female-specific cancer than laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.51-0.87; p = 0.0056) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.69-0.99; p = 0.0056) patients.

Conclusions: Patients undergoing bariatric surgery have a lower incidence of endometrial, female breast and ovarian cancer than non-surgery obese patients. These data suggest that bariatric interventions may reduce the risk of female-specific cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07915-8DOI Listing
August 2021

Trends in the utilization and perioperative outcomes of primary robotic bariatric surgery from 2015 to 2018: a study of 46,764 patients from the MBSAQIP data registry.

Surg Endosc 2021 07 31;35(7):3915-3922. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Division of Bariatric, Foregut, and Advanced Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Background: Utilization of robotic surgery has increased over time. Outcomes in bariatric surgery have been variable. This study used the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation Quality and Improvement Program (MBSAQIP) dataset to compare nationwide trends in utilization and outcomes improvement for robotic and laparoscopic bariatric surgery over a four-year period.

Methods: We identified all adult patients who underwent robotic or laparoscopic primary sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) from 2015 to 2018. Those with previous bariatric/foregut surgery or open conversion were excluded. Trends in clinical outcomes of different surgery types over years were compared through multivariable regression models. Subgroup analysis was performed for patients in 2018, comparing outcomes among different surgery types.

Results: A total of 571,417 patients underwent bariatric surgery, of which 46,764 (8.2%) were performed robotically. Utilization of the robotic platform increased annually, from 6.7% in 2015 to 10.3% in 2018 (p < 0.0001). The majority of patients underwent SG (n = 33,891, 72.5%). Perioperative outcomes improved over time for both robotic and laparoscopic procedures. Improvement was more pronounced in the robotic cohort for extended length of stay (OR 0.76 vs 0.8, p < 0.0001) and operative time (OR 0.98 vs 0.99, p < 0.0001). In the 2018 subgroup, multivariable analysis found laparoscopic RYGB was associated with increased bleeding (OR 2.220, p = 0.0004), overall complications (OR 1.356, p = 0.0013), and extended LOS (OR 1.178, p < 0.0001) compared to robotic surgery. Laparoscopic SG was associated with decreased anastomotic/staple line leak (OR 0.718, p = 0.0321), 30-d readmission (OR 0.826, p = 0.0005), 30-d reintervention (OR 0.723, p = 0.0014), overall event (OR 0.862, p = 0.0009), and extended LOS (OR 0.950, p = 0.0113). Across the board, laparoscopic surgery was associated with decreased operative time (Adjusted Ratio = 0.704, p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Robotic utilization for bariatric surgery is increasing and outcomes continue to improve with time. There is a differential impact of the robotic approach on SG and RYGB, which requires further assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07839-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Development of cancer after bariatric surgery.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2020 Oct 27;16(10):1586-1595. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Division of Bariatric, Foregut and Advanced Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York.

Background: Although bariatric surgery has been associated with a reduction in risk of obesity-related cancer, data on the effect of bariatric interventions on other cancers are limited.

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the relationship between bariatric interventions and the incidence of various cancers after bariatric surgery.

Setting: Administrative statewide database.

Methods: The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database was used to identify all adult patients diagnosed with obesity between 2006 and 2012 and patients who underwent bariatric procedures without preexisting cancer diagnosis and alcohol or tobacco use. Subsequent cancer diagnoses were captured up to 2016. Multivariable proportional subdistribution hazard regression analysis was performed to compare the risk of having cancer among obese patients with and without bariatric interventions.

Results: We identified 71,000 patients who underwent bariatric surgery and 323,197 patients without a bariatric intervention. Patients undergoing bariatric surgery were less likely to develop both obesity-related cancer (hazard ratio.91; 95% confidence interval, .85-.98; P = .013) and other cancers (hazard ratio .81; 95% confidence interval, .74-.89; P < .0001). Patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass had a lower risk of developing cancers that are considered nonobesity related (hazard ratio .59; 95% confidence interval, .42-.83; P = .0029) compared with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

Conclusions: Bariatric surgery is associated with a decreased risk of obesity-related cancers. More significantly, we demonstrated the relationship between bariatric surgery and the reduction of the risk of some previously designated nonobesity-related cancers, as well. Reclassification of nonobesity-related cancers and expansion of bariatric indications for reducing the risk of cancer may be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2020.06.026DOI Listing
October 2020

Incidence of GERD, esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma after bariatric surgery.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2020 Nov 17;16(11):1828-1836. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York. Electronic address:

Background: Some bariatric procedures have been associated with increased gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms; however, there are limited data on the long-term changes to the esophagus across bariatric procedures, and how preoperative esophageal disease is impacted by bariatric surgery.

Objectives: To estimate incidence of GERD, esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma before and after bariatric surgery and to identify potential risk factors for these conditions.

Setting: Retrospective analysis of New York State Database (SPARCS).

Methods: Adult patients undergoing bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, adjustable gastric banding, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion) from 1995 to 2010. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association between preoperative diagnosis, surgery type, and postoperative diagnosis.

Results: A total of 48,967 records were analyzed; 30.3% had a diagnosis of GERD at the time of surgery and .4% had a diagnosis of esophagitis and Barrett's. Preoperative GERD/esophagitis/Barrett's was associated with higher risk of GERD, esophagitis, and Barrett's, but not esophageal adenocarcinoma, postoperatively. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients had lowest risk of being diagnosed with GERD postoperatively. Overall, esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence in the sample was .04%; the rate among patients with preoperative GERD and Barrett's was .1% and .9%, respectively. Incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma did not differ by bariatric surgery type.

Conclusions: Preoperative diagnosis is a risk factor for postoperative esophageal disease after bariatric surgery. Adjustable gastric banding and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy are associated with higher risk of postoperative GERD and esophagitis compared with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma did not differ by surgery type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2020.06.016DOI Listing
November 2020

Per oral pyloromyotomy utilizing a lesser curvature approach: how we do it.

Surg Endosc 2020 11 14;34(11):5168-5171. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University Hospital, Stony Brook, USA.

Background: The treatment of gastroparesis refractory to medical therapy has evolved to include purely endoscopic techniques. Per oral pyloromyotomy (POP) has evolved from traditional laparoscopic or open pyloroplasty to become a safe and effective minimally invasive option for patients with gastroparesis. As compared to laparoscopic pyloroplasty (LP), POP produces similar improvements in gastric emptying and symptom mitigation, while having shorter lengths of stay. There are slight variations in technique that vary by institution. Described here is a technique utilizing a lesser curve approach, with a mucosotomy closure using clips in an effort to maximize efficiency of the procedure.

Methods: Preoperative workup includes a scintigraphic gastric emptying study or a wireless motility capsule study, and the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI). After an upper endoscopy, the procedure begins with injection into the submucosal space with methylene blue in saline on the lesser curve, 3-5 cm proximal to the pylorus. A 1.5 cm incision is then made with the ERBE hybrid knife. A submucosal tunnel is created past the distal end of the pylorus, and the muscle is hooked, and divided with the hybrid knife. The mucosotomy is closed with clips (Boston Scientific Resolution 360, Boston, MA) after the completion of the myotomy. Post-operatively, patients are discharged home after an overnight stay with a proton pump inhibitor, sucralfate, and a full liquid diet for 2 weeks.

Conclusions: A lesser curve approach with mucosotomy closure using clips is a safe, effective, and efficient modality for performing POP. As more centers adopt POP as a tool for gastroparesis management, the lesser curve method limits the length of the submucosal tunnel needed, and allows for wide adoption of the technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07802-2DOI Listing
November 2020

Clinical course of patients presenting to the emergency department with small bowel obstruction in New York State.

Surg Endosc 2021 06 6;35(6):3040-3046. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Division of Bariatric, Foregut and Advanced Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Introduction: Small Bowel Obstruction (SBO) is a common reason for emergency department (ED) visits in the United States. However, little is known regarding the clinical course of these patients. This study aims to identify all patients presenting to the ED in New York State with SBO and follow their clinical course.

Methods: The New York SPARCS administrative database was used to identify all patients who presented to an ED with the diagnosis of SBO from 2012 to 2014. Patients were followed to identify discharges from the ED, admissions, operations, 30-day readmissions, transfers, and in-hospital death.

Results: Between 2012 and 2014, 43,567 ED visits (events) from 35,646 patients were identified, with 2824 (6.5%) resulting in direct discharge from the ED. A majority (n = 31,193; 71.6%) of ED visits were admitted to the presenting institution without surgery, while 7673 (17.6%) were admitted and underwent surgery. A minority (n = 1947; 4.5%) were transferred to a tertiary center. The overall 30-day readmission rate was 17.9%. Those who underwent surgery were more likely to experience in-hospital death but less likely to have 30-day readmission.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study that examines the disposition of all patients presenting to the ED with SBO in a large statewide cohort. The majority of admitted patients underwent non-operative management, with overall low rates of readmission, transfer, and in-hospital death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07754-7DOI Listing
June 2021

A Step in the Right Direction: Trends over Time in Bariatric Procedures for Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

Obes Surg 2020 Nov 20;30(11):4243-4249. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Division of Bariatric, Foregut, and Advanced Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Renaissance School of Medicine, Health Sciences Center T18-040, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-8191, USA.

Introduction: While laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has recently emerged as the predominant surgery type for the national bariatric cohort, the literature suggests that laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) may be more effective in normalizing gastroesophageal physiology for the subset of patients with GERD. This study explored practice patterns over time for patients with GERD or hiatal hernia, a related comorbidity, undergoing bariatric surgery.

Methods: Data for LSG and LRYGB were extracted from the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program (MBSAQIP) datasets for 2015-2018. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the effects of pre-existing GERD or concomitant hiatal hernia repair on surgery type.

Results: A total of 130,772 patients underwent LRYGB (30.5%) or LSG (69.5%) in 2015, which increased year-to-year to 161,275 patients in 2018 (74.61% LSG). A total of 38.4% LRYGB patients had pre-existing GERD vs. 27.55% LSG patients. Patients with pre-existing GERD were increasingly likely to undergo LRYGB vs. those without GERD (OR 1.205 [95% CI 1.17-1.24] in 2015 vs. OR 1.510 [95% CI 1.47-1.55] in 2018, p < 0.0001 across years). Concomitant hiatal hernia repair was less common among LRYGB patients across all years (OR 0.413 [95% CI 0.4-0.43] for 2015; OR 0.381 [95% CI 0.37-0.4] for 2016; OR 0.403 [95% CI 0.39-0.42] for 2017, OR 0.464 [95% CI 0.45-0.48] for 2018, p < 0.0001).

Discussion: Bariatric patients with pre-existing GERD are increasingly likely to undergo LRYGB, consistent with the literature. LSG is presently more common in the overall cohort and among those undergoing concomitant hiatal hernia repair. Despite the growing recognition of GERD in bariatric patients, a significant discrepancy persists in hiatal hernia management per bariatric procedure type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04776-xDOI Listing
November 2020

Bariatric Surgery Decreases the Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease to Cirrhosis.

Ann Surg 2020 07;272(1):40-41

Division of Bariatric, Foregut, and Advanced Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003937DOI Listing
July 2020

SAGES primer for taking care of yourself during and after the COVID-19 crisis.

Surg Endosc 2020 07 20;34(7):2856-2862. Epub 2020 May 20.

Miami Cancer Institute At Baptist Health, Miami, FL, USA.

COVID-19 is a pandemic which has affected almost every aspect of our life since starting globally in November 2019. Given the rapidity of spread and inadequate time to prepare for record numbers of sick patients, our surgical community faces an unforeseen challenge. SAGES is committed to the protection and care of patients, their surgeons and staff, and all who are served by the medical community at large. This includes physical health, mental health, and well-being of all involved. The fear of the unknown ahead can be paralyzing. International news media have chronicled the unthinkable situations that physicians and other health care providers have been thrust into as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. These situations include making life or death decisions for patients and their families regarding use of limited health care resources. It includes caring for patients with quickly deteriorating conditions and limited treatments available. Until recently, these situations seemed far from home, and now they are in our own hospitals. As the pandemic broadened its reach, the reality that we as surgeons may be joining the front line is real. It may be happening to you now; it may be on the horizon in the coming weeks. In this context, SAGES put together this document addressing concerns on clinician stressors in these times of uncertainty. We chose to focus on the emotional toll of the situation on the clinician, protecting vulnerable persons, reckoning with social isolation, and promoting wellness during this crisis. At the same time, the last part of this document deals with the "light at the end of the tunnel," discussing potential opportunities, lessons learned, and the positives that can come out of this crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07631-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238959PMC
July 2020

Antiemetic Prophylaxis and Anesthetic Approaches to Reduce Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Bariatric Surgery Patients: a Systematic Review.

Obes Surg 2020 Aug;30(8):3188-3200

Division of Bariatric, Foregut, and Advanced Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Renaissance School of Medicine at Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-8191, USA.

While guidelines exist for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in the general surgical setting, there are no established guidelines for the prevention or treatment of PONV in bariatric patients, in whom PONV contributes significantly to perioperative morbidity and hospital resource utilization. This systematic review found that the multimodal pharmacological approach to PONV prevention recommended in current guidelines for high-risk surgical patients is appropriate for the bariatric subset. This includes multi-agent antiemetic prophylaxis with dexamethasone and one or more agents from other classes, and opioid-free total intravenous anesthesia, though the advantages of the latter need further evaluation. There remains a need for a standardized validated instrument to assess PONV in the bariatric setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04683-1DOI Listing
August 2020

SAGES Video-Based Assessment (VBA) program: a vision for life-long learning for surgeons.

Surg Endosc 2020 08 15;34(8):3285-3288. Epub 2020 May 15.

The Department of Surgery at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07628-yDOI Listing
August 2020
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