Publications by authors named "Aurélie Ruet"

40 Publications

Comparison of Simoa and Ella to assess serum neurofilament-light chain in multiple sclerosis.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology, CHU Nîmes, Univ Montpellier, Nîmes, France.

We compared Simoa and Ella immunoassays to assess serum neurofilament-light chain levels in 203 multiple sclerosis patients from the OFSEP HD study. There was a strong correlation (ρ = 0.86, p < 0.0001) between both platforms. The Ella instrument overestimated values by 17%, but as the data were linear (p = 0.57), it was possible to apply a correction factor to Ella results. As for Simoa , serum neurofilament-light chain levels measured by Ella were correlated with age and EDSS and were significantly higher in active multiple sclerosis, suggesting that these assays are equivalent and can be used in routine clinical practice.
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April 2021

The long-term outcome of MOGAD: An observational national cohort study of 61 patients.

Eur J Neurol 2021 May 19;28(5):1659-1664. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Neurology, Centre de référence des maladies inflammatoires rares du cerveau et de la moelle (MIRCEM), AP-HP, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Background And Objective: The prognosis in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) is a matter of debate. Our aim was to assess the long-term outcomes of patients with MOGAD.

Methods: We retrospectively analysed the clinical and paraclinical data of patients from the French nationwide observatory study NOMADMUS who tested positive for MOG antibodies (MOG-IgG) and who had clinical follow-up of at least 8 years from their first episode.

Results: Sixty-one patients (median [range] age at onset 27 [3-69] years), with a median (mean; range) follow-up of 177 (212.8; 98-657) months, were included. Among 58 patients with a relapsing course, 26.3% relapsed in the first year after onset. Of the 61 patients, 90.2% experienced at least one episode of optic neuritis. At last visit, the median (mean; range) Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score was 1 (2.12; 0-7.5), 12.5% had an EDSS score ≥6 and 37.5% had an EDSS score ≥3. Of 51 patients with final visual acuity (VA) data available, 15.7% had VA ≤0.1 in at least one eye and 25.5% had VA ≤0.5 in at least one eye. Bilateral blindness (VA ≤0.1) was present in 5.9% of patients. Finally, 12.5% of patients presented bladder dysfunction requiring long-term urinary catheterization. No factor associated significantly with a final EDSS score ≥3 or with final VA ≤0.1 was found.

Conclusion: Overall long-term favourable outcomes were achieved in a majority of our patients, but severe impairment, in particular visual damage, was not uncommon.
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May 2021

Determinants of therapeutic lag in multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2021 Jan 11:1352458520981300. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

CORe, Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia/Melbourne MS Centre, Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: A delayed onset of treatment effect, termed therapeutic lag, may influence the assessment of treatment response in some patient subgroups.

Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore the associations of patient and disease characteristics with therapeutic lag on relapses and disability accumulation.

Methods: Data from MSBase, a multinational multiple sclerosis (MS) registry, and OFSEP, the French MS registry, were used. Patients diagnosed with MS, minimum 1 year of exposure to MS treatment and 3 years of pre-treatment follow-up, were included in the analysis. Studied outcomes were incidence of relapses and disability accumulation. Therapeutic lag was calculated using an objective, validated method in subgroups stratified by patient and disease characteristics. Therapeutic lag under specific circumstances was then estimated in subgroups defined by combinations of clinical and demographic determinants.

Results: High baseline disability scores, annualised relapse rate (ARR) ⩾ 1 and male sex were associated with longer therapeutic lag on disability progression in sufficiently populated groups: females with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) < 6 and ARR < 1 had mean lag of 26.6 weeks (95% CI = 18.2-34.9), males with EDSS < 6 and ARR < 1 31.0 weeks (95% CI = 25.3-36.8), females with EDSS < 6 and ARR ⩾ 1 44.8 weeks (95% CI = 24.5-65.1), and females with EDSS ⩾ 6 and ARR < 1 54.3 weeks (95% CI = 47.2-61.5).

Conclusions: Pre-treatment EDSS and ARR are the most important determinants of therapeutic lag.
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January 2021

Validation of the French version of the minimal assessment of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis (MACFIMS).

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Feb 17;48:102692. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

CHU de Bordeaux, F-33000 Bordeaux, France; Inserm U1215 - Neurocentre Magendie, F-33000 Bordeaux, France; Univ. Bordeaux, F-33076 Bordeaux, France.

Background: The Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple sclerosis (MACFIMS) is an internationally recognised battery of neuropsychological tests for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).

Objectives: To establish regression-based norms for the MACFIMS in French-speaking healthy subjects (HS) and validate its use in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS).

Methods: 136 PwMS, including 43 with relapsing-remitting MS, 46 with secondary progressive MS and 45 with primary progressive MS, as well as 276 HS were enrolled. Regression-based norms and validity were established for the seven tests of the MACIMS: the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), the French learning test (FLT) a French-adapted memory test (or the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) at re-testing), the Judgment of Line Orientation Test (JLO), the 'épreuve de classement de cartes de Champagne' (ECCC), a French adaptation of the DKEF-sorting test, the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test (BVMT-R) and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT).

Results: Regression-based norms of MACFIMS tests were established in the HS population. The MACFIMS battery was able to identify cognitive impairment (CI) (at least two abnormal tests in different domains) in 32.7% of PwMS. The domains with more frequent impairment were (in descending order): learning followed by IPS, delayed memory, verbal fluency and working memory.

Conclusion: This study established the regression-based norms for French subjects of the French adaptation of the MACFIMS and its validity in PwMS.
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February 2021

Structural constraints of functional connectivity drive cognitive impairment in the early stages of multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2021 Apr 7;27(4):559-567. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; Inserm U1215 - Neurocentre Magendie, Bordeaux, France; CHU Pellegrin Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Background: The relationship between structural and functional deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS) is unclear.

Objective: This study explored structure-function relationships during the 5 years following a clinically isolated syndrome and their role in cognitive performance.

Methods: Thirty-two patients were enrolled after their first neurological episode suggestive of MS and followed for 5 years, along with 10 matched healthy controls. We assessed structural (using diffusion tensor imaging) and functional (using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)) brain network metrics, clinical and cognitive scores at each follow-up visit. Structural-functional coupling, calculated as the correlation coefficient between strengths of structural and functional networks, was used to assess structure-function relationships.

Results: Structural clustering coefficient was significantly increased after 5 years, whereas characteristic path length decreased. Structural connections decreased after 1 year and increased after 5 years. Functional connections and related path lengths were decreased after 5 years. Structural-functional coupling had increased significantly after 5 years. This structural-functional coupling was associated with cognitive and clinical evolution, with stronger coupling associated with a decline in both domains.

Conclusion: Our findings provide novel biological evidence that MS leads to a more constrained anatomical-dependant functional connectivity. The collapse of this network seems to lead to both cognitive worsening and clinical disability.
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April 2021

BEST-MS: A prospective head-to-head comparative study of natalizumab and fingolimod in active relapsing MS.

Mult Scler 2020 Oct 30:1352458520969145. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Service de Neurologie, CRCSEP, Unité de Recherche Clinique Cote d'Azur (UR2CA), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pasteur 2, Nice, France.

Background: There are few head-to-head studies to compare highly active treatments in multiple sclerosis (MS).

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness between natalizumab (NTZ) and fingolimod (FTY) in active relapsing-remitting MS.

Method: Best Escalation STrategy in Multiple Sclerosis (BEST-MS) is a multicentric, prospective study with a 12-month follow-up including patients with active MS. Treatment choice was at the discretion of physician. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were collected at baseline and at 12 months. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients reaching no evidence of disease activity (NEDA) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included annualized relapse rate and MRI activity.

Results: A total of 223 patients were included (NTZ: 109 and FTY: 114). Treatment groups were well balanced at baseline. Proportion of NEDA patients was 47.8% in NTZ group versus 30.4% in FTY group ( = 0.015). This superiority was driven by annualized relapse rate and MRI activity. In the multivariate analysis, treatment group was the only factor associated with NEDA at 12 months with a lower probability in FTY group (odds ratio (OR) = 0.49,  = 0.029).

Conclusion: BEST-MS is a prospective study that compared head-to-head the effectiveness of NTZ and FTY in active relapsing-remitting MS. Our results suggest a superiority of NTZ over FTY.
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October 2020

Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Multiple Sclerosis.

JAMA Neurol 2020 09;77(9):1079-1088

Service de Neurologie, Clinical Investigation Center Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale 1434, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Importance: Risk factors associated with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are unknown. Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) may modify the risk of developing a severe COVID-19 infection, beside identified risk factors such as age and comorbidities.

Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with MS and COVID-19 and identify factors associated with COVID-19 severity.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Covisep registry is a multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study conducted in MS expert centers and general hospitals and with neurologists collaborating with MS expert centers and members of the Société Francophone de la Sclérose en Plaques. The study included patients with MS presenting with a confirmed or highly suspected diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and May 21, 2020.

Exposures: COVID-19 diagnosed with a polymerase chain reaction test on a nasopharyngeal swab, thoracic computed tomography, or typical symptoms.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The main outcome was COVID-19 severity assessed on a 7-point ordinal scale (ranging from 1 [not hospitalized with no limitations on activities] to 7 [death]) with a cutoff at 3 (hospitalized and not requiring supplemental oxygen). We collected demographics, neurological history, Expanded Disability Severity Scale score (EDSS; ranging from 0 to 10, with cutoffs at 3 and 6), comorbidities, COVID-19 characteristics, and outcomes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of collected variables with COVID-19 outcomes.

Results: A total of 347 patients (mean [SD] age, 44.6 [12.8] years, 249 women; mean [SD] disease duration, 13.5 [10.0] years) were analyzed. Seventy-three patients (21.0%) had a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more, and 12 patients (3.5%) died of COVID-19. The median EDSS was 2.0 (range, 0-9.5), and 284 patients (81.8%) were receiving DMT. There was a higher proportion of patients with a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more among patients with no DMT relative to patients receiving DMTs (46.0% vs 15.5%; P < .001). Multivariate logistic regression models determined that age (odds ratio per 10 years: 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4-2.5]), EDSS (OR for EDSS ≥6, 6.3 [95% CI. 2.8-14.4]), and obesity (OR, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.0-8.7]) were independent risk factors for a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more (indicating hospitalization or higher severity). The EDSS was associated with the highest variability of COVID-19 severe outcome (R2, 0.2), followed by age (R2, 0.06) and obesity (R2, 0.01).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this registry-based cohort study of patients with MS, age, EDSS, and obesity were independent risk factors for severe COVID-19; there was no association found between DMTs exposure and COVID-19 severity. The identification of these risk factors should provide the rationale for an individual strategy regarding clinical management of patients with MS during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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September 2020

Double-blind, randomized controlled trial of therapeutic plasma exchanges vs sham exchanges in moderate-to-severe relapses of multiple sclerosis.

J Clin Apher 2020 Aug 5;35(4):281-289. Epub 2020 May 5.

CHU de Bordeaux, Service de Neurologie, Bordeaux, France.

Introduction: No randomized controlled clinical trial of therapeutic plasma exchanges (TPE) has yet been performed for moderate-to-severe relapses of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Objective: To compare TPE to sham-TPE in patients with a recent steroid-resistant moderate-to-severe MS relapse.

Methods: Patients presenting with an MS relapse of less than 2 months without improvement and 15 days after a course of steroids were randomized. Specific criteria were used for each relapse type to define moderate-to-severe disability. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with at least a moderate improvement based on objective and functional evaluation after 1 month.

Results: Thirty-eight patients were randomized. The intention-to-treat analysis included 14 patients in the TPE group and 17 in the Sham-TPE group. The proportion of patients with at least moderate improvement at 1 month did not differ between the groups (P = .72), although 57.1% of the TPE group had full recovery compared with 17.6% of the sham group. Considering optic neuritis (ON), a significant difference in the proportion of different levels of improvement was observed in favor of the TPE group (P = .04). The combined Kurtzke's functional systems scores were significantly more improved in the TPE group than in the sham-TPE group at months 1 (P < .01), 3 (P < .05), and 6 (P < .05). No major side effects were observed.

Conclusions: A significant difference between TPE and Sham-TPE at the primary endpoint was only observed in patients with ON. Neurological function improved significantly more often in the TPE group than in the sham-TPE group.
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August 2020

Dynamic modular-level alterations of structural-functional coupling in clinically isolated syndrome.

Brain 2019 11;142(11):3428-3439

University of Bordeaux, F Bordeaux, France.

Structural and functional connectivity abnormalities have been reported previously in multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about how each modality evolution relates to the other. Recent studies in other neurological disorders have suggested that structural-functional coupling may be more sensitive in detecting brain alterations than any single modality. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the longitudinal evolution of structural-functional coupling, both at the global and modular levels, in the first year following clinically isolated syndrome. We hypothesized that during the course of multiple sclerosis, patients exhibit a decoupling between functional and structural connectivity due to the disruptive nature of the disease. Forty-one consecutive patients with clinically isolated syndrome were prospectively enrolled in this study, along with 19 age-, sex- and educational level-matched healthy control subjects. These participants were followed for 1 year and underwent resting-state functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging at each time point, along with an extensive neuropsychological assessment. Graph theory analysis revealed structural reorganization at baseline that appeared as an increase in the clustering coefficient in patients compared to controls (P < 0.05), as well as modular-specific alterations. After 1 year of follow-up, both structural and functional reorganization was depicted with abnormal modular-specific connectivity and an increase of the functional betweenness centrality in patients compared to controls (P < 0.01). More importantly, structural-functional decoupling was observed in the salience, visual and somatomotor networks. These alterations were present along with preserved cognitive performance at this stage. These results depict structural damage preceding functional reorganization at a global and modular level during the first year following clinically isolated syndrome along with normal cognitive performance, suggesting a compensation mechanism at this stage of the disease. Principally, structural-functional decoupling observed for the first time in multiple sclerosis suggests that functional reorganization occurs along indirect anatomical pathways.
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November 2019

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Incidence and Risk Stratification Among Natalizumab Users in France.

JAMA Neurol 2020 01;77(1):94-102

CHU de Nantes, Service de Neurologie, CIC015 INSERM, Nantes, France.

Importance: Risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is the major barrier to using natalizumab for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, the association of risk stratification with PML incidence has not been evaluated.

Objective: To describe the temporal evolution of PML incidence in France before and after introduction of risk minimization recommendations in 2013.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This observational study used data in the MS registry OFSEP (Observatoire Français de la Sclérose en Plaques) collected between April 15, 2007, and December 31, 2016, by participating MS expert centers and MS-dedicated networks of neurologists in France. Patients with an MS diagnosis according to current criteria, regardless of age, were eligible, and those exposed to at least 1 natalizumab infusion (n = 6318) were included in the at-risk population. A questionnaire was sent to all centers, asking for a description of their practice regarding PML risk stratification. Data were analyzed in July 2018.

Exposures: Time from the first natalizumab infusion to the occurrence of PML, natalizumab discontinuation plus 6 months, or the last clinical evaluation.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Incidence was the number of PML cases reported relative to the person-years exposed to natalizumab. A Poisson regression model for the 2007 to 2016 period estimated the annual variation in incidence and incidence rate ratio (IRR), adjusted for sex and age at treatment initiation and stratified by period (2007-2013 and 2013-2016).

Results: In total, 6318 patients were exposed to natalizumab during the study period, of whom 4682 (74.1%) were female, with a mean (SD [range]) age at MS onset of 28.5 (9.1 [1.1-72.4]) years; 45 confirmed incident cases of PML were diagnosed in 22 414 person-years of exposure. The crude incidence rate for the whole 2007 to 2016 period was 2.00 (95% CI, 1.46-2.69) per 1000 patient-years. Incidence significantly increased by 45.3% (IRR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.15-1.83; P = .001) each year before 2013 and decreased by 23.0% (IRR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.97; P = .03) each year from 2013 to 2016.

Conclusions And Relevance: The results of this study suggest, for the first time, a decrease in natalizumab-associated PML incidence since 2013 in France that may be associated with a generalized use of John Cunningham virus serologic test results; this finding appears to support the continuation and reinforcement of educational activities and risk-minimization strategies in the management of disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis.
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January 2020

Pathologic and MRI analysis in acute atypical inflammatory demyelinating lesions.

J Neurol 2019 Jul 23;266(7):1743-1755. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Radiology, Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France.

Background: The diagnosis of atypical inflammatory demyelinating lesions can be difficult. Brain biopsy is often required to exclude neoplasms. Moreover, the relationship between these lesions and multiple sclerosis and NMOSD is not clear.

Objectives: Our objectives were to describe radiological and pathological characteristics of patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating lesions.

Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with brain biopsy performed for diagnostic uncertainty revealing a demyelinating lesion. A complete clinical, biological, radiological and pathological analysis was performed.

Results: Twenty patients (15 with a single lesion) were included. MRI disclosed a wide range of lesions including infiltrative lesions (40%), ring-like lesion (15%) Baló-like lesion (15%) and acute haemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (20%). In spite of a marked heterogeneity, some findings were common: a peripheral B1000 hyperintense rim (70%), a slight oedema with mild mass effect (75%) and an open-rim peripheral enhancement (75%). Histopathology revealed that all cases featured macrophages distributed throughout, extensive demyelination, axonal preservation and absence of haemorrhagic changes. In the majority of cases, macrophages were the predominant inflammatory infiltrate and astrocytes were reactive and dystrophic. Aquaporin-4 staining was systematically preserved. After a mean follow-up of 5 years (1-12), 16/20 patients had a diagnosis of monophasic acute atypical inflammatory demyelinating lesion. One patient was diagnosed with MS and 3 with AQP4 negative NMOSD.

Discussion: Although imaging findings in patients with atypical inflammatory demyelinating lesions are heterogeneous, some common features such as peripheral DWI hyperintense rim with open-rim enhancement and absence of oedema argue in favour of a demyelinating lesion and should preclude a brain biopsy. In this context, AQP4 staining is systematically preserved and argues against an AQP4-positive NMOSD. Moreover, long-term follow-up is characterized by low recurrence rate.
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July 2019

Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis With Regards to Disease Duration and Clinical Phenotypes.

Front Neurol 2019 20;10:261. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Service de Neurologie, CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

The relationships between cognitive impairment that exist during the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) remain poorly described. The effect of disease duration has been studied in a few longitudinal cohorts and some cross-sectional studies that suggest that cognitive deficits tend to extend with disease duration. However, the effect of disease duration seems to be confounded by the effect of age. At the pre-clinical stage, cognitive deficits have been observed in patients with radiologically isolated syndromes, and their profile is similar than in clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) and relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). The frequency of cognitive impairment tends to be higher in RRMS than in CIS. In these phenotypes, slowness of information processing speed (IPS) and episodic verbal and visuo-spatial memory deficits are frequently observed, but executive functions, and in particular verbal fluency, could also be impaired. More frequent and severe deficits are reported in SPMS than in RRMS with more severe deficits for memory tests, working memory and IPS. Similarly to what is observed in SPMS, patients with primary progressive MS (PPMS) present with a wide range of cognitive deficits in IPS, attention, working memory, executive functions, and verbal episodic memory with more tests and domains impaired than RRMS patients. Altogether these data suggested that not only the duration of the disease and age play an important role in the cognitive profile of patients, but also the phenotype itself, probably because of its specific pathological mechanism.
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March 2019

Longitudinal study of functional brain network reorganization in clinically isolated syndrome.

Mult Scler 2020 02 27;26(2):188-200. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France/Inserm U1215, Neurocentre Magendie, Bordeaux, France/CHU Pellegrin, CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Background: There is a lack of longitudinal studies exploring the topological organization of functional brain networks at the early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Objective: This study aims to assess potential brain functional reorganization at rest in patients with CIS (PwCIS) after 1 year of evolution and to characterize the dynamics of functional brain networks at the early stage of the disease.

Methods: We prospectively included 41 PwCIS and 19 matched healthy controls (HCs). They were scanned at baseline and after 1 year. Using graph theory, topological metrics were calculated for each region. Hub disruption index was computed for each metric.

Results: Hub disruption indexes of degree and betweenness centrality were negative at baseline in patients ( < 0.05), suggesting brain reorganization. After 1 year, hub disruption indexes for degree and betweenness centrality were still negative ( < 0.00001), but such reorganization appeared more pronounced than at baseline. Different brain regions were driving these alterations. No global efficiency differences were observed between PwCIS and HCs either at baseline or at 1 year.

Conclusion: Dynamic changes in functional brain networks appear at the early stages of MS and are associated with the maintenance of normal global efficiency in the brain, suggesting a compensatory effect.
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February 2020

Differential Gray Matter Vulnerability in the 1 Year Following a Clinically Isolated Syndrome.

Front Neurol 2018 11;9:824. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Whether some gray matter (GM) regions are differentially vulnerable at the early stages of MS is still unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate whether deep and cortical GM are differentially vulnerable after a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). Fifty-six patients with CIS (PwCIS) and 38 healthy controls (HC) had conventional and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at baseline and 46 PwCIS and 20 HC were rescanned after 1 year. Deep GM (DGM) volumes, cortical thickness (CTh), and DTI metrics (FA: fractional anisotropy; MD: mean diffusivity) within these structures were calculated for each participant at each time-point and compared between PwCIS and HC. Linear regression models were used to investigate whether baseline DTI parameters could predict GM volume loss over time. At baseline, GM volumes did not differ between PwCIS and HC, but hippocampal MD was higher in PwCIS than HC ( < 0.01). Over 1 year, GM alterations became more widespread with putamen and hippocampus volumes decreasing in PwCIS ( < 0.01), and cortical thinning in different parts of the cortex along with a significant increase of MD. Hippocampus MD at baseline could predict its volume loss ( = 0.159; < 0.05) and cortical thinning was associated to microstructural damage (Spearman's rho ranging from -0.424 to -0.603 with < 0.003). Along with MS being a diffuse inflammatory disease, GM showed a differential vulnerability at the early stage spreading from hippocampus to the cortex. Hippocampus volume loss could be predicted by its MD at baseline.
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October 2018

Efficacy of rituximab in refractory RRMS.

Mult Scler 2019 05 3;25(6):828-836. Epub 2018 May 3.

Pôle de Neurosciences Cliniques, Service de Neurologie, APHM, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille, France/CRMBM UMR 7339, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy of rituximab as rescue therapy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and persistent disease activity confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) despite immunosuppressive disease-modifying therapy (DMT).

Methods: In this observational nationwide retrospective multicenter study, we first identified 351 off-label rituximab-treated patients through a cohort of 15,984 RRMS patients. In this group, we identified patients with disease activity prior to rituximab confirmed by MRI (one or more new T2 lesion and/or gadolinium-enhancing lesion) despite immunosuppressive DMT (fingolimod, natalizumab, or mitoxantrone) with a follow-up after rituximab initiation longer than 6 months. Outcome data were collected from the French Observatory of Multiple Sclerosis (OFSEP) register and medical charts.

Results: A total of 50 patients were identified. Median rituximab treatment duration was 1.1 (0.5-6.4) year. Mean annualized relapse rate significantly decreased from 0.8 during last immunosuppressive DMT to 0.18 after rituximab ( p < 0.0001). While 72% of patients showed gadolinium-enhancing lesions on the last MRI performed during last immunosuppressive DMT, 8% of them showed gadolinium-enhancing lesions on the first MRI performed 6.1 (range 1.4-18.4) months after rituximab ( p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: This study provides level IV evidence that rituximab reduces clinical and MRI disease activity in patients with active RRMS despite immunosuppressive DMT.
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May 2019

Cognitive assessment in patients with multiple sclerosis: From neuropsychological batteries to ecological tools.

Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2020 Mar 17;63(2):154-158. Epub 2018 Feb 17.

Université de Bordeaux, 33076 Bordeaux, France; Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Bordeaux, 33076 Bordeaux, France; Inserm U1215 - Neurocentre Magendie, 33000 Bordeaux, France.

Background: Cognitive impairment (CI) is frequent in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and could negatively affect family social and vocational activities. Detecting CI is clinically relevant, so the emerging question is the strategy for assessing cognition in MS.

Objective: An update on cognitive assessment in PwMS with use of standard neuropsychological (NP) tests and ecological tools.

Results: The minimal cognitive assessment in MS should include at least NP tests assessing information processing speed (IPS) and verbal and visuospatial episodic memory. The IPS could be easily and quickly evaluated with symbol digit substitution tests by using paper for the oral version of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test or a laptop for the Computerised Speed Cognitive Test. The comprehensive NP battery must be performed by a qualified neuropsychologist to adequately characterize the extent and severity of CI in PwMS. The quiet and controlled environment used for this standardized assessment could be a limitation for generalizing the results because it does not reflect real daily life conditions. Thus, this context could decrease the ability to detect some cognitive deficits that could occur only in more complex situations. Thus, ecological evaluation seems a complementary and promising approach for detecting cognitive abnormalities in daily activities.

Conclusion: Recent efforts have been made to detect and characterize cognitive deficits in PwMS. Some IPS and episodic memory NP tests have been validated in MS and should be proposed to patients in the clinical setting. Besides NP tests, ecological tools are becoming important for detecting cognitive dysfunction in everyday-like conditions. Further research is needed to validate relevant tools for monitoring cognition in MS and the ability to detect clinically meaningful change in longitudinal studies.
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March 2020

Preliminary evidence of the cerebellar role on cognitive performances in clinically isolated syndrome.

J Neurol Sci 2018 02 2;385:1-6. Epub 2017 Dec 2.

CHU de Bordeaux, INSERM-CHU CIC-P 0005, Service de Neurologie, Bordeaux F-33076, France; Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux F-33076, France; Neurocentre Magendie, INSERM U1215, Team Glia-neuron Interactions, Bordeaux F-33077, France. Electronic address:

Background: Cerebellar and cognitive dysfunction can occur early in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). Eye tracking is a reliable tool for the evaluation of both subtle cerebellar symptoms and cognitive impairment.

Objectives: To investigate the early cognitive profile using neuropsychological and ocular motor (OM) testing in CIS with and without cerebellar dysfunction with OM testing compared to healthy subjects (HS).

Methods: Twenty-eight patients and 12 HC underwent OM and neuropsychological testing. Cerebellar impairment was defined by the registration of saccadic intrusions and/or at least 10% of dysmetria during ocular motor recording. Visually guided saccade (VGS), memory-guided saccade (MGS) and antisaccade (AS) paradigms were compared to neuropsychological assessments.

Results: The group of patients with cerebellar dysfunction (n=16) performed worse on MGS latencies and error rates, and had worse working memory, executive function and information processing speed (IPS) z scores than patients without cerebellar dysfunction. IPS was correlated with the AS error rate in all patients and with the VGS error rate and the MGS final eye position ratio in cerebellar patients.

Conclusion: Eye tracking is a sensitive tool to assess cognitive and cerebellar dysfunctions in CIS. In CIS patients, cerebellar impairment is associated with working memory, executive functions and IPS slowness.
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February 2018

Regional hippocampal vulnerability in early multiple sclerosis: Dynamic pathological spreading from dentate gyrus to CA1.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 04 13;39(4):1814-1824. Epub 2018 Jan 13.

Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux, F-33000, France.

Background: Whether hippocampal subfields are differentially vulnerable at the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) and how this impacts memory performance is a current topic of debate.

Method: We prospectively included 56 persons with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of MS in a 1-year longitudinal study, together with 55 matched healthy controls at baseline. Participants were tested for memory performance and scanned with 3 T MRI to assess the volume of 5 distinct hippocampal subfields using automatic segmentation techniques.

Results: At baseline, CA4/dentate gyrus was the only hippocampal subfield with a volume significantly smaller than controls (p < .01). After one year, CA4/dentate gyrus atrophy worsened (-6.4%, p < .0001) and significant CA1 atrophy appeared (both in the stratum-pyramidale and the stratum radiatum-lacunosum-moleculare, -5.6%, p < .001 and -6.2%, p < .01, respectively). CA4/dentate gyrus volume at baseline predicted CA1 volume one year after CIS (R  = 0.44 to 0.47, p < .001, with age, T2 lesion-load, and global brain atrophy as covariates). The volume of CA4/dentate gyrus at baseline was associated with MS diagnosis during follow-up, independently of T2-lesion load and demographic variables (p < .05). Whereas CA4/dentate gyrus volume was not correlated with memory scores at baseline, CA1 atrophy was an independent correlate of episodic verbal memory performance one year after CIS (ß = 0.87, p < .05).

Conclusion: The hippocampal degenerative process spread from dentate gyrus to CA1 at the earliest stage of MS. This dynamic vulnerability is associated with MS diagnosis after CIS and will ultimately impact hippocampal-dependent memory performance.
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April 2018

Performance of five research-domain automated WM lesion segmentation methods in a multi-center MS study.

Neuroimage 2017 12 9;163:106-114. Epub 2017 Sep 9.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background And Purpose: In vivoidentification of white matter lesions plays a key-role in evaluation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Automated lesion segmentation methods have been developed to substitute manual outlining, but evidence of their performance in multi-center investigations is lacking. In this work, five research-domain automated segmentation methods were evaluated using a multi-center MS dataset.

Methods: 70 MS patients (median EDSS of 2.0 [range 0.0-6.5]) were included from a six-center dataset of the MAGNIMS Study Group ( which included 2D FLAIR and 3D T1 images with manual lesion segmentation as a reference. Automated lesion segmentations were produced using five algorithms: Cascade; Lesion Segmentation Toolbox (LST) with both the Lesion growth algorithm (LGA) and the Lesion prediction algorithm (LPA); Lesion-Topology preserving Anatomical Segmentation (Lesion-TOADS); and k-Nearest Neighbor with Tissue Type Priors (kNN-TTP). Main software parameters were optimized using a training set (N = 18), and formal testing was performed on the remaining patients (N = 52). To evaluate volumetric agreement with the reference segmentations, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as well as mean difference in lesion volumes between the automated and reference segmentations were calculated. The Similarity Index (SI), False Positive (FP) volumes and False Negative (FN) volumes were used to examine spatial agreement. All analyses were repeated using a leave-one-center-out design to exclude the center of interest from the training phase to evaluate the performance of the method on 'unseen' center.

Results: Compared to the reference mean lesion volume (4.85 ± 7.29 mL), the methods displayed a mean difference of 1.60 ± 4.83 (Cascade), 2.31 ± 7.66 (LGA), 0.44 ± 4.68 (LPA), 1.76 ± 4.17 (Lesion-TOADS) and -1.39 ± 4.10 mL (kNN-TTP). The ICCs were 0.755, 0.713, 0.851, 0.806 and 0.723, respectively. Spatial agreement with reference segmentations was higher for LPA (SI = 0.37 ± 0.23), Lesion-TOADS (SI = 0.35 ± 0.18) and kNN-TTP (SI = 0.44 ± 0.14) than for Cascade (SI = 0.26 ± 0.17) or LGA (SI = 0.31 ± 0.23). All methods showed highly similar results when used on data from a center not used in software parameter optimization.

Conclusion: The performance of the methods in this multi-center MS dataset was moderate, but appeared to be robust even with new datasets from centers not included in training the automated methods.
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December 2017

Pattern separation performance is decreased in patients with early multiple sclerosis.

Brain Behav 2017 08 21;7(8):e00739. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

University of Bordeaux Bordeaux France.

Background: Hippocampal-dependent memory impairment is frequent and occurs early during the course of multiple sclerosis (MS). While mechanisms responsible for episodic memory dysfunction in patients with MS remain largely unknown, dentate gyrus structure has been suggested as particularly vulnerable at the early stage of the disease. If true, we hypothesized that the pattern separation component of episodic memory (a function known to be critically dependent to dentate gyrus function) would be impaired in patients with early MS (PweMS).

Methods: Thirty eight participants (19 PweMS and 19 healthy controls matched on age, gender and education level) were tested with a behavioral pattern separation task and also for information processing speed and visuospatial episodic memory.

Results: We report a significant decrease in pattern separation performance in PweMS compared to healthy controls (27.07 vs. 40.01,  = .030 after Holm-Bonferroni correction,  = 1.02) together with a significantly higher pattern completion rate (56.11 vs. 40.95,  = .004 after Holm-Bonferroni correction,  = 1.07) while no difference was found among groups for information processing speed and "global" visuospatial episodic memory regarding learning, long-term recall or recognition.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that behavioral pattern separation task can detect subtle memory decline in patients with MS and argue for early dentate gyrus dysfunction during the course of the disease.
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August 2017

Microstructural analyses of the posterior cerebellar lobules in relapsing-onset multiple sclerosis and their implication in cognitive impairment.

PLoS One 2017 8;12(8):e0182479. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Background: The posterior cerebellar lobules seem to be the anatomical substrate of cognitive cerebellar processes, but their microstructural alterations in multiple sclerosis (MS) remain unclear.

Objectives: To correlate diffusion metrics in lobules VI to VIIIb in persons with clinically isolated syndrome (PwCIS) and in cognitively impaired persons with MS (CIPwMS) with their cognitive performances.

Methods: Sixty-nine patients (37 PwCIS, 32 CIPwMS) and 36 matched healthy subjects (HS) underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging, including 3D T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were calculated within each lobule and in the cerebellar peduncles. We investigated the correlations between cognitive outcomes and the diffusion parameters of cerebellar sub-structures and performed multiple linear regression analysis to predict cognitive disability.

Results: FA was generally lower and MD was higher in the cerebellum and specifically in the vermis Crus II, lobules VIIb and VIIIb in CIPwMS compared with PwCIS and HS. In hierarchical regression analyses, 31% of the working memory z score variance was explained by FA in the left lobule VI and in the left superior peduncle. Working memory was also associated with MD in the vermis Crus II. FA in the left lobule VI and right VIIIa predicted part of the information processing speed (IPS) z scores.

Conclusion: DTI indicators of cerebellar microstructural damage were associated with cognitive deficits in MS. Our results suggested that cerebellar lobular alterations have an impact on attention, working memory and IPS.
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October 2017

Matrix metalloproteinase 9 is decreased in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients at risk for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

Ann Neurol 2017 Aug 22;82(2):186-195. Epub 2017 Jul 22.

Department of Neurology-Neuroimmunology, Multiple Sclerosis Center of Catalonia, Vall d'Hebron Research Institute, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: To identify biomarkers associated with the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab (NTZ).

Methods: Relapsing-remitting MS patients who developed PML under NTZ therapy (pre-PML) and non-PML NTZ-treated patients (NTZ-ctr) were included in the study. Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum samples collected at baseline, at 1- and 2-year treated time points, and during PML were analyzed for gene expression by RNA sequencing and for serum protein levels by Luminex and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively.

Results: Among top differentially expressed genes in the RNA sequencing between pre-PML and NTZ-ctr patients, pathway analysis revealed a high representation of genes belonging to the following categories: proangiogenic factors (MMP9, VEGFA), chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL5, IL8, CCL2), cytokines (IL1B, IFNG), and plasminogen- and coagulation-related molecules (SERPINB2, PLAU, PLAUR, TFPI, THBD). Serum protein levels for these candidates were measured in a 2-step manner in a screening cohort and a validation cohort of pre-PML and NTZ-ctr patients. Only matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) was validated; in pre-PML patients, MMP9 protein levels were significantly reduced at baseline compared with NTZ-ctr patients, and levels remained lower at later time points during NTZ treatment.

Interpretation: The results from this study suggest that the proangiogenic factor MMP9 may play a role as a biomarker associated with the development of PML in MS patients treated with NTZ. Ann Neurol 2017;82:186-195.
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August 2017

Double-Blind Controlled Randomized Trial of Cyclophosphamide versus Methylprednisolone in Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

PLoS One 2017 3;12(1):e0168834. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

Service de Neurologie et INSERM-CHU CIC-P 0005, CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Background: Therapeutic options are limited in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Open-label studies suggested efficacy of monthly IV cyclophosphamide (CPM) without induction for delaying progression but no randomized trial was conducted so far.

Objective: To compare CPM to methylprednisolone (MP) in SPMS.

Methods: Randomized, double-blind clinical trial on two parallel groups. Patient with SPMS, with a documented worsening of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score during the last year and an EDSS score between 4·0 and 6·5 were recruited and received one intravenous infusion of treatment (CPM: 750 mg /m2 body surface area-MP: 1g) every four weeks for one year, and every eight weeks for the second year. The primary endpoint was the time to EDSS deterioration, when confirmed sixteen weeks later, analyzed using a Cox model.

Results: Due to recruitment difficulties, the study was terminated prematurely after 138 patients were included (CPM, n = 72; MP, n = 66). In the CPM group, 33 patients stopped treatment prematurely, mainly due to tolerability, compared with 22 in the MP group. Primary endpoint: the hazard ratio for EDSS deterioration in the CPM in comparison with the MP group was 0.61 [95% CI: 0·31-1·22](p = 0·16). According to the secondary multistate model analysis, patients in the CPM group were 2.2 times more likely ([1·14-4.29]; p = 0.02) to discontinue treatment than those in the MP group and 2.7 times less likely (HR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.17-0.84; p = 0.02) to experience disability progression when they did not stop treatment prematurely. Safety profile was as expected.

Conclusion: Although the primary end-point was negative, secondary analysis suggested that CPM decreases the risk of progression in SPMS, but its use may be limited by low tolerability.

Trial Registration: NCT00241254.
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August 2017

Cerebellar Assessment in Early Multiple Sclerosis.

Cerebellum 2017 04;16(2):607-611

CHU de Bordeaux, INSERM-CHU CIC-P 0005, & Service de Neurologie, F-33076, Bordeaux, France.

Cerebellar impairment is frequent and predictive of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). The Nine-Hole Peg Test (NHPT) is commonly used to assess cerebellar symptoms despite its lack of specificity for cerebellar ataxia. Eye-tracking is a reliable test for identifying subtle cerebellar symptoms and could be used in clinical trials, including those involving early MS patients. To evaluate, by the use of eye-tracking, the accuracy of the NHPT in detecting subtle cerebellar symptoms in patients with clinically isolated syndrome with a high risk of conversion to MS (HR-CIS). Twenty-nine patients and 13 matched healthy controls (HC) underwent an eye-tracking protocol. Cerebellar impairment was defined by registration of saccadic intrusions or at least 10 % dysmetria in a saccadic movement recording. These criteria were compared to NHPT performance. Sixteen patients fulfilled saccadic criteria for cerebellar impairment. NHPT performance was significantly increased in HR-CIS patients (p < 0.01) versus HC. However, NHPT performance did not differ between cerebellar and non-cerebellar groups. NHPT performance with the dominant hand could differentiate patients, particularly cerebellar patients, from HC, but it could not discriminate cerebellar from non-cerebellar patients who were classified according to saccadic criteria. These findings should be considered in future clinical trials involving HR-CIS patients.
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April 2017

Posterior lobules of the cerebellum and information processing speed at various stages of multiple sclerosis.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2017 Feb 27;88(2):146-151. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

University Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Background: Cerebellar damage has been implicated in information processing speed (IPS) impairment associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) that might result from functional disconnection in the frontocerebellar loop. Structural alterations in individual posterior lobules, in which cognitive functioning seems preponderant, are still unknown. Our aim was to investigate the impact of grey matter (GM) volume alterations in lobules VI to VIIIb on IPS in persons with clinically isolated syndrome (PwCIS), MS (PwMS) and healthy subjects (HS).

Methods: 69 patients (37 PwCIS, 32 PwMS) and 36 HS underwent 3 T MRI including 3-dimensional T1-weighted MRIs. Cerebellum lobules were segmented using SUIT V.3.0 to estimate their normalised GM volume. Neuropsychological testing was performed to assess IPS and main cognitive functions.

Results: Normalised GM volumes were significantly different between PwMS and HS for the right (p<0.001) and left lobule VI (p<0.01), left crus I, right VIIb and entire cerebellum (p<0.05 for each comparison) and between PwMS and PwCIS for all lobules in subregions VI and left crus I (p<0.05). IPS, attention and working memory were impaired in PwMS compared with PwCIS. In the whole population of patients (PwMS and PwCIS), GM loss in vermis VI (R=0.36; p<0.05 when considering age and T2 lesion volume as covariates) were associated with IPS impairment.

Conclusions: GM volume decrease in posterior lobules (especially vermis VI) was associated with reduced IPS. Our results suggest a significant impact of posterior lobules pathology in corticocerebellar loop disruption resulting in automation and cognitive optimisation lack in MS.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrail NCT01207856, NCT01865357; Pre-results.
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February 2017

Hippocampal microstructural damage correlates with memory impairment in clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2017 Aug 25;23(9):1214-1224. Epub 2016 Oct 25.

Universite de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France/Inserm U1215, Neurocentre Magendie, Bordeaux, France/Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Objective: We investigated whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could reveal early hippocampal damage and clinically relevant correlates of memory impairment in persons with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Methods: A total of 37 persons with CIS, 32 with MS and 36 controls prospectively included from 2011 to 2014 were tested for cognitive performances and scanned with 3T-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess volumetric and DTI changes within the hippocampus, whole brain volume and T2-lesion load.

Results: While there was no hippocampal atrophy in the CIS group, hippocampal fractional anisotropy (FA) was significantly decreased compared to controls. Decrease in hippocampal FA together with increased mean diffusivity (MD) was even more prominent in MS patients. In CIS, hippocampal MD was correlated with episodic verbal memory performance ( r = -0.57, p = 0.0002 and odds ratio (OR) = 0.058, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.0057-0.59, p = 0.016 adjusted for age, gender, depression and T2-lesion load), but not with cognitive tasks unrelated to hippocampal functions. Hippocampal MD was the only variable discriminating memory-impaired from memory-preserved persons with CIS (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.77, sensitivity = 90.0%, specificity = 70.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) = 52.9%, negative predictive value (NPV) = 95.0%).

Conclusion: DTI alterations within the hippocampus might reflect early neurodegenerative processes that are correlated with episodic memory performance, discriminating persons with CIS according to their memory status.
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August 2017

Who Performs Lumbar Puncture, How Many Do They Perform, How and Why? A Retrospective Study of 6,594 Cases.

Eur Neurol 2016 24;76(1-2):8-11. Epub 2016 Jun 24.

Clermont Universitx00E9;, Universitx00E9; d'Auvergne, Neuro-Dol, Inserm U1107, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Background: The number and indications of lumbar punctures (LPs) performed nowadays are unknown. The primary aim of this work was to report the number of LPs performed in each of the departments of 2 French university hospitals, their indications and the prevalence of atraumatic spinal needles used.

Methods: We carried out a retrospective study of all the LPs performed in 2014. The clinical department in which the intervention was performed and the final diagnosis was made from the Medical Information Department. The type of needles (cutting or atraumatic) used during the study period was also available.

Results: In 2014, 6,594 LPs were performed. Overall, 80% were performed for diagnostic purposes. Twenty percent of these LPs were performed in the Neurology Department and were usually carried out at routine check-ups. Overall, atraumatic needles were used in 8.0% of cases. Overall, 1.4 LPs per 100 hospital stays were performed and 0.8 LP for 100 Emergency department admissions.

Conclusion: LP is a routine procedure for many clinicians and although neurologists perform the largest number of LPs, they are doing only one fifth of all procedures. Atraumatic needles are underused.
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September 2017

Cognitive evaluation by tasks in a virtual reality environment in multiple sclerosis.

J Neurol Sci 2015 Dec 23;359(1-2):94-9. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Université de Bordeaux, France; INSERM U.862, Neurocentre Magendie, Bordeaux, France; CHU de Bordeaux, INSERM-CHU CIC-P 0005, Service de Neurologie, F-33076 Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Background: The assessment of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) requires large neuropsychological batteries that assess numerous domains. The relevance of these assessments to daily cognitive functioning is not well established. Cognitive ecological evaluation has not been frequently studied in MS.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the interest of cognitive evaluation in a virtual reality environment in a sample of persons with MS with cognitive deficits.

Methods: Thirty persons with MS with at least moderate cognitive impairment were assessed with two ecological evaluations, an in-house developed task in a virtual reality environment (Urban DailyCog®) and a divided attention task in a driving simulator. Classical neuropsychological testing was also used.

Results And Conclusion: Fifty-two percent of the persons with MS failed the driving simulator task and 80% failed the Urban DailyCog®. Virtual reality assessments are promising in identifying cognitive impairment in MS.
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December 2015