Publications by authors named "Aurélie Mathieu"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Monitoring of pesticides in ambient air: Prioritization of substances.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 15;753:141722. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, UMR ECOSYS, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France.

Despite the richness of data collected on pesticide concentrations in ambient air in France, knowledge on this topic remains partial and heterogeneous in the absence of specific regulations. The population exposure remains thus difficult to estimate; therefore it was necessary to define modalities for implementing national monitoring of pesticides in ambient air in metropolitan France and in the overseas territories. The objective of this work was to identify which active substances (a.s.) have to be monitored in priority. As part of a collective expertise, a group of multidisciplinary experts has developed a method to rank active substances authorised as plant protection products, biocides and antiparasitic agents, which were available on the French market in 2015. A 3-steps approach has been developed. The first step consisted of a theoretical approach based on a hierarchy of substances according to four criteria: (a) national uses, (b) emission potential to the air, (c) persistence in the air, and (d) chronic toxicity. The three first criteria give information on their potential to be present in the atmosphere, and the fourth criterion allows to consider their potential of hazard. The second step was an observational approach based on existing database on pesticide air measurements in France. In the third step, both approaches were combined using decision trees to select priority pesticides. Among the 1316 a.s. first identified from the EU Pesticides database, 90 were selected, among which 43 required metrological and/or analytical development. The experts recommended confirming the relevance of performing a longer term monitoring of these a. s. after a one-year exploratory campaign. The proposed method is reproduceable, transparent, easy to update (e.g. in the light of a change in product authorization), and can be adapted to other agricultural and geographical conditions, and objectives (e.g. monitoring of the ecotoxicological effects of pesticides).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141722DOI Listing
January 2021

Virulent coliphages in 1-year-old children fecal samples are fewer, but more infectious than temperate coliphages.

Nat Commun 2020 01 17;11(1):378. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Micalis Institute, 78350, Jouy-en-Josas, France.

Bacteriophages constitute an important part of the human gut microbiota, but their impact on this community is largely unknown. Here, we cultivate temperate phages produced by 900 E. coli strains isolated from 648 fecal samples from 1-year-old children and obtain coliphages directly from the viral fraction of the same fecal samples. We find that 63% of strains hosted phages, while 24% of the viromes contain phages targeting E. coli. 150 of these phages, half recovered from strain supernatants, half from virome (73% temperate and 27% virulent) were tested for their host range on 75 E. coli strains isolated from the same cohort. Temperate phages barely infected the gut strains, whereas virulent phages killed up to 68% of them. We conclude that in fecal samples from children, temperate coliphages dominate, while virulent ones have greater infectivity and broader host range, likely playing a role in gut microbiota dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-14042-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6969025PMC
January 2020

The enemy from within: a prophage of Roseburia intestinalis systematically turns lytic in the mouse gut, driving bacterial adaptation by CRISPR spacer acquisition.

ISME J 2020 03 11;14(3):771-787. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Micalis Institute, 78350, Jouy-en-Josas, France.

Despite an overall temporal stability in time of the human gut microbiota at the phylum level, strong variations in species abundance have been observed. We are far from a clear understanding of what promotes or disrupts the stability of microbiome communities. Environmental factors, like food or antibiotic use, modify the gut microbiota composition, but their overall impacts remain relatively low. Phages, the viruses that infect bacteria, might constitute important factors explaining temporal variations in species abundance. Gut bacteria harbour numerous prophages, or dormant viruses, which can evolve to become ultravirulent phage mutants, potentially leading to important bacterial death. Whether such phenomenon occurs in the mammal's microbiota has been largely unexplored. Here we studied temperate phage-bacteria coevolution in gnotoxenic mice colonised with Roseburia intestinalis, a dominant symbiont of the human gut microbiota, and Escherichia coli, a sub-dominant member of the same microbiota. We show that R. intestinalis L1-82 harbours two active prophages, Jekyll and Shimadzu. We observed the systematic evolution in mice of ultravirulent Shimadzu phage mutants, which led to a collapse of R. intestinalis population. In a second step, phage infection drove the fast counter-evolution of host phage resistance mainly through phage-derived spacer acquisition in a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats array. Alternatively, phage resistance was conferred by a prophage originating from an ultravirulent phage with a restored ability to lysogenize. Our results demonstrate that prophages are a potential source of ultravirulent phages that can successfully infect most of the susceptible bacteria. This suggests that prophages can play important roles in the short-term temporal variations observed in the composition of the gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41396-019-0566-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7031369PMC
March 2020

Structural basis for the substrate selectivity of Helicobacter pylori NucT nuclease activity.

PLoS One 2017 4;12(12):e0189049. Epub 2017 Dec 4.

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Radiobiology, CEA, Fontenay aux Roses, France.

The Phospholipase D (PLD) superfamily of proteins includes a group of enzymes with nuclease activity on various nucleic acid substrates. Here, with the aim of better understanding the substrate specificity determinants in this subfamily, we have characterised the enzymatic activity and the crystal structure of NucT, a nuclease implicated in Helicobacter pylori purine salvage and natural transformation and compared them to those of its bacterial and mammalian homologues. NucT exhibits an endonuclease activity with a strong preference for single stranded nucleic acids substrates. We identified histidine124 as essential for the catalytic activity of the protein. Comparison of the NucT crystal structure at 1.58 Å resolution reported here with those of other members of the sub-family suggests that the specificity of NucT for single-stranded nucleic acids is provided by the width of a positively charged groove giving access to the catalytic site.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0189049PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5714352PMC
December 2017

ComB proteins expression levels determine Helicobacter pylori competence capacity.

Sci Rep 2017 01 27;7:41495. Epub 2017 Jan 27.

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Radiobiology, CEA, F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses, France.

Helicobacter pylori chronically colonises half of the world's human population and is the main cause of ulcers and gastric cancers. Its prevalence and the increase in antibiotic resistance observed recently reflect the high genetic adaptability of this pathogen. Together with high mutation rates and an efficient DNA recombination system, horizontal gene transfer through natural competence makes of H. pylori one of the most genetically diverse bacteria. We show here that transformation capacity is enhanced in strains defective for recN, extending previous work with other homologous recombination genes. However, inactivation of either mutY or polA has no effect on DNA transformation, suggesting that natural competence can be boosted in H. pylori by the persistence of DNA breaks but not by enhanced mutagenesis. The transformation efficiency of the different DNA repair impaired strains correlates with the number of transforming DNA foci formed on the cell surface and with the expression of comB8 and comB10 competence genes. Overexpression of the comB6-B10 operon is sufficient to increase the transformation capacity of a wild type strain, indicating that the ComB complex, present in the bacterial wall and essential for DNA uptake, can be a limiting factor for transformation efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep41495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5269756PMC
January 2017

Discovery and Function of a General Core Hormetic Stress Response in E. coli Induced by Sublethal Concentrations of Antibiotics.

Cell Rep 2016 09;17(1):46-57

Inserm Unit 1001, Faculté de Médecine Paris Descartes, Université Paris-Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75014 Paris, France; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 75016 Paris, France. Electronic address:

A better understanding of the impact of antibiotics on bacteria is required to increase the efficiency of antibiotic treatments and to slow the emergence of resistance. Using Escherichia coli, we examined how bacteria exposed to sublethal concentrations of ampicillin adjust gene expression patterns and metabolism to simultaneously deal with the antibiotic-induced damage and maintain rapid growth. We found that the treated cells increased energy production, as well as translation and macromolecular repair and protection. These responses are adaptive, because they confer increased survival not only to lethal ampicillin treatment but also to non-antibiotic lethal stresses. This robustness is modulated by nutrient availability. Because different antibiotics and other stressors induce the same set of responses, we propose that it constitutes a general core hormetic stress response. It is plausible that this response plays an important role in the robustness of bacteria exposed to antibiotic treatments and constant environmental fluctuations in natural environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2016.09.001DOI Listing
September 2016

Following transforming DNA in Helicobacter pylori from uptake to expression.

Mol Microbiol 2016 09 8;101(6):1039-53. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

CEA, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Radiobiology, F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses, France.

Natural transformation is a potent driver for genetic diversification in bacterial populations. It involves exogenous DNA binding, uptake, transport and internalization into the cytoplasm, where DNA can be processed and integrated into the host chromosome. Direct visualisation of transforming DNA (tDNA) has been limited to its binding to the surface or, in the case of Gram-negative species, to its entrance into the periplasm. We present here for the first time the direct visualisation of tDNA entering the bacterial cytoplasm. We used as a model the Gram-negative pathogen Helicobacter pylori, characterised by a large intraspecies variability that results from high mutation rates and efficient horizontal gene transfer. Using fluorescently labelled DNA, we followed for up to 3 h the fate of tDNA foci formed in the periplasm and eventually internalised into the cytoplasm. By tracking at the single cell level the expression of a fluorescent protein coded by the tDNA, we show that up to 50% of the cells express the transforming phenotype. The overall transformation process in H. pylori, from tDNA uptake to expression of the recombinant gene, can take place in less than 1 h, without requiring a growth arrest, and prior to the replication of the chromosome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.13440DOI Listing
September 2016

Coupling the Petasis condensation to an iron(III) chloride-promoted cascade provides a short synthesis of Relenza congeners.

Org Lett 2010 Nov 14;12(22):5322-5. Epub 2010 Oct 14.

Centre de Recherche de Gif, Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Iron(III) chloride hexahydrate promotes a cascade of transformations on a Petasis condensation product that sets up the right dihydropyran precursors of valuable Relenza congeners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ol102326bDOI Listing
November 2010

Genetic dissection of Helicobacter pylori AddAB role in homologous recombination.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2010 Oct 16;311(1):44-50. Epub 2010 Aug 16.

CEA, Institut de Radiobiologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire, UMR217 CNRS/CEA, Fontenay aux Roses, France.

Helicobacter pylori infects the stomach of about half of the world's human population, frequently causing chronic inflammation at the origin of several gastric pathologies. One of the most remarkable characteristics of the species is its remarkable genomic plasticity in which homologous recombination (HR) plays a critical role. Here, we analyzed the role of the H. pylori homologue of the AddAB recombination protein. Bioinformatics analysis of the proteins unveils the similarities and differences of the H. pylori AddAB complex with respect to the RecBCD and AddAB complexes from Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Helicobacter pylori mutants lacking functional addB or/and addA show the same level of sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents such as UV or irradiation and of deficiency in intrachromosomal RecA-dependent HR. Epistasis analyses of both DNA repair and HR phenotypes, using double and triple recombination mutants, demonstrate that, in H. pylori, AddAB and RecOR complexes define two separate presynaptic pathways with little functional overlap. However, neither of these complexes participates in the RecA-dependent process of transformation of these naturally competent bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2010.02077.xDOI Listing
October 2010

Drosophila translational elongation factor-1gamma is modified in response to DOA kinase activity and is essential for cellular viability.

Genetics 2010 Jan 19;184(1):141-54. Epub 2009 Oct 19.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.

Drosophila translational elongation factor-1gamma (EF1gamma) interacts in the yeast two-hybrid system with DOA, the LAMMER protein kinase of Drosophila. Analysis of mutant EF1gamma alleles reveals that the locus encodes a structurally conserved protein essential for both organismal and cellular survival. Although no genetic interactions were detected in combinations with mutations in EF1alpha, an EF1gamma allele enhanced mutant phenotypes of Doa alleles. A predicted LAMMER kinase phosphorylation site conserved near the C terminus of all EF1gamma orthologs is a phosphorylation site in vitro for both Drosophila DOA and tobacco PK12 LAMMER kinases. EF1gamma protein derived from Doa mutant flies migrates with altered mobility on SDS gels, consistent with it being an in vivo substrate of DOA kinase. However, the aberrant mobility appears to be due to a secondary protein modification, since the mobility of EF1gamma protein obtained from wild-type Drosophila is unaltered following treatment with several nonspecific phosphatases. Expression of a construct expressing a serine-to-alanine substitution in the LAMMER kinase phosphorylation site into the fly germline rescued null EF1gamma alleles but at reduced efficiency compared to a wild-type construct. Our data suggest that EF1gamma functions in vital cellular processes in addition to translational elongation and is a LAMMER kinase substrate in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.109.109553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2815912PMC
January 2010

Unveiling novel RecO distant orthologues involved in homologous recombination.

PLoS Genet 2008 Aug 1;4(8):e1000146. Epub 2008 Aug 1.

CEA, Institut de Radiobiologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire, UMR217 CNRS/CEA, Fontenay aux Roses, France.

The generation of a RecA filament on single-stranded DNA is a critical step in homologous recombination. Two main pathways leading to the formation of the nucleofilament have been identified in bacteria, based on the protein complexes mediating RecA loading: RecBCD (AddAB) and RecFOR. Many bacterial species seem to lack some of the components involved in these complexes. The current annotation of the Helicobacter pylori genome suggests that this highly diverse bacterial pathogen has a reduced set of recombination mediator proteins. While it is now clear that homologous recombination plays a critical role in generating H. pylori diversity by allowing genomic DNA rearrangements and integration through transformation of exogenous DNA into the chromosome, no complete mediator complex is deduced from the sequence of its genome. Here we show by bioinformatics analysis the presence of a RecO remote orthologue that allowed the identification of a new set of RecO proteins present in all bacterial species where a RecR but not RecO was previously identified. HpRecO shares less than 15% identity with previously characterized homologues. Genetic dissection of recombination pathways shows that this novel RecO and the remote RecB homologue present in H. pylori are functional in repair and in RecA-dependent intrachromosomal recombination, defining two initiation pathways with little overlap. We found, however, that neither RecOR nor RecB contributes to transformation, suggesting the presence of a third, specialized, RecA-dependent pathway responsible for the integration of transforming DNA into the chromosome of this naturally competent bacteria. These results provide insight into the mechanisms that this successful pathogen uses to generate genetic diversity and adapt to changing environments and new hosts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2475510PMC
August 2008

Development of inducible systems to engineer conditional mutants of essential genes of Helicobacter pylori.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2008 Apr 1;74(7):2095-102. Epub 2008 Feb 1.

Groupe Biologie et Génétique de la Paroi Bactérienne, Unité de Pathogénie Bactérienne des Muqueuses, Department of Microbiology, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris, France.

The Escherichia coli-Helicobacter pylori shuttle vector pHeL2 was modified to introduce the inducible LacI(q)-pTac system of E. coli, in which the promoters were engineered to be under the control of H. pylori RNA polymerase. The amiE gene promoter of H. pylori was taken to constitutively express the LacI(q) repressor. Expression of the reporter gene lacZ was driven by either pTac (pILL2150) or a modified version of the ureI gene promoter in which one or two LacI-binding sites and/or mutated nucleotides between the ribosomal binding site and the ATG start codon (pILL2153 and pILL2157) were introduced. Promoter activity was evaluated by measuring beta-galactosidase activity. pILL2150 is a tightly regulated expression system suitable for the analysis of genes with low-level expression, while pILL2157 is well adapted for the controlled expression of genes encoding recombinant proteins in H. pylori. To exemplify the usefulness of these tools, we constructed conditional mutants of the putative essential pbp1 and ftsI genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins 1 and 3 of H. pylori, respectively. Both genes were cloned into pILL2150 and introduced in the parental H. pylori strain N6. The chromosomally harbored pbp1 and ftsI genes were then inactivated by replacing them with a nonpolar kanamycin cassette. Inactivation was strictly dependent upon addition of isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside. Hence, we were able to construct the first conditional mutants of H. pylori. Finally, we demonstrated that following in vitro methylation of the recombinant plasmids, these could be introduced into a large variety of H. pylori isolates with different genetic backgrounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01348-07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2292604PMC
April 2008

Helicobacter pylori genes involved in avoidance of mutations induced by 8-oxoguanine.

J Bacteriol 2006 Nov 25;188(21):7464-9. Epub 2006 Aug 25.

Département de Radiobiologie et Radiopathologie, UMR 217 CNRS/CEA, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, 18 route du Panorama, F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses, France.

Chromosomal rearrangements and base substitutions contribute to the large intraspecies genetic diversity of Helicobacter pylori. Here we explored the base excision repair pathway for the highly mutagenic 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), a ubiquitous form of oxidized guanine. In most organisms, 8-oxoG is removed by a specific DNA glycosylase (Fpg in bacteria or OGG1 in eukaryotes). In the case where replication of the lesion yields an A/8-oxoG base pair, a second DNA glycosylase (MutY) can excise the adenine and thus avoid the fixation of the mutation in the next round of replication. In a genetic screen for H. pylori genes complementing the hypermutator phenotype of an Escherichia coli fpg mutY strain, open reading frame HP0142, a putative MutY coding gene, was isolated. Besides its capacity to complement E. coli mutY strains, HP0142 expression resulted in a strong adenine DNA glycosylase activity in E. coli mutY extracts. Consistently, the purified protein also exhibited such an activity. Inactivation of HP0142 in H. pylori resulted in an increase in spontaneous mutation frequencies. An Mg-dependent AP (abasic site) endonuclease activity, potentially allowing the processing of the abasic site resulting from H. pylori MutY activity, was detected in H. pylori cell extracts. Disruption of HP1526, a putative xth homolog, confirmed that this gene is responsible for the AP endonuclease activity. The lack of evidence for an Fpg/OGG1 functional homolog is also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00851-06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1636264PMC
November 2006

Suppression of homologous and homeologous recombination by the bacterial MutS2 protein.

Mol Cell 2005 Jan;17(1):113-20

Département de Radiobiologie et Radiopathologie, UMR217 CNRS/CEA, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, BP 6, F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses, France.

In addition to their role in DNA repair, recombination events are associated with processes aimed at providing the genetic variability needed for adaptation and evolution of a population. In bacteria, recombination is involved in the appearance of new variants by allowing the incorporation of exogenous DNA or the reshuffling of endogenous sequences. Here we show that HpMutS2, a protein belonging to the MutS2 family in Helicobacter pylori, is not involved in mismatch repair but inhibits homologous and homeologous recombination. Disruption of HpmutS2 leads to an increased efficiency of exogenous DNA incorporation. HpMutS2 has a selective affinity for DNA structures mimicking recombination intermediates with no specificity for homoduplex DNA or mismatches. The purified protein has an ATPase activity stimulated by the same DNA structures. Finally, we show that HpMutS2 inhibits DNA strand exchange reactions in vitro. Thus, MutS2 proteins are candidates for controlling recombination and therefore genetic diversity in bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2004.11.035DOI Listing
January 2005
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