Publications by authors named "Audrey Souverain"

7 Publications

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Efficacy of an anhydrous stannous fluoride toothpaste for relief of dentine hypersensitivity: A randomized clinical study.

J Clin Periodontol 2020 08 8;47(8):962-969. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

GSK Consumer Healthcare, Weybridge, UK.

Aim: To compare efficacy of an anhydrous 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride/sodium fluoride toothpaste (Test) versus a sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste (Negative control) and a stannous chloride/sodium fluoride toothpaste (Positive control) for dentine hypersensitivity relief after 8 weeks' twice-daily use.

Materials And Methods: In this randomized, examiner-blind, stratified, parallel study, primary and secondary efficacy variables were mean changes in Schiff score (evaporative [air] sensitivity) and tactile threshold (Yeaple probe), respectively, from baseline to Week 8 between Test (n = 62) and Negative control (n = 62). Test and Positive control (n = 61) comparisons were exploratory objectives.

Results: All groups significantly improved from baseline on both dentine hypersensitivity measures (p < .0001). Difference between adjusted mean changes from baseline in Schiff sensitivity scores at Week 8 for Test versus Negative control groups was 0.19 (95% CI 0.002, 0.374), in favour of the Negative control (p = .0476; 12.57% difference). Difference in tactile threshold was -7.20 g (95% CI -16.376, 1.975), and this was not statistically significant (p = .3715; -21.83% difference). Test group showed no significant difference versus Positive control for either measure. Toothpastes were generally well tolerated.

Conclusion: While twice-daily use of Test toothpaste significantly reduced dentine hypersensitivity from baseline, there was no significant advantage over negative or positive controls.

Study Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT03310268.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.13305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7496273PMC
August 2020

In situ efficacy of an experimental toothpaste on enamel rehardening and prevention of demineralisation: a randomised, controlled trial.

BMC Oral Health 2020 04 17;20(1):118. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Cariology, Operative Dentistry and Dental Public Health and Oral Health Research Institute, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 415 Lansing Street, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.

Background: A novel sodium fluoride toothpaste containing lactate ion and polyvinylmethylether-maleic anhydride has been developed to promote enamel remineralisation and resistance to demineralisation. In this in situ study, we compared this toothpaste ('Test') with a stannous fluoride-zinc citrate (SnF-Zn) toothpaste ('Reference') (both 1100-1150 ppm fluoride) and a fluoride-free toothpaste ('Placebo') using an enamel dental erosion-rehardening model.

Methods: In each phase of this randomised, investigator-blind, crossover study, participants wore palatal appliances holding bovine enamel specimens with erosive lesions. They brushed their natural teeth with either the Test, Reference or Placebo toothpastes, then swished the resultant slurry. Specimens were removed at 2 h and 4 h post-brushing and exposed to an in vitro acid challenge. Surface microhardness was measured at each stage; enamel fluoride uptake was measured after in situ rehardening. Surface microhardness recovery, relative erosion resistance, enamel fluoride uptake and acid resistance ratio were calculated at both timepoints.

Results: Sixty two randomised participants completed the study. Test toothpaste treatment yielded significantly greater surface microhardness recovery, relative erosion resistance and enamel fluoride uptake values than either Reference or Placebo toothpastes after 2 and 4 h. The acid resistance ratio value for Test toothpaste was significantly greater than either of the other treatments after 2 h; after 4 h, it was significantly greater versus Placebo only. No treatment-related adverse events were reported.

Conclusions: In this in situ model, the novel-formulation sodium fluoride toothpaste enhanced enamel rehardening and overall protection against demineralisation compared with a fluoride-free toothpaste and a marketed SnF-Zn toothpaste.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT03296072; registered September 28, 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-020-01081-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7164289PMC
April 2020

A randomised bite force study assessing two currently marketed denture adhesive products compared with no-adhesive control.

Clin Exp Dent Res 2019 06 14;5(3):276-283. Epub 2019 May 14.

Oral Health Research Institute Indiana University School of Dentistry Indianapolis Indiana.

Unlike other oral care products, there are limited technologies in the denture adhesive category with the majority based on polymethyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride (PVM/MA) polymer. Carbomer-based denture adhesives are less well studied, and there are few clinical studies directly comparing performance of denture adhesives based on different technologies. This single-centre, randomised, three-treatment, three-period, examiner-blind, crossover study compared a carbomer-based denture adhesive (Test adhesive) with a PVM/MA-based adhesive (Reference adhesive) and no adhesive using incisal bite force measurements (area over baseline over 12 hr; AOB) in participants with a well-made and at least moderately well-fitting complete maxillary denture. Eligible participants were randomised to a treatment sequence and bit on a force transducer with increasing force until their maxillary denture dislodged. This procedure was performed prior to treatment application (baseline) and at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 hr following application. Forty-four participants were included in the modified intent-to-treat population. AOB favoured both Test adhesive to No adhesive (difference: 2.12 lbs; 95% CI [1.25, 3.00];  < 0.0001) and Reference adhesive to No adhesive (difference: 2.76 lbs; 95% CI [1.89, 3.63];  < 0.0001). There was a numerical difference in AOB for Test versus Reference adhesive (-0.63 lbs; [-1.51, 0.25]); however, this was not statistically significant ( = 0.1555). Treatments were generally well tolerated. Both PVM/MA and carbomer-based denture adhesives demonstrated statistically significantly superior denture retention compared with no adhesive over 12 hr, with no statistically significant difference between adhesives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cre2.182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6585581PMC
June 2019

Impact of a vaccination programme in children vaccinated with ProQuad, and ProQuad-specific effectiveness against varicella in the Veneto region of Italy.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 03 5;18(1):103. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Epidemiology, MSD, 162 avenue Jean Jaurès, Lyon, France.

Background: Monovalent varicella vaccines have been available in the Veneto Region of Italy since 2004. In 2006, a single vaccine dose was added to the immunisation calendar for children aged 14 months. ProQuad®, a quadrivalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine, was introduced in May 2007 and used, among other varicella vaccines, until October 2008. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a single dose of ProQuad, and the population impact of a vaccination program (VP) against varicella of any severity in children who received a first dose of ProQuad at 14 months of age in the Veneto Region, METHODS: All children born in 2006/2007, i.e., eligible for varicella vaccination after ProQuad was introduced, were retrospectively followed through individual-level data linkage between the Pedianet database (varicella cases) and the Regional Immunization Database (vaccination status). The direct effectiveness of ProQuad was estimated as the incidence rate of varicella in ProQuad-vaccinated children aged < 6 years compared to children with no varicella vaccination from the same birth cohort. The impact of the VP on varicella was measured by comparing children eligible for the VP to an unvaccinated historical cohort from 1997/1998. The vaccine impact measures were: total effect (the combined effect of ProQuad vaccination and being covered by the Veneto VP); indirect effect (the effect of the VP on unvaccinated individuals); and overall effect (the effect of the VP on varicella in the entire population of the Veneto Region, regardless of their vaccination status).

Results: The adjusted direct effectiveness of ProQuad was 94%. The vaccine impact measures total, indirect, and overall effect were 97%, 43%, and 90%, respectively.

Conclusions: These are the first results on the effectiveness and impact of ProQuad against varicella; data confirmed its high effectiveness, based on immunological correlates for protection. Direct effectiveness is our only ProQuad-specific measure; all impact measures refer at least partially to the VP and should be interpreted in the context of high vaccine coverage and the use of various varicella vaccines in this region. The Veneto Region offered a unique opportunity for this study due to an individual data linkage between Pedianet and the Regional Immunization database.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3017-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5839017PMC
March 2018

Report from enhanced safety surveillance of two influenza vaccines (Vaxigrip and Intanza 15 μg) in two European countries during influenza season 2016/17 and comparison with 2015/16 season.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 02 20;14(2):378-385. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

e Our Lady's Children's Hospital Crumlin , Dublin , Republic of Ireland.

Passive enhanced safety surveillance (ESS) was implemented in the United Kingdom and in the Republic of Ireland for Vaxigrip and Intanza 15 µg influenza vaccines during the 2016/17 influenza season. Lessons learned during 2015/16 ESS implementation were integrated and applied towards the current ESS. The primary objective was to estimate the reporting rates of suspected adverse reactions (ARs) occurring within 7 days of vaccination with Vaxigrip or Intanza 15 µg. For Vaxigrip (N = 962), 17 vaccinees (1.8%) reported 59 suspected ARs (6.1%) within 7 days of vaccination. For Intanza 15 µg (N = 1000), 21 vaccinees (2.1%) reported 101 (10.1%) suspected ARs within 7 days of vaccination. No obvious pattern in the type of suspected ARs or their frequency was observed for either vaccine. None of the frequencies of suspected ARs were above the 2015/16 ESS frequencies for Vaxigrip, whereas for Intanza 15 µg only one AR (oropharyngeal pain) crossed the historical threshold. There was no change in reactogenicity and data was consistent with the safety profiles of the two vaccines. The passive ESS experience gained from season to season will help to contribute to a sustainable safety surveillance system of seasonal influenza vaccines early in the season.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2017.1405882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5806654PMC
February 2018

Estimation of the burden of varicella in Europe before the introduction of universal childhood immunization.

BMC Infect Dis 2017 05 18;17(1):353. Epub 2017 May 18.

Sanofi Pasteur MSD, 162 avenue Jean Jaurès, 69007, Lyon, France.

Background: Varicella is generally considered a mild disease. Disease burden is not well known and country-level estimation is challenging. As varicella disease is not notifiable, notification criteria and rates vary between countries. In general, existing surveillance systems do not capture cases that do not seek medical care, and most are affected by underreporting and underascertainment. We aimed to estimate the overall varicella disease burden in Europe to provide critical information to support decision-making regarding varicella vaccination.

Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review to identify all available epidemiological data on varicella IgG antibody seroprevalence, primary care and hospitalisation incidence, and mortality. We then developed methods to estimate age-specific varicella incidence and annual number of cases by different levels of severity (cases in the community, health care seekers in primary care and hospitals, and deaths) for all countries belonging to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) region and Switzerland.

Results: In the absence of universal varicella immunization, the burden of varicella would be substantial with a total of 5.5 million (95% CI: 4.7-6.4) varicella cases occurring annually across Europe. Variation exists between countries but overall the majority of cases (3 million; 95% CI: 2.7-3.3) would occur in children <5 years. Annually, 3-3.9 million patients would consult a primary care physician, 18,200-23,500 patients would be hospitalised, and 80 varicella-related deaths would occur (95% CI: 19-822).

Conclusions: Varicella disease burden is substantial. Most cases occur in children <5 years old but adults require hospitalisation more often and are at higher risk of death. This information should be considered when planning and evaluating varicella control strategies. A better understanding of the driving factors of country-specific differences in varicella transmission and health care utilization is needed. Improving and standardizing varicella surveillance in Europe, as initiated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), is important to improve data quality to facilitate inter-country comparison.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-017-2445-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5437534PMC
May 2017

Passive enhanced safety surveillance for Vaxigrip and Intanza 15 µg in the United Kingdom and Finland during the northern hemisphere influenza season 2015/16.

Euro Surveill 2017 May;22(18)

Lighthouse Medical Practice, Eastbourne, East Sussex, United Kingdom.

Enhanced safety surveillance (ESS) was conducted in the United Kingdom and Finland for Vaxigrip and Intanza 15 µg to comply with the European Medicines Agency interim guidance aimed to detect any potential increase in reactogenicity in near real time following the annual update of the influenza vaccine strain composition. This pilot passive ESS was established to strengthen safety monitoring by facilitating spontaneous vaccinee reports and estimating near real-time vaccinee exposure. The primary objective was to estimate the reporting rates of suspected adverse reactions (ARs) occurring within 7 days post vaccination during the northern hemisphere 2015/16 influenza season. Among the Vaxigrip vaccinees (n = 1,012), 32 (3.2%) reported a total of 122 suspected ARs, including 110 suspected ARs that occurred within 7 days post vaccination. Among the Intanza 15 µg vaccinees (n = 1,017), 31 (3.0%) reported a total of 114 suspected ARs, including 99 that occurred within 7 days post-vaccination. These results were consistent with the known safety profile of the two vaccines and did not show any change in reactogenicity or safety concerns. This passive ESS showed improved data reporting and demonstrated its suitability to health authorities' requirements; further fine tuning of the methodology is under discussion between all stakeholders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.18.30527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5434878PMC
May 2017