Publications by authors named "Audrey Lacalm"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Septic Arthritis of Facet Joint in Children: A Systematic Review and a 10-year Consecutive Case Series.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 May;40(5):411-417

Service de Réanimation Pédiatrique et d'Accueil des Urgences, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France.

Background: Due to the low resolution of historical imaging technologies, descriptions of Septic Arthritis of Facet Joint (SAFJ) in children are scarce, though severe cases are known. We first aimed to estimate the incidence rate of SAFJ in children; we further aimed to specify SAFJ clinical, imaging and laboratory findings, and identify avenues for appropriate management.

Methods: A 10-year consecutive SAFJ case series using our imaging center database combined with a 50-year systematic review of literature cases.

Results: The mean ± SD incidence of pediatric SAFJ was 0.23 ± 0.4/100,000 children-years. The key symptoms were potty refusal (in toddlers) or painful sitting (78%) and lateralized signs (paravertebral tenderness and/or swelling, 88%). SAFJ diagnosis and extension were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (94%), and found an epidural extension in 8/16 cases. The mean duration of antibiotic treatment was 5.1 weeks. The compliance with guidelines was 79% for empiric and 62% for targeted antibiotic therapies.

Conclusions: SAFJ incidence in children is much greater than expected from the literature. Half of cases were complicated by an epidural infection. Simple clinical symptoms detected as early as the bedside allow a strong suspicion of SAFJ, justifying the use of a first-line MRI to confirm the diagnosis and precisely describe the extension. Focusing on simple clinical signs is key to justify the transfer of a child or the shortening of the delay to obtain an MRI. However, as MRI availability increases in most Western countries, and the capacity for diagnosis increases, the awareness of SAFJ must be spread to avoid missed cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000003031DOI Listing
May 2021

Brain MRI Findings in Severe COVID-19: A Retrospective Observational Study.

Radiology 2020 11 16;297(2):E242-E251. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

From the Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service d'Imagerie 2, Hôpital de Hautepierre, Strasbourg, France (S.K.).

Background Brain MRI parenchymal signal abnormalities have been associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Purpose To describe the neuroimaging findings (excluding ischemic infarcts) in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of patients evaluated from March 23, 2020, to April 27, 2020, at 16 hospitals. Inclusion criteria were () positive nasopharyngeal or lower respiratory tract reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays, () severe COVID-19 infection defined as a requirement for hospitalization and oxygen therapy, () neurologic manifestations, and () abnormal brain MRI findings. Exclusion criteria were patients with missing or noncontributory data regarding brain MRI or brain MRI showing ischemic infarcts, cerebral venous thrombosis, or chronic lesions unrelated to the current event. Categorical data were compared using the Fisher exact test. Quantitative data were compared using the Student test or Wilcoxon test. < .05 represented a significant difference. Results Thirty men (81%) and seven women (19%) met the inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 61 years ± 12 (standard deviation) (age range, 8-78 years). The most common neurologic manifestations were alteration of consciousness (27 of 37, 73%), abnormal wakefulness when sedation was stopped (15 of 37, 41%), confusion (12 of 37, 32%), and agitation (seven of 37, 19%). The most frequent MRI findings were signal abnormalities located in the medial temporal lobe in 16 of 37 patients (43%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 27%, 59%), nonconfluent multifocal white matter hyperintense lesions seen with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted sequences with variable enhancement, with associated hemorrhagic lesions in 11 of 37 patients (30%; 95% CI: 15%, 45%), and extensive and isolated white matter microhemorrhages in nine of 37 patients (24%; 95% CI: 10%, 38%). A majority of patients (20 of 37, 54%) had intracerebral hemorrhagic lesions with a more severe clinical presentation and a higher admission rate in intensive care units (20 of 20 patients [100%] vs 12 of 17 patients without hemorrhage [71%], = .01) and development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (20 of 20 patients [100%] vs 11 of 17 patients [65%], = .005). Only one patient had SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. Conclusion Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 and without ischemic infarcts had a wide range of neurologic manifestations that were associated with abnormal brain MRI scans. Eight distinctive neuroradiologic patterns were described. © RSNA, 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020202222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301613PMC
November 2020

The many faces of prenatal imaging diagnosis of primitive aqueduct obstruction.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2018 Nov 10;22(6):910-918. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Centre Pluridisciplinaire de Diagnostic Prénatal, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Lyon, France; Imagerie Pédiatrique et Fœtale, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Objective: To describe the different prenatal imaging patterns related to primary aqueduct obstruction throughout pregnancy and their impact on prenatal counseling.

Method: Retrospective review of consecutive prenatal cases of isolated aqueduct obstruction diagnosed over a seven-year period (2010-2016). Prenatal imaging findings, postnatal imaging, pathological data and postnatal outcome, were analyzed.

Results: Twelve cases were included. In four cases, termination of pregnancy was performed, due to early severe ventriculomegaly in three cases suggestive of complete aqueduct obstruction. In eight cases in which pregnancy was continued, three different evolving imaging patterns were demonstrated. In three cases the ventriculomegaly evolved rapidly during third trimester and were subsequently associated with abnormal white matter changes on fetal MRI. Theses cases led to premature delivery in two cases and early surgical care in all, with focal cystic parenchymal damage shown on follow-up MRI in two cases. Slowly evolving ventriculomegaly in three cases diagnosed in the second and the third trimester which required delayed surgery during the first year of life. Stable ventriculomegaly in two cases which did not require any surgical procedure.

Conclusion: The diagnosis of primary aqueduct obstruction may be based on different prenatal imaging patterns that include either severe early ventriculomegaly, stable, slowly or rapidly evolving ventriculomegaly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2018.07.015DOI Listing
November 2018

Outcome of isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum: A population-based prospective study.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2018 Jan 5;22(1):82-92. Epub 2017 Sep 5.

Université de Lyon, F-69008 Lyon, France; Radiologie pédiatrique et médecine fœtale, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, F-69677 Bron, France.

Objectives: Neurodevelopmental outcome of apparently isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) remains a major concern with uncertain prognosis. Despite "normal" IQ reported in a majority of patients, the rates of learning disabilities and severe outcome (ranging from 0% to 20%) are not clearly established.

Methods: A large population-based series was investigated based on a longitudinal follow-up until school age, using Wechsler Intelligence scales at 3, 5, and 7 years.

Results: Fifty women were referred to a tertiary referral unit for an "apparently" isolated ACC confirmed by ultrasound, foetal MRI, and karyotyping or array CGH. Twelve pregnancies were terminated, one foetus died in utero, one pregnancy outcome was unknown, and 36 babies were born. Two were lost to follow-up. Thirty-four children could be classified into three groups. Group 1 comprised two children (6%) with severe intellectual disability (one Mowat-Wilson syndrome and one ASD). Group 2 comprised 10 children (29%) who had learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning (VIQ and/or PIQ scores >70 and <85); three patients had hypopituitarism with additional MRI anomalies revealed after birth. Group 3 comprised 22 children (65%) who had both VIQ and PIQ >85 (-1 SD) with a normal school level. Longitudinal follow-up revealed weaker PIQ in younger children which improved with age.

Conclusion: Our data indicate that intellectual ability is normal (IQ > 85) in approximately two thirds and borderline in just over a quarter of patients. However, a low risk of severe cognitive impairment exists, and this information should be shared with couples during prenatal counselling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2017.08.003DOI Listing
January 2018

Antenatal manifestations of inborn errors of metabolism: prenatal imaging findings.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2017 01 16;40(1):103-112. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

Service Maladies Héréditaires du Métabolisme et Dépistage Néonatal, Centre de Biologie et Pathologie, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Lyon Bron, France.

Prenatal manifestations of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are related to severe disorders involving metabolic pathways active in the fetal period and not compensated by maternal or placental metabolism. Some prenatal imaging findings can be suggestive of such conditions-especially in cases of consanguinity and/or recurrence of symptoms-after exclusion of the most frequent nonmetabolic etiologies. Most of these prenatal imaging findings are nonspecific. They include mainly ascites and hydrops fetalis, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, echogenic kidneys, epiphyseal stippling, craniosynostosis, and a wide spectrum of dysostoses. These anomalies can be isolated, but in most cases, an IEM is suggested by an association of features. It must be stressed that the diagnosis of an IEM in the prenatal period is based on a close collaboration between specialists in fetal imaging, medicine, genetics, biology, and pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-016-9992-3DOI Listing
January 2017

Expanding Porencephalic Cysts: Prenatal Imaging and Differential Diagnosis.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2017 14;41(3):226-233. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Département d'Imagerie Pédiatrique et Fœtale, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Lyon-Bron, France.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to report the prenatal imaging findings of expanding porencephalic cyst, which have not been previously described in the prenatal period, and to underline that these lesions can involve the cerebellum and not exclusively the supratentorial structures.

Materials And Methods: This is a retrospective observational study of five cases with a prenatal diagnosis of expanding porencephalic cyst.

Results: The cystic lesion was located in the supra- and infratentorial space in 2 cases, respectively, or in both in one case. The lesion expanded into the pericerebral space or communicated with the ventricular system in 4 and 1 cases, respectively. Differential diagnosis included tumoural lesion in 2 cases because of internal echogenic components related to haemorrhagic changes, which were identified using foetal MRI, and arachnoid cyst in 2 cases because of expansion into the pericerebral space. In the last case, communication within the ventricular system mimicked a unilateral ventriculomegaly.

Conclusion: Differential diagnosis of any cystic lesion with extra-axial component should include expanding porencephalic cyst. Foetal MRI is helpful to differentiate this entity from extra-axial lesions such as arachnoid cysts but also from rare tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000447740DOI Listing
February 2018

Sequential MR Assessment of the Susceptibility Vessel Sign and Arterial Occlusion in Acute Stroke.

J Neuroimaging 2016 05 10;26(3):355-9. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

Cerebrovascular Unit, Hôpital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69677, Bron Cedex, France.

Purpose: Susceptibility vessel sign (SVS) may likely influence recanalization after thrombolysis. We assessed, through the European sequential MRI database "I-KNOW," the relationship between the presence of SVS on T2-weighted gradient echo imaging, its angiographic counterpart on magnetic resonance angiography and its subsequent impact on recanalization after thrombolysis.

Materials And Methods: Initial clinical and MRI characteristics and early follow up were analyzed in acute ischemic stroke patients treated with rt-Pa within 4.5 hours. Patients underwent multimodal MRI at admission. Sequential imaging performed 3 hours, 2 days and 1 month later allowed the analysis of SVS changes and recanalization.

Results: Fifty patients were included in the study. SVS was observed in 54% of cases at admission. SVS was still present in 46% patients at 3 hours, 16% at 2 days, and 0% at 1 month. It was an independent predictor of no recanalization after thrombolysis (P = .04). After 3 hours, SVS disappeared in only 4 cases, and was not linked with recanalization on MRA. Conversely, when SVS persisted, a partial or complete recanalization was observed in 9 and 6 cases, respectively.

Conclusions: SVS is a predictor of lower recanalization rate. Its disappearance is not necessarily correlated with recanalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12312DOI Listing
May 2016

Prenatal Caffey disease (prenatal cortical hyperostosis): severe forms with favorable outcome.

Prenat Diagn 2015 Apr 3;35(4):409-11. Epub 2015 Mar 3.

Service obstétrique, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfants, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.4567DOI Listing
April 2015

Prenatal diagnosis of osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis.

Prenat Diagn 2015 Mar 26;35(3):302-4. Epub 2014 Nov 26.

Laboratoire de Pathologie, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, Lyon, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.4513DOI Listing
March 2015

Dilatation of the supra-pineal recess on prenatal imaging: early clue for obstructive ventriculomegaly downstream of the third ventricle.

Prenat Diagn 2014 Apr 6;34(4):394-401. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

Centre Pluridisciplinaire de Diagnostic Prénatal, Hopital Femme Mère Enfant, Lyon-Bron, France.

Objective: The objective of this article is to describe the diagnostic significance of prenatal identification of dilated supra-pineal recess (SPR) in cases of ventriculomegaly.

Method: A retrospective study, based on neurosonography and magnetic resonance imaging, of a series of five prenatal cases referred to our institution because of ventriculomegaly associated with dilatation of the SPR.

Results: Ventriculomegaly of obstructive origin was diagnosed in all cases and related to obstruction downstream of the third ventricle. The diagnosis in the five prenatal cases, confirmed on early post-natal imaging, included the following: malformative aqueductal stenosis, ischemic-haemorrhagic parenchymal supra-tentorial insult complicated by aqueductal stenosis, Blake's pouch cyst, cystic lesion of the posterior fossa and sub-ependymal haemorrhage and Dandy-Walker malformation. In all cases, the third ventricle was prominent and associated with a dilated SPR. In two cases, the dilatation of the SPR was an early clue to e obstructive ventriculomegaly, which was initially minor and became severe on follow-up imaging.

Conclusion: The presence of a dilated SPR prenatally in the presence of even mild ventriculomegaly should prompt evaluation and follow-up for the presence of obstructive ventriculomegaly with obstruction located downstream of the third ventricle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.4323DOI Listing
April 2014