Publications by authors named "Aude Brac de la Perriere"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Modified-release Hydrocortisone in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Background: Standard glucocorticoid therapy in congenital adrenal hyperplasia regularly fails to control androgen excess, causing glucocorticoid over-exposure and poor health outcomes. We investigated whether modified-release hydrocortisone (MR-HC), which mimics physiologic cortisol secretion, could improve disease control.

Methods: 6-month randomized phase III study, MR-HC versus standard glucocorticoid, followed by single-arm MR-HC extension study. Primary outcomes were change in 24-hour standard deviation score (SDS) of androgen precursor 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) for phase III, and efficacy, safety and tolerability of MR-HC for the extension study.

Results: The phase III study recruited 122 adult CAH patients. While the study failed its primary outcome at 6 months, there was evidence of better biochemical control on MR-HC, with lower 17OHP SDS at 4 (P=0.007) and 12 (P=0.019) weeks, and between 07:00h to 15:00h (P=0.044) at 6 months. The percentage of patients with controlled 09:00h serum 17OHP (<1200 ng/dl) was 52% at baseline, at 6 months 91% for MR-HC and 71% for standard therapy (P=0.002), and 80% for MR-HC at 18 months extension. The median daily hydrocortisone dose was 25mg at baseline, at 6 months 31mg for standard therapy and 30mg for MR-HC, and after 18 months 20mg MR-HC. Three adrenal crises occurred in phase III, none on MR-HC and 4 in extension study. MR-HC resulted in patient-reported benefit including menses restoration in eight patients (one on standard therapy), and 3 patient and 4 partner pregnancies (none on standard therapy).

Conclusion: MR-HC improved biochemical disease control in adults with reduction in steroid dose over time and patient-reported benefit.
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February 2021

Adherence to growth hormone therapy guidelines in a real-world French cohort of adult patients with growth hormone deficiency.

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2021 Feb 5;82(1):59-68. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Novo Nordisk, 100 Esplanade du Général de Gaulle, 92400 Paris, France.

Objective: Using real-world data from patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), we evaluated whether clinical practice in France adheres to international guidelines regarding somatropin dose adjustment, and assessed the long-term effectiveness and safety of somatropin.

Methods: Data were obtained from a national prospective systematic longitudinal routine follow-up programme of naive/non-naive adults with childhood-onset (CO) or adult-onset (AO) GHD treated with Norditropin® (Novo Nordisk A/S).

Results: Between 2003 and 2006, 331 treatment-naive and non-naive adults with severe GHD were enrolled and followed for a median duration of approximately 5 years; 328 patients were available for analysis. At baseline, mean patient age was 39.2 years; median standard deviation score (SDS) for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level was -2.2 in naive patients, subsequently fluctuating between -0.1 and +0.3 SDS during the study period. Mean GH doses ranged between 0.25 and 0.51mg/day (naive patients) and 0.39 and 0.46mg/day (non-naive patients). Despite generally receiving a higher somatropin dose, women (naive/non-naive) tended to have lower IGF-1 levels than men. Median somatropin dose was consistently higher in patients with CO-GHD than patients with AO-GHD. Extreme IGF-1 values (<-2 or >+2 SDS) were not systematically accompanied by somatropin dose adjustments. Waist circumference improved in approximately one third of patients, at a mean 3.5 years. Somatropin was well tolerated; there were no cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events during the 5-year analysis period.

Conclusion: Current clinical practice of physicians in France follows international guidelines regarding somatropin dose adjustment in adults with GHD. However, dose adjustments are not always sufficient, notably in women, and treatment effects may have been delayed due to low somatropin dose (Clinical trial registration NCT01580605).
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February 2021

Exposure to Glucocorticoids in the First Part of Fetal Life is Associated with Insulin Secretory Defect in Adult Humans.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 03;105(3)

Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Lariboisière Hospital, APHP, Paris, France.

Objective: High glucocorticoid levels in rodents inhibit development of beta cells during fetal life and lead to insulin deficiency in adulthood. To test whether similar phenomena occur in humans, we compared beta-cell function in adults who were exposed to glucocorticoids during the first part of fetal life with that of nonexposed subjects.

Research Design And Methods: The study was conducted in 16 adult participants exposed to glucocorticoids during the first part of fetal life and in 16 nonexposed healthy participants with normal glucose tolerance who were matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Exposed participants had been born to mothers who were treated with dexamethasone 1 to 1.5 mg/day from the sixth gestational week (GW) to prevent genital virilization in children at risk of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. We selected offspring of mothers who stopped dexamethasone before the 18th GW following negative genotyping of the fetus. Insulin and glucagon secretion were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and graded intravenous (IV) glucose and arginine tests. Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp.

Results: Age, BMI, and anthropometric characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. Insulinogenic index during OGTT and insulin sensitivity during the clamp were similar in the 2 groups. In exposed subjects, insulin secretion during graded IV glucose infusion and after arginine administration decreased by 17% (P = 0.02) and 22% (P = 0.002), respectively, while glucagon secretion after arginine increased.

Conclusion: Overexposure to glucocorticoids during the first part of fetal life is associated with lower insulin secretion at adult age, which may lead to abnormal glucose tolerance later in life.
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March 2020

MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE Hyperandrogenic states in women: pitfalls in laboratory diagnosis.

Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Apr 16;178(4):R141-R154. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

Laboratoire d'Hormonologie, d'Endocrinologie Moléculaire et des Maladies Rares, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France.

Measuring total testosterone level is the first-line approach in assessing androgen excess in women. The main pitfalls in measuring testosterone relate to its low concentration and to the structural similarity between circulating androgens and testosterone, requiring accurate techniques with high specificity and sensitivity. These goals can be achieved by immunoassay using a specific anti-testosterone monoclonal antibody, ideally after an extraction step. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) will be commonly used for measuring testosterone, providing optimal accuracy with a low limit of detection. Yet, the pitfalls of these two techniques are well identified and must be recognized and systematically addressed. In general, laboratories using direct testosterone immunoassay and mass spectrometry need to operate within a quality framework and be actively engaged in external quality control processes and standardization, so as to ensure appropriate interpretation irrespective of the particular laboratory. Circulating testosterone is strongly bound to sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and SHBG levels are typically low in overweight hyperandrogenic patients. Thus, low SHBG may decrease circulating testosterone to normal values, which will mask androgen excess status. One way to avoid this pitfall, awaiting direct free testosterone assays that are yet to be developed, is to measure SHBG and calculate free testosterone. A few other pitfalls will be discussed in this review, including those of adrenal androgen exploration, with the aim of helping clinicians to better handle laboratory investigation of androgen excess disorders in women.
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April 2018

Triple-A syndrome: a wide spectrum of adrenal dysfunction.

Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Mar 13;178(3):199-207. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Univ LyonUniversité Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France.

Objective: Triple-A or Allgrove syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in the gene, which encodes a nucleoporin named ALADIN. It is characterized by a classical clinical triad: alacrima, achalasia and adrenal insufficiency, the canonic symptoms that are associated with progressive peripheral neuropathy. Only a few cohorts have been reported. The objective of the present study was to characterize the various spectra of adrenal function in Triple-A patients.

Methods: A retrospective clinical and biological monitoring of 14 patients (10 families) was done in a single multidisciplinary French center. All had gene sequenced and adrenal function evaluation.

Results: Nine different mutations were found, including one new mutation: c.755G>C, p.(Trp252Ser). Regarding adrenal function, defects of the zona fasciculata and reticularis were demonstrated by increased basal ACTH levels and low DHEAS levels in all cases regardless of the degree of glucocorticoid deficiency. In contrast, mineralocorticoid function was always conserved: i.e., normal plasma renin level associated with normal aldosterone level. The main prognostic feature was exacerbation of neuropathy and cognitive disorders.

Conclusions: These data suggest that, in Triple-A patients, adrenal function can be deficient, insufficient or compensated. In our cohort after the first decade of life, there does not appear to be any degradation of adrenal function over time. However, patients with compensated adrenal function should be informed and educated to manage a glucocorticoid replacement therapy in case of stressful conditions, with no need for systematic long-term treatment.
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March 2018

Hormone therapy and patient satisfaction with treatment, in a large cohort of diverse disorders of sex development.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018 03 17;88(3):397-408. Epub 2017 Dec 17.

Klinik für Pädiatrische Endokrinologie und Diabetologie, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Objectives: To describe and investigate the hormone treatments in individuals with different forms of disorders of sex development (DSD) and the patients' own views on their treatment.

Design: Multicentre cross-sectional clinical evaluation, dsd-LIFE in 6 European countries from February 2014 to September 2015.

Participants: A total of 1040 adolescents and adults (≥16 years) with different DSD conditions.

Main Outcomes Measures: Hormone replacement, information received and patient satisfaction.

Results: Included were women with Turner syndrome (301), 46,XX GD (n = 20), and women with 45,X/46XY (n = 24). Individuals with Klinefelter syndrome (n = 218), 46,XX males (n = 6), individuals with different forms of 46,XY DSD (n = 243): 46,XY DSD conditions (n = 222), men with 45,X/46XY (n = 21) 46,XX CAH, (n = 226). Oestrogen ± progestin was used by 306 (81%) individuals, 72 (19%) received ethinylestradiol and 198 had testosterone treatment. The overall adherence was good, with 10% of women with oestrogen and 5% of those on testosterone had stopped the medication despite 20% reporting dissatisfaction with the treatment, mostly because of psychological side effects. Glucocorticoid replacement in patients with CAH was very seldom stopped. More than 75% were satisfied with the information about the treatment, but the satisfaction with information about treatment options and side effects was lower.

Conclusions: More than 50% in the total cohort had hormone replacement. Although adherence was generally good, this study shows that hormone replacement therapy may be improved. This may be achieved by better individualization of the treatment and by providing specific information to patients regarding both long-term and short-term hormonal effects and side effects.
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March 2018

Reconsidering olfactory bulb magnetic resonance patterns in Kallmann syndrome.

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2017 Oct 12;78(5):455-461. Epub 2017 Aug 12.

Département universitaire d'anatomie de Rockefeller, UFR médecine Lyon-Est, 8, avenue Rockefeller, 69373 Lyon, France; Service de radiologie, centre hospitalier Lyon-Sud, hospices civils de Lyon, 165, chemin du Grand-Revoyet, 69495 Pierre-Bénite, France; CREATIS, CNRS UMR 5220 Inserm U1044, université Lyon 1, 7, avenue Jean-Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne, France. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to perform magnetic resonance imaging assessment of olfactory pathway and skull base abnormalities in Kallmann syndrome (KS) patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and olfaction disorder.

Methods: Magnetic resonance brain patterns were retrospectively studied in 19 patients clinically classified as KS. Qualitative assessment of olfactory bulb region comprised bulb atrophy and rectus and medial orbital gyrus ptosis; quantitative assessment measured olfactory fossa depth and width, sulcus depth and ethmoid angle. Results were compared to an age- and sex-matched control population (n=19) with no impairment in the region of interest. Sixteen of the 19 KS patients were genetically screened for mutations associated with KS.

Results: On the above qualitative criteria, 15 of the 19 patients presented either unilateral (n=2) or bilateral (n=13) olfactory bulb agenesis; 16 showed tract agenesis and 16 showed gyrus malformation (ptosis or absence). On the quantitative criteria, 18 of the 19 patients showed abnormal sulcus depth and/or olfactory fossa malformation and/or abnormal ethmoid angle.

Conclusion: The presence of malformation abnormalities in the olfactory fossae of 18 of the 19 patients appears to be a key factor for etiological diagnosis of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and should enable targeted study of genes involved in KS.
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October 2017

Spontaneous fertility and pregnancy outcomes amongst 480 women with Turner syndrome.

Hum Reprod 2016 Apr 13;31(4):782-8. Epub 2016 Feb 13.

Université Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75012 Paris, France Service d'Endocrinologie et Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la Croissance (CRMERC), Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Paris, France

Study Question: What are the prevalence and the outcomes of spontaneous pregnancies (SP) in a large cohort of French women with Turner syndrome (TS)?

Summary Answer: Amongst 480 women with TS, 27 women (5.6%) had a total of 52 SP, with 30 full-term deliveries for 18 women.

What Is Known Already: Primary ovarian insufficiency is a classic feature of TS. So far, few studies have evaluated the rate of SP in these patients.

Study Design, Size, Duration: The French Ministry of Health set up a National Reference Centre for Rare Growth Disorders (CRMERC), including TS. We studied a cohort of adult TS patients from seven endocrine units (Saint-Antoine, Pitié-Salpêtrière, Bicêtre, Lyon, Marseille, Brest, Reims Hospitals) belonging to this centre, between January 1999 and January 2014.

Participants/materials, Setting, Methods: A total of 480 adult patients with TS were included. The patients' clinical characteristics, karyotypes and reproductive histories had been collected, after informed consent, in a web database called CEMARA. Our reference population was issued from a database belonging to the French Health Ministry, collecting pregnancy outcomes in the French general population. In order to find predictive characteristics of SP, TS with spontaneous pregnancies were compared with non-pregnant TS patients from our cohort.

Main Results And The Role Of Chance: There were 27 patients (5.6%) who had a total of 52 SP. The two predictive factors which correlated with occurrence of a SP were spontaneous menarche and mosaic karyotype. The median delay to conception was 6 months (range 0-84). Miscarriage occurred in 16 pregnancies, 30.8% versus 15% in the general French population (P < 0.01). The remaining pregnancy outcomes were legal abortion (n = 2), medical interruption (n = 3), intrauterine fetal death (n = 1) and delivery at term (n = 30). Caesarean section rates were higher than in the general population, respectively 46.7% versus 21% (P < 0.001). Pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders (PHDs) occurred in four cases (13.3%), including two cases of mild pre-eclampsia (6.7%). Neither aortic root dilatation nor aortic dissection were observed. The median birthweight was 3030 g (range 2020-3460). Two cases of TS were identified in the 17 daughters issued from this cohort.

Limitations, Reasons For Caution: It would have been interesting to evaluate AMH levels and SP occurrence, as a predictive factor. Unfortunately, hormonal measurements were missing for some patients. Prospective studies are necessary to display prognostic values of AMH for SP and thus better target fertility preservation programmes in TS patients.

Wider Implications Of The Findings: This study suggests that pregnancy outcomes in SPs are more favourable than those after oocyte donation in TS patients. However, the risk of fetal chromosomal abnormalities remains high. Our study will be useful in order to give patients with TS, their families, paediatricians and physicians involved in reproduction, better counselling concerning their fertility.

Study Funding/competing Interests: Funding was provided by the Association pour la recherche Claude Bernard, Paris France All authors claim no competing interests.

Trial Registration Number: NA.
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April 2016

Clinical Outcome, Hormonal Status, Gonadotrope Axis, and Testicular Function in 219 Adult Men Born With Classic 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency. A French National Survey.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015 Jun 30;100(6):2303-13. Epub 2015 Mar 30.

University Paris-Sud (C.B., L.E., J.Y.), Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France; Department of Pediatric Endocrinology (C.B., L.E.), Bicêtre Hospital, F-94275 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France; French Reference Center of Rare Disorders of Sexual Development, (C.B., L.E., A.B.d.l.P., Y.M., V.T.-G., J.Y.), F-94275 Le Kremlin Bicetre, France; Department of Endocrinology (P.R.-P.), Tours Hospital, F-37380 Tours, France; Department of Endocrinology (A.B.d.l.P.), Lyon University Hospital, F-69000 Lyon, France; Department of Endocrinology (F.I.), Angers Hospital, Angers, France; Department of Endocrinology (V.K.), Brest University Hospital, F-29600 Brest, France; Department of Endocrinology (V.P.-V.), Brabois Hospital, F-54200 Nancy, France; Department of Endocrinology (D.Dr.), Nantes University Hospital, F-44000 Nantes, France; Department of Reproductive Endocrinology (S.C.-M.), St-Antoine Hospital, F-75012 Paris, France; Department of Endocrinology (F.G., D.P.), Rennes Hospital, F-35203 Rennes, France; Department of Endocrinology (T.B.), La Timone Hospital, F-13385 Marseilles, France; Department of Endocrinology (Y.R.), Hospital Nacre, Caen, France; Department of Endocrinology (F.S.), Jean Minjoz Hospital, Besançon, France; Department of Endocrinology (X.P.), Poitiers Hospital, Poitiers, France; Department of Endocrinology (G.C.), Strasbourg Hospital, F-67000 Strasbourg, France; Department of Endocrinology (B.D.), Reims Hospital, F-51100 Reims, France; Department of Endocrinology (I.T.), Clermond-Ferrand Hospital, F-63100 Clermond-Ferrand, France; Department of Endocrinology (M.-L.R.-S.), Ambroise Paré Hospital, F-92104 Boulogne-Billancourt, France; Department of Endocrinology (PE), Orléans Hospital, Orléans, France; Department of Endocrinology (J.B.), Cochin Hospital, Paris, France; Department of Endocrinology (J.-M.K.), Rouen Teaching Hospital, F-76031 Rouen, France; Department of Endocrinology, Toulouse Teaching Hospital, F-31059; Department of Pediatric

Context: Outcomes of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) have been widely studied in children and women, but less so in men.

Objective: The objective was to analyze data from a network of metropolitan French teaching hospitals on the clinical outcome of classic 21OHD in a large sample of congenital adrenal hyperplasia/21OHD-genotyped adult men, and particularly the impact of 21OHD on the gonadotrope axis, testicular function, and fertility.

Methods: From April 2011 to June 2014, tertiary endocrinology departments provided data for 219 men with 21OHD (ages, 18-70 y; 73.6% salt wasters, 26.4% simple virilizers). Testicular sonography was performed in 164 men, and sperm analysis was performed in 71 men.

Results: Mean final height was 7.8 cm lower than in a reference population. Obesity was more common, and mean blood pressure was lower than in the reference population. None of the patients were diabetic, and lipid status was generally normal. Blood electrolyte status was normal in the vast majority of men, despite markedly elevated ACTH and renin levels. Serum progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione levels were above normal in the vast majority of cases. Hormonal profiling variously showed a normal gonadotrope-testicular axis, gonadotropin deficiency, or primary testicular insufficiency. Testicular sonography revealed testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) in 34% of 164 men. Serum inhibin B and FSH levels were significantly lower and higher, respectively, in patients with TARTs. Severe oligospermia or azoospermia was found in 42% of patients and was significantly more prevalent in men with TARTs (70%) than in men with normal testes (3.6%; P < .0001). Among men living with female partners, TARTs were significantly more prevalent in those who had not fathered children.

Conclusion: We report the spectrum of testicular/gonadotrope axis impairment in the largest cohort of 21OHD men studied to date. Our results suggest that French men with 21OHD managed in specialized centers frequently have impaired exocrine testicular function but that its reproductive implications are often overlooked.
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June 2015

Late prenatal dexamethasone and phenotype variations in 46,XX CAH: concerns about current protocols and benefits for surgical procedures.

J Pediatr Urol 2014 Oct 15;10(5):941-7. Epub 2014 Mar 15.

Service d'Urologie Pédiatrique, Hôpital Mère-Enfant, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Lyon, GHE, 59, boulevard Pinel, 69677 Bron Cedex, France. Electronic address:

Objective: To describe the action of prenatal dexamethasone (PreDex) on the anatomy of female congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) genitalia when started at later stages of gestation.

Materials And Methods: Our group follows a large cohort of French CAH patients who underwent PreDex therapy, of whom 258 were recently reported. Four 46,XX patients with a delayed PreDex treatment presented with a virilized genitalia and required surgical reconstruction. This is a retrospective report on genital phenotyping at the time of surgery of these four patients who began PreDex therapy at 8, 12, 20, and 28 weeks of gestation.

Results: Although this series is limited in number, the anatomical description of the length of the genital tubercle, the height of the urethra-vaginal confluence, and the degree of fusion of the genital folds seems to be dependent upon the starting date of PreDex. Most PreDex treatments prescribed up to now have covered the full duration of gestation.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PreDex therapy could be limited to the period of the partitioning window. It is hoped that further prospective multicentric clinical studies will obtain ethical approval in order to elucidate the place and protocols of PreDex therapy in the management of CAH.
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October 2014

Modulation of the postprandial phase by beta-glucan in overweight subjects: effects on glucose and insulin kinetics.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2009 Mar;53(3):361-9

Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Rhône-Alpes, Université de lyon, Lyon, France.

Decreasing the postprandial glucose response is potentially of major importance to public health when low-glycemic index or high-fibre content foods are associated with a decreased risk of diabetes. We investigated in overweight subjects the effect of adding beta-glucan (BG) to a polenta (Pol) meal on postprandial metabolism and glucose bioavailability using stable isotopes. In this single-blind, randomized, crossover trial, 12 subjects ate two meals containing Pol with (Pol + BG) or without (Pol) 5 g BG. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, nonesterified fatty acids, triacylglycerol, total and exogenous glucose kinetics were assessed for 6 h postprandially. The kinetics of total and exogenous glucose importantly differed between the meals, but not the quantity of total and exogenous glucose appearing in plasma. Less total and exogenous glucose appeared during the first 120 min after the Pol + BG meal; the phenomenon was then reversed (both p < 0.0001). After 120 min, glucose and insulin responses declined, but remained higher after the Pol + BG meal (p < 0.05) in parallel to the inhibition of lipolysis. The endogenous glucose production (EGP) was significantly more inhibited after the Pol + BG meal. The addition of BG slowed the appearance of glucose in plasma, resulting in longer-lasting insulin secretion which exerted a prolonged inhibition of EGP and lipolysis.
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March 2009

Daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched yoghurts: effects on energy metabolism and adipose tissue gene expression in healthy subjects.

Br J Nutr 2007 Feb;97(2):273-80

Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France.

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of positional and geometric isomers of conjugated dienoic derivatives of linoleic acid. The present study was designed to determine whether 14-week CLA supplementation as triacylglycerols (3.76 g) with a 50 : 50 combination of the two main isomers (35 % cis-9, trans-11 and 35 % trans-10, cis-12) added to flavoured yoghurt-like products was able to alter body composition in healthy subjects and to alter the expression of several key adipose tissue genes (PPAR gamma, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2)). Forty-four healthy subjects were randomly assigned to consume daily either a CLA-supplemented yoghurt-like product or a placebo yoghurt for 98 d. There were no significant effects of CLA supplementation on body weight, fat mass or free fat mass. Basal energy expenditure expressed as kg free fat mass increased significantly in the CLA group (123.3 (SEM 2.5) kJ/kg free fat mass per d on day 98 v. 118.7 (SEM 2.3) kJ/kg free fat mass per d on day 0, P = 0.03). PPAR gamma mRNA gene expression increased significantly with CLA supplementation (53 (SEM 20) %, P < 0.01) and a significant reduction in mRNA levels of HSL was observed ( - 42 (SEM 7) %, P = 0.01). The levels of UCP-2 and LPL mRNA were not affected. The present results suggest that a 98 d supplementation diet with a 50 : 50 mixture of the two CLA isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 in a dairy product was unable to alter body composition, although a significant increase in the RMR has been induced. Moreover, changes in mRNA PPAR gamma and HSL in adipose tissue were recorded.
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February 2007