Publications by authors named "Attila Sas"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of Disease-Modifying Therapy on Disability in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Over 15 Years.

Neurology 2021 02 28;96(5):e783-e797. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

From CORe (T.K., I.D., S.S., C.M.), Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne; MS Centre (T.K., I.D., S.S., C.M.), Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia; Karolinska Institute (T.S.), Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience (T.S., V.J., A.v.d.W., O.S., H.B.), Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne; Burnet Institute (T.S.), Melbourne, Australia; Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience (D.H., E.K.H.), General University Hospital and Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic; Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs (M. Trojano), University of Bari, Italy; Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena (G.I.), Sevilla, Spain; Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences (A.L.), University "G. d'Annunzio," Chieti; Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (A.L.), University of Bologna, IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Italy; Hopital Notre Dame (A.P., M.G., P.D.), Montreal; CHUM and Universite de Montreal (A.P., M.G., P.D.); CISSS Chaudière-Appalache (P.G.), Levis, Canada; Department of Neurology (V.J., A.v.d.W., O.S., H.B.), Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; Neuro Rive-Sud (F. Grand'Maison), Quebec, Canada; Department of Neuroscience (P.S., D.F.), Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Modena, Italy; Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (V.S.), Isfahan, Iran; Amiri Hospital (R. Alroughani), Kuwait City, Kuwait; Zuyderland Ziekenhuis (R.H.), Sittard, the Netherlands; Medical Faculty (M. Terzi), 19 Mayis University, Samsun; KTU Medical Faculty Farabi Hospital (C.B.), Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey; School of Medicine and Public Health (J.L.-S.), University Newcastle; Department of Neurology (J.L.-S.), John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, Australia; UOC Neurologia (E.P.), Azienda Sanitaria Unica Regionale Marche-AV3, Macerata, Italy; Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc (V.V.P.), Brussels, Belgium; University of Parma (F. Granella); C. Mondino National Neurological Institute (R.B.), Pavia; Azienda Ospedaliera di Rilievo Nazionale San Giuseppe Moscati Avellino (D.S.), Italy; Flinders University (M. Slee), Adelaide; Westmead Hospital (S.V.), Sydney, Australia; Nemocnice Jihlava (R. Ampapa), Czech Republic; University of Queensland (P.M.), Brisbane; Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (P.M.), Brisbane, Australia; Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol (C.R.-T.), Badalona, Spain; CSSS Saint-Jérôme (J.P.), Canada; Hospital Universitario Donostia (J.O.), Paseo de Begiristain, San Sebastián, Spain; Hospital Italiano (E.C.), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Brain and Mind Centre (M.B.), University of Sydney, Australia; INEBA-Institute of Neuroscience Buenos Aires (M.L.S.), Argentina; Hospital de Galdakao-Usansolo (J.L.S.-M.), Galdakao, Spain; Liverpool Hospital (S. Hodgkinson), Sydney, Australia; Jahn Ferenc Teaching Hospital (C.R.), Budapest, Hungary; Craigavon Area Hospital (S. Hughes), UK; Jewish General Hospital (F.M.), Montreal, Canada; Deakin University (C.S.), Geelong; Monash Medical Centre (E.B.), Melbourne, Australia; South East Trust (O.G.), Belfast, UK; Perron Institute (A.K.), University of Western Australia, Nedlands; Institute of Immunology and Infectious Diseases (A.K.), Murdoch University; Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital (A.K.), Perth, Australia; Department of Neurology (T.C.), Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Hungary; Bombay Hospital Institute of Medical Sciences (B.S.), Mumbai, India; St Vincents Hospital (N.S.), Fitzroy, Melbourne, Australia; Veszprém Megyei Csolnoky Ferenc Kórház zrt (I.P.), Veszprem, Hungary; Royal Hobart Hospital (B.T.), Australia; Semmelweis University Budapest (M. Simo), Hungary; Central Military Emergency University Hospital (C.-A.S.), Bucharest; Titu Maiorescu University (C.-A.S.), Bucharest, Romania; BAZ County Hospital (A.S.), Miskolc, Hungary; and Box Hill Hospital (H.B.), Melbourne, Australia.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that immunotherapy prevents long-term disability in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), we modeled disability outcomes in 14,717 patients.

Methods: We studied patients from MSBase followed for ≥1 year, with ≥3 visits, ≥1 visit per year, and exposed to MS therapy, and a subset of patients with ≥15-year follow-up. Marginal structural models were used to compare the cumulative hazards of 12-month confirmed increase and decrease in disability, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) step 6, and the incidence of relapses between treated and untreated periods. Marginal structural models were continuously readjusted for patient age, sex, pregnancy, date, disease course, time from first symptom, prior relapse history, disability, and MRI activity.

Results: A total of 14,717 patients were studied. During the treated periods, patients were less likely to experience relapses (hazard ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-0.82, = 0.0016), worsening of disability (0.56, 0.38-0.82, = 0.0026), and progress to EDSS step 6 (0.33, 0.19-0.59, = 0.00019). Among 1,085 patients with ≥15-year follow-up, the treated patients were less likely to experience relapses (0.59, 0.50-0.70, = 10) and worsening of disability (0.81, 0.67-0.99, = 0.043).

Conclusion: Continued treatment with MS immunotherapies reduces disability accrual by 19%-44% (95% CI 1%-62%), the risk of need of a walking aid by 67% (95% CI 41%-81%), and the frequency of relapses by 40-41% (95% CI 18%-57%) over 15 years. This study provides evidence that disease-modifying therapies are effective in improving disability outcomes in relapsing-remitting MS over the long term.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that, for patients with relapsing-remitting MS, long-term exposure to immunotherapy prevents neurologic disability.
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February 2021

Redefining the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS): The effect of sex and onset phenotype.

Mult Scler 2020 11 31;26(13):1765-1774. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia.

Background: The Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) is a widely used measure of the disability progression rate. However, the global MSSS may not be the best basis for comparison between all patient groups.

Objective: We evaluated sex-specific and onset phenotype-specific MSSS matrices to determine if they were more effective than the global MSSS as a basis for comparison within these subsets.

Methods: Using a large international dataset of multiple sclerosis (MS) patient records and the original MSSS algorithm, we constructed global, sex-specific and onset phenotype-specific MSSS matrices. We compared matrices using permutation analysis.

Results: Our final dataset included 30,203 MS cases, with 28.9% males and 6.5% progressive-onset cases. Our global MSSS matrix did not differ from previously published data ( > 0.05). The progressive-onset-specific matrix differed significantly from the relapsing-onset-specific matrix ( < 0.001), with lower MSSS attributed to cases with the same Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS) and disease duration. When evaluated with a simulation, using an onset-specific MSSS improved statistical power in mixed cohorts. There were no significant differences by sex.

Conclusion: The differences in the disability accrual rate between progressive- and relapsing-onset MS have a significant effect on MSSS. An onset-specific MSSS should be used when comparing the rate of disability progression among progressive-onset cases and for mixed cohorts.
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November 2020

Assessment of cognitive function in female rheumatoid arthritis patients: associations with cerebrovascular pathology, depression and anxiety.

Rheumatol Int 2020 Apr 25;40(4):529-540. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Department of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

We assessed cognitive function of female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and analyze the determinants, with special focus on cerebrovascular morphology. Sixty methotrexate (MTX-) or biologic-treated RA patients and 39 healthy controls were included in a cross-sectional study. Smoking habits, alcohol intake and time spent in education were recorded. Standard measures were performed to assess cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MOCA; Trail Making Test, TMT; Victoria Stroop Test, VST; Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, WAIS; Benton Visual Retention test, BVRT), depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAIT/S) and general health status (Short Form 36, SF-36). Mean disease activity (28-joint Disease Activity Score, mDAS28; erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mESR; C-reactive protein, mCRP) of the past 12 months was calculated; anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) were assessed. Cerebral vascular lesions and atrophy, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaques, as well as median cerebral artery (MCA) circulatory reserve capacity (CRC) were assessed by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), carotid ultrasound and transcranial Doppler, respectively. Cognitive function tests showed impairment in RA vs controls. Biologic- vs MTX-treated subgroups differed in TMT-A. Correlations were identified between cognitive function and depression/anxiety tests. WAIS, STAIS, STAIT and BDI correlated with most SF-36 domains. Numerous cognitive tests correlated with age and lower education. Some also correlated with disease duration, mESR and mDAS28. Regarding vascular pathophysiology, cerebral vascular lesions were associated with VST-A, carotid plaques with multiple cognitive parameters, while MCA and CRC with MOCA, BVRT and BDI. RA patients have significant cognitive impairment. Cognitive dysfunction may occur together with or independently of depression/anxiety. Older patients and those with lower education are at higher risk to develop cognitive impairment. Cognitive screening might be a useful tool to identify subgroups to be further investigated for cerebrovascular pathologies.
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April 2020

Are the Variants of the Circle of Willis Determined by Genetic or Environmental Factors? Results of a Twin Study and Review of the Literature.

Twin Res Hum Genet 2018 10 11;21(5):384-393. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Department of Neurosurgery,Borsod County University Teaching Hospital,Miskolc,Hungary.

Background: Anatomic variants of the circle of Willis (CW) are commonly observed in healthy subjects. Genetic and environmental factors influencing these variants remain unclear. Our aim was to assess the genetic and environmental background affecting variant CW phenotypes.

Methods: A total of 122 adult healthy twins from the Hungarian Twin Registry (39 monozygotic (MZ) and 22 dizygotic (DZ) pairs, average age 49.7 ± 13.4 years) underwent Time-of-Flight magnetic resonance angiography and transcranial Doppler sonography. We investigated the anterior and posterior CW according to morphological categories. Prevalence and concordance rates of CW variants were calculated. MZ twins discordant for CW variants were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors and altered blood flow.

Results: Complete CW (45.0%) and bilaterally absent posterior communicating artery (PCoA) (22.5%) were the most prevalent variants in the anterior and posterior CW, respectively. There was no significant difference regarding the prevalence of variants across zygosity except for bilaterally hypoplastic PCoA (p = .02). DZ concordance was higher compared to MZ twins regarding morphological categories of the CW. Cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly associated with variant CW in MZ twins discordant to CW morphology. Flow parameters did not differ significantly among MZ twins discordant to CW variants.

Conclusion: CW variants may not be determined by substantial genetic effects and are not influenced by altered blood flow in healthy individuals. Further investigations are needed to identify potential environmental factors affecting these variants.
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October 2018

Increased frequency of temporal acoustic window failure in rheumatoid arthritis: a manifestation of altered bone metabolism?

Clin Rheumatol 2018 May 30;37(5):1183-1188. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Nagyerdei str 22, Debrecen, H-4032, Hungary.

Assessment of intracranial vessels includes transcranial Doppler (TCD). TCD performance requires intact temporal acoustic windows (TAW). Failure of TAW (TAWF) is present in 8-20% of people. There have been no reports on TAWF in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Altogether, 62 female RA patients were included. Among them, 20 were MTX-treated and biologic-free, 20 received infliximab, and 22 tocilizumab. The controls included 60 non-RA women. TAWF, temporal bone thickness, and texture were determined by ultrasound and CT. BMD and T-scores of multiple bones were determined by DEXA. Several bone biomarkers were assessed by ELISA. In RA, 54.8% of the patients had TAWF on at least one side. Neither TAW could be identified in 34% of RA subjects. In contrast, only 20.0% of control subjects had TAWF on either or both sides (p < 0.001). In RA vs controls, 53.0 vs 2.9% of subjects exerted the trilayer, "sandwich-like" structure of TAW (p < 0.001). Finally, in RA vs controls, the mean temporal bone thickness values of the right TAW were 3.58 ± 1.43 vs 2.92 ± 1.22 mm (p = NS), while those of the left TAW were 4.16 ± 1.56 vs 2.90 ± 1.16 mm (p = 0.001). There was close association between TAWF, bone thickness, and texture (p < 0.05). These TAW parameters all correlated with age; however, TAW failure and texture also correlated with serum osteoprotegerin. TAW bone thickness inversely correlated with hip BMD (p < 0.05). TAWF, thicker, and heterogeneous temporal bones were associated with RA. These features have been associated with bone loss and OPG production. Bone loss seen in RA may result in OPG release and stimulation of bone formation around TAW.
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May 2018

Assessment of intracranial vessels in association with carotid atherosclerosis and brain vascular lesions in rheumatoid arthritis.

Arthritis Res Ther 2017 09 26;19(1):213. Epub 2017 Sep 26.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, 98 Nagyerdei Street, H-4032, Debrecen, Hungary.

Background: Stroke has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We assessed patients with RA and healthy control subjects by transcranial Doppler (TCD), carotid ultrasonography and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Altogether, 41 female patients with RA undergoing methotrexate (MTX) or biologic treatment and 60 age-matched control subjects underwent TCD assessment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and basilar artery. Pulsatility index (PI), resistivity (resistance) index (RI) and circulatory reserve capacity (CRC) were determined at rest (r) and after apnoea (a) and hyperventilation (h). The presence of carotid plaques and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) were also determined. Intracerebral vascular lesions were investigated by brain MRI.

Results: MCA PI and RI values at rest and after apnoea were significantly increased in the total and MTX-treated RA populations vs control subjects. MCA CRC was also impaired, and basilar artery PI was higher in RA. More patients with RA had carotid plaques and increased cIMT. Linear regression analysis revealed that left PI(r) and RI(r) correlated with disease duration and that left PI(r), RI(r), PI(a), PI(h) and basilar PI correlated with disease activity. Right CRC inversely correlated with 28-joint Disease Activity Score. Disease activity was an independent determinant of left PI(a) and right CRC. Compared with long-term MTX treatment alone, the use of biologics in combination with MTX was associated with less impaired cerebral circulation. Impaired cerebral circulation was also associated with measures of carotid atherosclerosis.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to show increased distal MCA and basilar artery occlusion in RA as determined by TCD. Patients with RA also had CRC defects. We also confirmed increased carotid plaque formation and increased cIMT. Biologics may beneficially influence some parameters in the intracranial vessels.
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September 2017

[Angioneuritic edema in ischaemic stroke patients treated with rt-PA].

Ideggyogy Sz 2016 Jul;69(7-8):239-243

BAZ Megyei Kórház, Stroke, Vascularis, Általános Neurológiai, Toxikológiai Osztály, Miskolc.

Data of our 254 patients who were treated with rt-PA between 1st of Jan, 2011 and 31st of Dec, 2014 were processed. We focused on angioneurotic oedema as allergic complication of thrombolysis which caused life threatening respiratory obstruction in two cases. We describe these two patients' history. Out of 254 patients six (2.3%) suffered angioneurotic edema caused respiratory obstruction in two (0.90%) cases. This occurrence is approximately 1.3-5.1% in literature. Five, out of six patients who suffered from angioneurotic oedema, had been treated with ACE inhibitors or ARB before. The role of ACE inhibitors is known in metabolism of bradykinin cascade. Plasmin which present during thrombolysis, precipitates biochemical mechanisms of this potential life threatening complication. Therefore rt-PA alone can be the cause of angioedema, but it can be more frequent together with ACE inhibitors therapy.
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July 2016

[Effectiveness of anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists in acute stroke patients with atrial fibrillation--Hungarian results].

Ideggyogy Sz 2015 Jan;68(1-2):47-51

Background And Objective: An estimated 20% of ischemic strokes are of cardiogenic origin, half of which is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). Anticoagulation treatment of patients with this arrhythmia reduces their risk of stroke. Effectiveness and safety of oral anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) is limited, however, by their well-known narrow therapeutic window and the substantial inter- and intraindividual variability of INR values depending on genetic and dietary factors as well as drug interactions. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence of adequate anticoagulation and the level of anticoagulant effect actually achieved among patients with AF hospitalized for acute stroke.

Methods: Patients with AF admitted to our hospital ward in 2012 for acute stroke (n = 226) were included in the analysis. Using descriptive statistics, relevant clinical and therapeutic characteristics of the patients were assessed, with special reference to the INR values on admission (among patients with known AF), and the clinical outcomes.

Results: Of the study cohort, 170 patients had a diagnosis of AF before the admission for stroke, but 47% of them did not take anticoagulants. Patients who suffered stroke while on anticoagulants (83 on VKA, 7 on low-molecular-weight heparins), were in most cases (75%) out of the therapeutic INR range, typically undertreated (INR < 2). Overall, inadequate or completely absent anticoagulation was documented in 81% of the stroke cases occurring in patients with known AF. Of the entire study cohort, 41% was discharged home, 34% required continued institutional care, and 25% died.

Conclusions: The inadequacy or lack of anticoagulation was observed in the vast majority of acute strokes in patients with known AF. These cases are often related to the well-documented limitations of VKA therapy in terms of its safety, tolerability and/or practical aspects. To prevent them, important changes are warranted in the anticoagulation practice, including the closer control of VKA therapy and the broader use of new oral anticoagulants.
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January 2015

[Association of systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome].

Orv Hetil 2005 Dec;146(50):2533-8

Debreceni Egyetem Orvos- es Egészségtudományi Centrum, Belgyógyászati Intézet.

Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome are multisystemic autoimmune diseases which can be associated to each other.

Objective: To investigate if there are any distinct clinical, laboratory or serologic features due to the association of the two diseases that can influence the follow up of these patients.

Patients And Methods: The authors proved the association of these two autoimmune diseases in 56 patients, and these patients' clinical, laboratory and immunoserologic alterations. 50 patients with Sjögren's syndrome and 50 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus were used as control groups.

Results: Compared with Sjögren's syndrome alone, in the cases of the association of the diseases, rheumatoid factor was present less frequently, Ro/SS-A, La/SS-B and DNA antibodies were present more frequently, such as antiphospholipid autoantibodies and antiphospholipid syndrome. Anaemia, leukopenia and lymphopenia were detected more often and the patients were younger than in Sjögren's syndrome. Also, affection of the lung, kidney, skin, central nervous system and serous membranes are more common. The group with systemic lupus erythematosus differs in being older, having thyroiditis, Ro/SS-A, La/SS-B and DNA more frequently.

Conclusion: Definitive clinical, laboratory and serological features make the difference between the association of the two diseases and the diseases observed alone.
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December 2005