Publications by authors named "Atousa Aliahmadi"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Phthalides from the Roots of the Medicinal Herb W.D.J. Koch.

Iran J Pharm Res 2020 ;19(2):182-186

Department of Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran, Iran.

A new phthalide, namely 7-methoxy-3-propylidenephthalide (), along with two known compounds (, ) were isolated from the roots of the edible herb W.D.J. Koch, commonly known as lovage and well known in traditional medicine for its spasmolytic and diuretic effects. The structure of the new compound was established by HRMS and 1D & 2D NMR (H H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) spectroscopic analysis. All compounds are reported for the first time from . Compounds were tested against two Gram negative (, ) and two Gram positive ( and vancomycin-resistant [VRE] ) bacteria strains. Compound was active against , and vancomycin-resistant with MIC values of 16, 64, and 128 μg/mL, respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/ijpr.2020.112583.13839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7667549PMC
January 2020

Conjugation of Single-Chain Variable Fragment Antibody to Magnetic Nanoparticles and Screening of Fig Mosaic Virus by MALDI TOF Mass Spectrometry.

Anal Chem 2020 08 15;92(15):10460-10469. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran, Iran.

The ability of mass spectrometry for discrimination between protein and peptide masses which are unique to specific pathogens provides an accurate and fast method for the detection of different types of pathogens, especially viruses. Capsid proteins are specific to each virus and can be used as a biomarker for detection of this pathogen. On the other hand, single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies have been recently used to enhance the accuracy of immunoassay techniques. So conjugation of mass spectrometry and scFv antibody provides a very accurate and fast method for the detection of viruses. In this report, for the first time, we have immobilized scFv antibody of fig mosaic virus (FMV) on the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to extract the virus capsid protein from complex biological media and subsequently identified this protein through both its intact molecular mass and peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c01119DOI Listing
August 2020

Chemical composition of essential oils from the underground parts of L. accessions growing wild in Northern Iran.

Nat Prod Res 2021 Jan 5;35(1):162-166. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Biology, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

L. is a perennial plant of considerable commercial importance in medicine, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and tobacco industries and the production of food additives as flavoring and sweetening agent. This study, variation on composition and yield of essential oil from the underground parts of five accessions of growing wild in northern Iran was investigated. Results showed high variability for the main constituents of essential oil among accessions of . The presence of -pinene and myrcene in two accessions suggests that these volatiles could serve as chemotaxonomic markers and also might be considered as potentially relevant for taste. The presence of -caryophyllene and - caryophyllene in three accessions could be strong potential for being used in medical applications (anticancer and analgesic properties). Generally, the essential oils from and other species could be very competitive targets for phytochemical and food studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1616721DOI Listing
January 2021

Comparison study of root canal disinfection by cold plasma jet and photodynamic therapy.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2019 Jun 23;26:327-333. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran, Iran; Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study evaluated and compared the antibacterial effect of plasma and photodynamic therapy (PDT) in root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis.

Methods: One hundred single-rooted extracted human teeth (no treatment) were selected and sterilized. Root canals of teeth were prepared with the crown-down technique and contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis after sterilization, and incubated for one week. To investigate the effect of disinfection, 60 specimens were randomly selected for three disinfection groups: He and He/O plasma (n = 20) in 5-s groups (control, 2, 4, 6 and 8 min treatments) and PDT (n = 20) in 2-s groups (control and PDT treatment). Next, for comparison, 40 remaining teeth were divided into four groups: control, 8 min He plasma, 8 min He/O and PDT. Results of antibacterial action were reported by CFU/mL analysis and the structural changes of biofilm were evaluated by SEM.

Results: All groups showed a significant reduction of bacteria after treatment, and He/O plasma was more effective against E. faecalis, followed by PDT and He plasma respectively, further confirmed by SEM.

Conclusion: He/O plasma is a strong sterilization method against E. faecalis biofilm and can, therefore, be an effective therapy in endodontics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2019.04.023DOI Listing
June 2019

Changes in biophysical characteristics of PFN1 due to mutation causing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 12 10;33(6):1975-1984. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran, Iran.

Single amino acid mutations in profilin 1 (PFN1) have been found to cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recently, we developed a mouse model for ALS using a PFN1 mutation (glycine 118 to valine, G118V), and we are now interested in understanding how PFN1 becomes toxically lethal with only one amino acid substitution. Therefore, we studied mutation-related changes in the PFN1 protein and hypothesized that such changes significantly disturb its structure. Initially, we expressed and studied the purified PFN1 and PFN1 proteins from bacterial culture. We found that the PFN1 protein has a different mean residue ellipticity, as measured by far-UV circular dichroism, accompanied by a spectral shift. The intrinsic fluorescence of PFN1 showed a small fluctuation in maximum fluorescence absorption and intensity. Moreover, we examined the time course of PFN1 aggregation using SDS-PAGE, western blotting, and MALDI-TOF/TOF and found that compared with PFN1, PFN1 had an increased tendency to form aggregates. Dynamic light scattering data confirmed this, showing a larger size distribution for PFN1. Our data explain why PFN1 tends to aggregate, a phenotype that may be the basis for its neurotoxicity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-018-0305-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6230493PMC
December 2018

Tracking leading anti- compounds in plant samples; .

Iran J Microbiol 2018 Jun;10(3):187-193

Department of Biology, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Due to the importance of finding new and more effective antifungal and antibacterial compounds against invasive vaginitis strains, this study was conducted for fast screening of plant samples.

Materials And Methods: Thirty Iranian plant samples were successively extracted by -hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol to obtain a total of 90 extracts. Each extract was prepared in six concentrations and evaluated for antifungal activity via a micro-broth dilution method. Further phytochemical study of the aerial parts of , as the most promising source of anti- compounds (with minimum inhibitory concentration of about 7μg/ml), was carried out and antifungal activity in the ethyl acetate extract was tracked using a combination of HPLC time-based fractionation and Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography via a bioassay-guided fractionation procedure. The compounds in the active region of the chromatogram were purified by a combination of column chromatography and preparative TLC, and then structure elucidation was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometry and UV spectra.

Results: Seven compounds were isolated and identified: (1) plumbagin, (2) isoplumbagin, (3) 5, 8-dihydroxy-2-methyl-[1, 4] naphthoquinone, (4) droserone, (5) 7-methyljuglone, (6) Isozeylanone, and (7) methylene-3, 3'-diplumbagin. Antimicrobial activity of the purified compounds were also evaluated against (MIC values ranging from 2 to 2500 μM) and (MIC values ranging from 20 to 2500 μM).

Conclusion: These naphthoquinone compounds could be surveyed for finding new and more effective anti-vaginitis agents via drug design approaches.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6087695PMC
June 2018

Synthesis of 4-N-α-coumaryl amino acids and investigation of their antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and fluorescence spectra.

Amino Acids 2018 Oct 25;50(10):1461-1470. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Medicinal Plant and Drug Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

An efficient metal-free approach for the synthesis of N-coumaryl amino acids and the first one-step synthesis of 4-hydrazinocoumarin from 4-hydroxycoumarin was developed. The nucleophilic addition of amino acid methyl esters to 4-tosylcoumarins produced a series of 4-N-α-coumaryl amino acids in good to excellent yields without racemization. The antioxidant activities of the synthesized compounds were investigated using DPPH and FRAP methods. 4-Hydrazinocoumarin and N-coumaryl tyrosine had the best antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activities of the compounds against Gram-positive was stronger than Gram-negative. 4-Hydrazinocoumarin showed the best antibacterial effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-018-2624-5DOI Listing
October 2018

Resistant/susceptible classification of respiratory tract pathogenic bacteria based on volatile organic compounds profiling.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2018 Jun 30;64(9):6-15. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Pediatric Infections Research Center, Research Institute for Children Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Resistance to antibiotics is an emerging and growing threat. To address this threat, attempts are being made by researchers to identify the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) of bacteria. It is believed that unique combinations could be found among the VOCs produced by each microorganism. The current study aimed to identify and compare the VOCs of antibiotic-resistant and standard strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. A polymer of divinylbenzene /carboxen /polydimethylsiloxane was applied for absorption of volatile compounds in headspace bacterial samples in form of a solid phase micro-extraction fiber holder. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique was used for identification of volatile compounds. The analysis of the VOCs indicated that some VOCs appeared only in standard strains while others were common only among resistant strains. Exclusive VOCs to a specific strain were also detected. This study demonstrated that resistant strains of bacteria produced VOCs that were different from those of the standard strains. In addition, VOCs released by bacteria after passing the logarithmic growth phase showed no significant differences. The identification of VOCs can be a precise way to differentiate bacterial species, also it can be said that the VOCs produced by different pathogenic microorganisms can be the suitable biomarkers for their detection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
June 2018

Antibacterial hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose edible films containing nanoemulsions of Thymus daenensis essential oil for food packaging.

Carbohydr Polym 2017 Nov 31;175:241-248. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Department of Phytochemistry & Chemical Engineering, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Edible films containing essential oils (EO) as natural antibacterial agents are promising systems for food preservation. In this work, nanoemulsions of Thymus daenensis EO (wild; F1 and cultivated; F2) were loaded in hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) films and the effect of different parameters (polymer, plasticizer, and EO concentration) on the film properties were analyzed and optimized. Prepared HPMC films were characterized in terms of EO loading, morphology, mechanical properties, and the antibacterial activity. The results of SEM showed uniform incorporation of nanoemulsions into the edible film. Investigation of the mechanical properties of two edible films revealed a plasticizing effect of T. daenensis EO on the films. Also, edible films had noticeable antimicrobial activity against selected microorganisms, i.e. 47.0±2.5mm and 22.6±0.5mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus for films containing F1 and F2, respectively. Incorporation of nanoemulsions into the HPMC films can be used for active food preservation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.07.086DOI Listing
November 2017

Medicinal plants and their isolated compounds showing anti-Trichomonas vaginalis- activity.

Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Apr 6;88:885-893. Epub 2017 Feb 6.

Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Evidence-Based Medicine Group, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Trichomonas vaginalis is a major of non-viral sexually-transmitted infection and an important cause of serious obstetrical and gynecological complications. Treatment options for trichomoniasis are limited to nitroimidazole compounds. The increasing resistance and allergic reactions to nitroimidazole and recurrent trichomoniasis make it essential to identify and develop new drugs against trichomoniasis. Medicinal plants are an important source for discovery of new medications. This review discusses the anti-trichomonas effects of medicinal plants and their chemical constituents to find better options against this pathogenic protozoon. Electronic databases were searched to collect all data from the year 2000 through September 2015 for in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies on the effect of medicinal plants on T. vaginalis. A total of 95 in vitro and clinical studies were identified. Only four human studies were found in this review. The Asteracea, Lamiaceae and Myrtaceae families contained the greatest number of plants with anti-trichomonas activity. Persea americana, Ocimum basilicum and Verbascum thapsus were the most efficacious against T. vaginalis. Plant metabolites containing alkaloids, isoflavonoid glucosides, essential oils, lipids, saponins and sesquiterpene lactones were found to possess anti-trichomonas properties. Assessing the structure-activity of highly-potent anti-trichomonas phytochemicals is suggested for finding natural, semisynthetic and synthetic anti-trichomonas compounds. Further clinical studies are necessary for confirmation of natural anti-trichomonas substances and completion of their safety profiles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.01.149DOI Listing
April 2017

Ultrasonic nanoemulsification of food grade trans-cinnamaldehyde: 1,8-Cineol and investigation of the mechanism of antibacterial activity.

Ultrason Sonochem 2017 Mar 22;35(Pt A):415-421. Epub 2016 Oct 22.

Department of Phytochemistry & Chemical Engineering, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Using ultrasonic technology, trans-cinnamaldehyde as a natural antibacterial compound was used to prepare nano size emulsions to increase its bioavailability and therefore bactericidal action. Nanoemulsions containing trans-cinnamaldehyde as an active agent and 1,8 cineol as co additive oil (Ostwald ripening inhibitor) were formulated using probe sonicator. Three different determining factors, namely time of sonication, surfactant to oil ratio and type of emulsifier (Tween 80 and Tween 20) were investigated to enhance the stability profile. In addition, the effect of changes in the particle size and emulsifier on the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were examined using agar dilution method. Then, the effect of optimized formulation on the membrane fluidity and cell constituent release, were investigated by analysis of membrane lipids using GC-MS and IR spectrometry, respectively. The data showed that a 15min sonication of the formulation containing Tween 80 as emulsifier with surfactant to oil ratio of 2:1 (w/w) resulted in a significant stability for 6months with considerably small particle size of 27.76±0.37nm. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion showed great antibacterial activity and could reduce the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) from 8 to 1mg/mL against E. coli and S. aureus, and from 16 to 2mg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Interestingly, E. coli's membrane fluidity increased dramatically after treatment with the optimum nanoemulsion (T804). This study revealed that nanoemulsion of trans-cinnamaldehyde and 1,8 cineol has substantial antibacterial activity against selected microorganisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2016.10.020DOI Listing
March 2017

Synthesis and in Vitro Antibacterial Evaluation of Novel 4-Substituted 1-Menthyl-1,2,3-triazoles.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2016 ;64(11):1589-1596

Department of Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University.

Menthyl 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole derivatives of hydroxybenzaldehydes, phenols and bile acids were synthesized via click chemistry. The novel synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecium, and Staphylococcus aureus as Gram-positive bacteria. Some derivatives illustrated strong inhibitory effect against E. faecium with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 1-3 µM, where cefixime as a positive control revealed MIC value of 35 µM. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by different spectroscopic techniques including H-NMR, C-NMR, high resolution (HR)-MS, IR and X-ray crystallographic analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c16-00463DOI Listing
January 2017

Labdane Diterpenoids from Salvia leriifolia: Absolute Configuration, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities.

Planta Med 2016 Sep 9;82(14):1279-85. Epub 2016 Jun 9.

Department of Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Evin, Tehran, Iran.

Fractionation of an n-hexane extract of the aerial parts of Salvia leriifolia led to the isolation of two new (1, 2) and two known (3, 4) labdane diterpenoids, together with three other known compounds. The structures were established by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS. The structures of 1 and 3 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The absolute configuration of 1-4 was established by electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Labdanes 3 and 4 were additionally tested against MDA-MB231 human breast cancer and DU-145 human prostate cancer cell lines. Compound 4 showed IC50 values of 25, 50, and 50 µM against MCF-7, MDA-MB231, and DU-145 cells, respectively. Compounds 1-4 were tested for activity against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Compound 3 showed an MIC of 213 µM against methicillin-resistant S. aureus.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-107798DOI Listing
September 2016

A bioassay-guided fractionation scheme for characterization of new antibacterial compounds from Prosopis cineraria aerial parts.

Iran J Microbiol 2016 Feb;8(1):1-7

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Poorsina street, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Due to the importance of finding of new antibacterial agents, the antibacterial properties of Prosopis cineraria aerial parts were investigated using a bioassay guided fractionation scheme.

Materials And Methods: The organic extract was prepared via maceration in methanol, followed by the fractionation using n-hexane and ethyl acetate. The MICs of fractions were determined against some human pathogenic bacteria using broth micro-dilution assay. The primary characterization and identification of bioactive substance(s) was based on a bio-autographical method using HPTLC and flash chromatography in parallel with agar overlay assays. Finally the exact mass of effective compound(s) was determined by LC-MS.

Results: The best antibacterial activities were related to the ethyl acetate fraction. The effective antibacterial compound of the plant were 2 substances with molecular weight of 348 and 184 Dalton that inhibited the growth of assessed Gram positive bacteria with MIC values lower than 125 to 62.5 μg/ml synergistically.

Conclusion: Further analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance could reveal the exact structure of these two antibacterial substances. These 2 effective antibacterial compounds could be applied as lead compound for synthesis of new antibacterial agents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4833735PMC
February 2016

New coumarin derivatives from Ferula pseudalliacea with antibacterial activity.

Nat Prod Res 2016 Dec 8;30(24):2747-2753. Epub 2016 Mar 8.

b Department of Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute , Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Evin , Tehran , Iran.

In this study, the antibacterial activity of disesquiterpene coumarin and sesquiterpene coumarins obtained from Ferula pseudalliacea roots was evaluated by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration using the broth micro-dilution method against seven pathogenic bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25,923, vancomycin resistant clinical strain of Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus cereus PTCC 1015, Escherichia coli ATCC 25,922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1430, clinical strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae and a clinical strain of Helicobacter pylori). The overall inhibitory activities of the compounds were higher against Gram positive tested bacteria. Sanandajin and ethyl galbanate demonstrated significant activity against H. pylori strain, as well as S. aureus strain in concentration of 64 μg/ml. Methyl galbanate inhibited vancomycin resistant strain of E. faecium in concentration of 64 μg/ml. The results of the present investigation indicated that disesquiterpene and sesquiterpene coumarins isolated from F. pseudalliacea root extract can be considered as potent antibacterial agents for pharmaceutical and food industries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2016.1149705DOI Listing
December 2016

Superior antibacterial activity of nanoemulsion of Thymus daenensis essential oil against E. coli.

Food Chem 2016 Mar 31;194:410-5. Epub 2015 Jul 31.

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

Natural preservatives are being extensively investigated for their potential industrial applications in foods and other products. In this work, an essential oil (Thymus daenensis) was formulated as a water-dispersible nanoemulsion (diameter=143nm) using high-intensity ultrasound. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil in both pure and nanoemulsion forms was measured against an important food-borne pathogen bacterium, Escherichia coli. Antibacterial activity was determined by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil against E. coli was enhanced considerably when it was converted into a nanoemulsion, which was attributed to easier access of the essential oils to the bacterial cells. The mechanism of antibacterial activity was investigated by measuring potassium, protein, and nucleic acid leakage from the cells, and electron microscopy. Evaluation of the kinetics of microbial deactivation showed that the nanoemulsion killed all the bacteria in about 5min, whereas only a 1-log reduction was observed for pure essential oil. The nanoemulsion appeared to amplify the antibacterial activity of essential oils against E. coli by increasing their ability to disrupt cell membrane integrity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.07.139DOI Listing
March 2016

Bioassay Guided Fractionation of an Anti-Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Flavonoid From Bromus inermis Leyss Inflorescences.

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2014 Dec 1;7(12):e12739. Epub 2014 Dec 1.

Department of Biology, Medicinal Plants and Drug Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: Plants are considered as promising sources of new antibacterial agents as well as bioassay guided fractionation.

Objectives: In the present work, the antibacterial properties, especially against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), of Bromus inermis inflorescence was studied, using the bioassay guided fractionation as well as the bio-autographic method.

Materials And Methods: The plant organic extract was prepared via maceration in methanol, followed by the fractionation using n-hexane. The extracts were subjected for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against some human pathogenic bacteria via standard broth micro-dilution assay. Thereafter, a bio-autographical method was applied using the high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with agar overlay assays for the primary characterization and identification of bioactive substance (s).

Results: Through the bioassay guided fractionation method, the greatest antibacterial activities were related to the n-hexane extract. It was also revealed that the effective anti-MRSA agent of the assessed plant was a relatively polar substance with an MIC value of about 8 μg/mL against the tested MRSA strain (in comparison with the MIC value of 32 μg/mL for chloramphenicol).

Conclusions: As a result of the full range UV-Vis scanning of the responsible band in the HPTLC experiments (200-700 nm), the flavonoid was the most imaginable natural compound.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.12739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4335569PMC
December 2014

Bioactive sesquiterpene coumarins from Ferula pseudalliacea.

Planta Med 2014 Aug 19;80(13):1118-23. Epub 2014 Aug 19.

Division of Pharmaceutical Biology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

One new and five known sesquiterpene coumarins were isolated from the roots of Ferula pseudalliacea. The structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, and HR-ESIMS data as 4'-hydroxy kamolonol acetate (1), kamolonol (2), szowitsiacoumarin A (3), farnesiferon B (4), farnesiferol C (5), and flabellilobin A (6). The absolute configuration of compounds 1, 2, and 4 was established by comparison of experimental and simulated electronic circular dichroism spectra using time dependence density function theory. 4'-Hydroxy kamolonol acetate and kamolonol showed antibacterial activity against Heliobacter pylori and Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 64 µg/mL. Kamolonol, 4'-hydroxy kamolonol acetate, and farnesiferon B displayed a cytotoxic activity in HeLa cells, with an IC50 of 3.8, 4.5, and 7.7 µM, respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1382996DOI Listing
August 2014

Antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles on Staphylococcus aureus.

Res Microbiol 2011 Jun 21;162(5):542-9. Epub 2011 Apr 21.

Department of Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. Evin, P.O. Box: 19835-389, Tehran, Iran.

Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was investigated using Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1431 as a model of Gram-positive bacteria. The mechanism of antibacterial activity of AgNPs was then studied by analyzing the growth, morphology, and molecular variations in the cell wall. Experimental data showed that AgNPs at a concentration of 4 μg/ml completely inhibited bacterial growth. Transmission electron microscopy results confirmed cell wall damage produced by AgNPs as well as accumulation of AgNPs in the bacterial membrane. Meanwhile, the AgNP-treated bacteria were monitored by circular dichroism to reveal peptidoglycan variations. Some degree of variation in the α-helix position of the peptide chain was observed. Moreover, increasing the AgNP concentration to 8 μg/ml resulted in release of muramic acid (MA) into the medium, which could be attributed to cell wall distraction. A gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis and release of MA, as a bacterial indicator, showed that glycan strands may also be decomposed as a result of AgNP treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resmic.2011.04.009DOI Listing
June 2011

Alteration of hepatic cells glucose metabolism as a non-cholinergic detoxication mechanism in counteracting diazinon-induced oxidative stress.

Hum Exp Toxicol 2006 Dec;25(12):697-703

Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of acute exposure to various doses of diazinon, a widely used synthetic organophosphorus (OP) insecticide on plasma glucose, hepatic cells key enzymes of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, and oxidative stress in rats. Diazinon was administered by gavage at doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg/ kg. The liver was perfused and removed under anaesthesia. The activities of glycogen phosphorylase (GP), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were analysed in liver homogenate. Administration of diazinon (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg) increased plasma glucose concentrations by 101.43% (P = 0.001), 103.68% (P = 0.000) and 160.65% (P = 0.000) of control, respectively. Diazinon (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg) increased hepatic GP activity by 43.5% (P = 0.05), 70.3% (P = 0.00) and 117.2% (P = 0.02) of control, respectively. In addition, diazinon (30 and 60 mg/kg) increased hepatic PEPCK by 77.3% (P = 0.000) and 93.5% (P = 0.000) of control, respectively. Diazinon (30 and 60 mg/kg) decreased liver TAC by 38% (P = 0.046) and 48% (P = 0.000) of control, respectively. Also diazinon (30 and 60 mg/kg) increased hepatic cell liver lipid peroxidation by 77% (P = 0.05) and 280% (P = 0.000) of control. The correlations between plasma glucose and hepatic cells TBARS (r2 = 0.537, P = 0.02), between plasma glucose and ChE activity (r2 = 0.81, P = 0.049) and between plasma glucose and hepatic cells GP activity (r2 = 0.833, P = 0.04) were significant. It is concluded that the liver cells are a site of toxic action of diazinon. Diazinon increases glucose release from liver into blood through activation of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis as a detoxication non-cholinergic mechanism to overwhelm diazinon-induced toxic stress. The results are in accordance with the hypothesis that OPs are a predisposing factor of diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327106075064DOI Listing
December 2006

Protection by pentoxifylline of diazinon-induced toxic stress in rat liver and muscle.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2007 ;17(4):215-21

Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Medical Sciences/University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

ABSTRACT The effects of diazinon, pentoxifylline, and their combination therapy on plasma glucose, the key enzymes of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, and oxidative stress were studied in rat liver and muscle. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring the concentration of lipid peroxides and assessing total antioxidant capacity. Diazinon (60 mg/kg) and pentoxifylline (100 mg/kg) were administrated by gavage. Administration of diazinon increased blood glucose, hepatic glycogen phosphorylase (GP), and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) by 160.65%, 117.2%, and 93.5%, respectively, while it decreased plasma cholinesterase (ChE) by 53.82%. Diazinon-induced oxidative stress was demonstrated by decreased total antioxidant capacity and enhanced lipid peroxidation by 52.61% and 280% in liver and by 40.02% and 46.6% in muscle, respectively. Pentoxifylline increased plasma glucose, hepatic GP, and PEPCK by 98.65%, 60%, and 79.86%, respectively, while it did not change plasma ChE, liver and muscle lipid peroxides, and total antioxidant capacity. In combination therapy, pentoxifylline did not alter diazinon-induced change in muscle GP activity but restored a diazinon-induced increase in hepatic and muscle lipid peroxides by 39.18% and 42.35%, respectively. Pentoxifylline also recovered a diazinon-induced decrease in liver and muscle total antioxidant capacity and plasma ChE by 122.33%, 56.44%, and 115.62%, respectively. Pentoxifylline did not affect diazinon-induced hyperglycemia and increased hepatic GP and PEPCK or muscle GP activities. It is concluded that pentoxifylline is a good choice for the alleviation of acute toxic stress of diazinon in muscle and liver and ChE in plasma, while it is unable to recover diazinon-induced hyperglycemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376510600943783DOI Listing
October 2012

Restoration of morphine-induced alterations in rat submandibular gland function by N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist.

Acta Biol Hung 2006 Sep;57(3):283-94

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The effects of morphine, 1-aminocyclobutane-cis-1,3-dicarboxylic (ACBD; NMDA agonist) and 3-((R)2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-l-phosphoric acid (CPP; NMDA antagonist) and their concurrent therapy on rat submandibular secretory function were studied. Pure submandibular saliva was collected intraorally by micro polyethylene cannula from anaesthetized rats using pilocarpine as secretagogue. Intraperitoneal injection of morphine (6 mg/kg) induced significant inhibition of salivary flow rate, total protein, calcium, and TGF-beta1 concentrations. Administration of ACBD (10 mg/kg) and CPP (10 mg/kg) alone did not influence secretion of submandibular glands. In combination therapy, coadministration of CPP with morphine did not influence morphine-induced changes in salivary function while ABCD could restore all morphine-induced changes. In combination treatment, ACBD prevented morphine-induced reduction of flow rate, total protein, calcium, and TGF-beta1 and reached control levels. It is concluded that morphine-induced alterations in submandibular gland function are mediated through NMDA receptors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/ABiol.57.2006.3.2DOI Listing
September 2006