Publications by authors named "Atikorn Panya"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Tropical Oil Blending and Their Effects on Nutritional Content and Physicochemical Properties during Deep Fat Frying.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2020 ;66(Supplement):S206-S214

Faculty of Agro-Industry, King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok.

Oil blending is a method that may improve the nutritional profile and stability of frying oil. Tropical vegetable oils, including rice bran oil, coconut oil, and palm oil were blended at ratios of 20 : 20 : 60, 25 : 25 : 50, 30 : 30 : 40, and 35 : 35 : 30 (v/v/v), respectively, and tested for their performance in deep frying French fries at 180ºC for 8 h. The nutritional content of the blended oils increased with the rice bran oil and coconut oil ratio, including polyunsaturated fatty acids, α-tocopherol and γ-oryzanol. The physicochemical property changes, including color, viscosity, fatty acid profile, total polar compounds, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value of the blended oils were monitored during frying. The lightness of the oil blends was higher than those of palm oil after frying. However, the higher ratio of rice bran oil and coconut oil resulted in a higher increase in viscosity during frying. The oxidative stabilities of the oil blends were better than that of palm oil. Additionally, the sensory characteristics of the fries prepared in these oil blends were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. There was no significant difference in sensory attributes of the fries produced using different oils. The oil blended at a ratio of 30 : 30 : 40 shows the greatest performance as a deep frying media compared to the other blended oils that were tested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.66.S206DOI Listing
January 2020

Nutritional Properties and Oxidative Indices of Broiler Breast Meat Affected by Wooden Breast Abnormality.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Dec 2;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 2.

National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand.

Wooden breast (WB) abnormality adversely impacts the quality of chicken meat and has been linked with oxidative stress. In this study, breast samples were taken from carcasses of 7-week-old Ross 308 broilers 20-min and 24-h postmortem. Five WB and seven non-WB control samples were assigned based on palpatory hardness (non-WB = no unusual characteristics and WB = focal or diffused hardness). WB exhibited lower contents of protein and the amino acids, i.e., isoleucine, leucine and valine, lighter surface color, lower shear force, greater drip loss and altered mineral profiles ( ≤ 0.05). Despite no difference in lipid oxidation, a greater degree of protein oxidation was found in the WB meat ( ≤ 0.05). Absolute transcript abundances of superoxide dismutase, hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 were greater in WB ( ≤ 0.05), whereas lactate dehydrogenase A expression was lower in WB ( ≤ 0.05). The findings support an association between oxidative stress and the altered nutritional and technological properties of chicken meat in WB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10122272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759853PMC
December 2020

Investigation on the Double CutOff Phenomenon Observed in Protocatechuic Acid and Its Alkyl Esters under Various CAT-Based Assays.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Sep 24;68(35):9568-9575. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Food Biotechnology Research Team,f Functional Ingredients and Food Innovation Research Group, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), 113 Thailand Science Park, Phaholyothin Rd., Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.

A strange cutoff phenomenon of a series of protocatechuic acid alkyl esters had been noticed using the conjugated autoxidizable triene (CAT) assay. Two parabolic shapes of antioxidant activities of protocatechuic acid alkyl esters described as ″the double cutoff effect″ have been speculated as a result of an oxidative driving force generated in the aqueous phase. The aim of this research was to investigate the double cutoff effect using various types of oxidation driving forces in different CAT-based assays. To further explain the phenomenon, the natural oxidation of conjugated autoxidizable triene (NatCAT) assay has been developed for the first time by relying solely on only the lipid autoxidation of tung oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. In conclusion, NatCAT exhibited different antioxidant and oxidation patterns from both CAT and apolar radical-initiated CAT assays, and only one cutoff point was obtained. This discovery would lead to a greater understanding of the complexity of antioxidant/lipid oxidation dynamics in O/W emulsion systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c03825DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparison of Antioxidant Evaluation Assays for Investigating Antioxidative Activity of Gallic Acid and Its Alkyl Esters in Different Food Matrices.

J Agric Food Chem 2017 Aug 15;65(34):7509-7518. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Food Biotechnology Research Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC) , 113 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Road, Khlong Nueng, Khlong, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.

The addition of antioxidants is one of the strategies to inhibit lipid oxidation, a major cause of lipid deterioration in foods leading to rancidity development and nutritional losses. However, several studies have been reported that conventional antioxidant assays, e.g., TPC, ABTS, FRAP, and ORAC could not predict antioxidant performance in several foods. This study aimed to investigate the performance of two recently developed assays, e.g., the conjugated autoxidizable triene (CAT) and the apolar radical-initiated conjugated autoxidizable triene (ApoCAT) assays to predict the antioxidant effectiveness of gallic acid and its esters in selected food models in comparison with the conventional antioxidant assays. The results indicated that the polarities of the antioxidants have a strong impact on antioxidant activities. In addition, different oxidant locations demonstrated by the CAT and ApoCAT assays influenced the overall antioxidant performances of the antioxidants with different polarities. To validate the predictability of the assays, the antioxidative performance of gallic acid and its alkyl esters was investigated in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, bulk soybean oils, and roasted peanuts as the lipid food models. The results showed that only the ApoCAT assay could be able to predict the antioxidative performances in O/W emulsions regardless of the antioxidant polarities. This study demonstrated that the relevance of antioxidant assays to food models was strongly dependent on physical similarities between the tested assays and the food structure matrices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b02503DOI Listing
August 2017

The influence of flaxseed gum on the microrheological properties and physicochemical stability of whey protein stabilized β-carotene emulsions.

Food Funct 2017 Jan;8(1):415-423

Food Biotechnology Research Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), 113 Thailand Science Park, Phaholyothin Rd., Khlong Nuang, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.

The impact of flaxseed gum (FG) on the microrheological properties and physicochemical stability of whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilized β-carotene emulsions at pH 3.0 was studied. A layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition method was used to prepare multilayered β-carotene emulsions with interfacial membranes consisting of WPI and FG. The microrheological behavior of the multilayered β-carotene emulsions was measured through the diffusive wave spectroscopy technique. WPI alone and WPI-FG (concentration of FG = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 wt%) stabilized β-carotene emulsions were purely viscous giving a mean square displacement that scaled linearly with decorrelation time (τ). The presence of 0.01, 0.02, and 0.05 wt% FG in the WPI-stabilized emulsions caused them to exhibit viscoelastic properties. Meanwhile, the increase in τ reflected the increase in the length scale of connectivity in the emulsions until a "cluster" was formed and the droplets were not free to move due to droplet-network interaction. The apparent increase in the macroscopic viscosity and elasticity index and decrease in the solid lipid balance and fluidity index of emulsions with lower concentrations (0.01, 0.02, 0.05 wt%) of FG indicated that the bridging flocculation of FG had a much more appreciable influence on the microrheological properties than depletion flocculation (higher concentrations, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 wt%). Droplet size, zeta-potential, and transmission profiles using the centrifugal sedimentation technique and β-carotene degradation during storage were also characterized. With the addition of FG, the zeta-potential of WPI coated β-carotene droplets decreased from positive to negative, and an increase in the apparent droplet size was also noted. LUMISizer analysis exhibited an improvement in physical stability with the addition of 0.1 wt% FG. FG also helped to chemically stabilize the WPI emulsions against β-carotene degradation mainly by slowing down the mobility of the droplets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6fo01357kDOI Listing
January 2017

Effects of Environmental pH on Antioxidant Interactions between Rosmarinic Acid and α-Tocopherol in Oil-in-Water (O/W) Emulsions.

J Agric Food Chem 2016 Aug 18;64(34):6575-83. Epub 2016 Aug 18.

Department of Food Science, Chenoweth Laboratory, University of Massachusetts , 100 Holdsworth Way, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, United States.

Antioxidant regeneration could be influenced by various factors such as antioxidant locations and pH conditions. The effects of environmental pH on the antioxidant interaction between rosmarinic acid and α-tocopherol in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were investigated. Results showed that the combined antioxidants at pH 7 exhibited the strongest synergistic antioxidant activity in comparison with the combinations at other pH conditions as indicated by the interaction index. A drop in pH from 7 to 3 resulted in a reduction in the synergistic effect. However, in the case of pH 3, an additive effect was obtained. Moreover, the effect of the pH on the regeneration of α-tocopherol by rosmarinic acid in heterogeneous Tween 20 solutions was studied using EPR spectrometer. The same was true for the regeneration efficiency, where the reaction at pH 7 exhibited the highest regeneration efficiency of 0.3 mol of α-tocopheroxyl radicals reduced/mol of phenolics. However, the study on depletions of rosmarinic acid and α-tocopherol revealed that the formation of caffeic acid, an oxidative degradation product of rosmarinic acid, could be involved in enhancing the antioxidant activity observed at pH 7 rather than the antioxidant regeneration. This study has highlighted that the importance of pH-dependent antioxidant interactions does not solely rely on antioxidant regeneration. In addition, the formation of other oxidative products from an antioxidant should be taken into account.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b02700DOI Listing
August 2016

Antioxidant activity of protocatechuates evaluated by DPPH, ORAC, and CAT methods.

Food Chem 2016 Mar 26;194:749-57. Epub 2015 Jul 26.

Montpellier SupAgro, UMR 1208 Ingénierie des Agro-polymères et Technologies Émergentes, 2 Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a worldwide consumed plant, principally after infusion of its dried sepals and calyces, which are usually discarded. Nevertheless, they represent a potential source of natural bioactive compounds, e.g. polyphenols, which could add value to this under-exploited plant. Protocatechuic acid (PA) was chosen as a model of the phenolic acids that can be extracted from H. sabdariffa. In order to modify PA hydrophilic character, which limits its use in lipid-rich food products, PA was esterified to C1-C18 alcohols, and the impact of lipophilization on its antioxidant activity was evaluated in both, an homogeneous (DPPH and ORAC methods) and an heterogeneous (CAT method) system. Results herein obtained showed that, depending on the grafted alkyl chain length, lipophilization could positively affect the antioxidant activity of PA in heterogeneous media; therefore, support its use as an innovative way to synthesize molecules with an improved antioxidant capacity and potential to be used as multifunctional preservatives in food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.07.119DOI Listing
March 2016

Apolar Radical Initiated Conjugated Autoxidizable Triene (ApoCAT) Assay: Effects of Oxidant Locations on Antioxidant Capacities and Interactions.

J Agric Food Chem 2015 Sep 25;63(34):7546-55. Epub 2015 Aug 25.

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts , Chenoweth Laboratory, 100 Holdsworth Way, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, United States.

Development of an antioxidant assay explaining antioxidant behaviors in complex food systems has been a challenging topic for food scientists. This research aimed to investigate antioxidant capacities and interactions of selected synthetic antioxidants and commercial natural antioxidant extracts using the CAT assay and a newly developed ApoCAT assay, which used water- and lipid-soluble azo radical initiators, respectively. Results suggested that the higher the hydrophobicity of an antioxidant, the higher the antioxidant capacity of an antioxidant observed in the ApoCAT assay. The relationship between the two different assays was explained by the ratio between the ApoCAT and the CAT values. Interestingly, all lipophilic derivatives of the antioxidants exhibited higher ApoCAT/CAT ratios than their hydrophilic derivatives. In the case of the commercial food-grade antioxidants, green tea extract and mixed tocopherols showed a higher antioxidant capacity in the ApoCAT assay than in the CAT assay, while grape seed and rosemary extracts did not show significantly different changes in behaviors in both assays. The study on antioxidant interactions revealed that additive, synergistic, and antagonistic effects between hydrophilic antioxidants and natural extracts, and mixed tocopherols could be observed in both the CAT and the ApoCAT assays, depending on the combined ratios. In most cases, at a particular ratio, the synergistic effect reached the maximum level before suddenly dropping to additive and antagonistic effects in both assays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b02493DOI Listing
September 2015

What makes good antioxidants in lipid-based systems? The next theories beyond the polar paradox.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2015 ;55(2):183-201

a CIRAD, UMR IATE , Montpellier , F-34398 , France.

The polar paradox states that polar antioxidants are more active in bulk lipids than their nonpolar counterparts, whereas nonpolar antioxidants are more effective in oil-in-water emulsion than their polar homologs. However, recent results, showing that not all antioxidants behave in a manner proposed by this hypothesis in oil and emulsion, lead us to revisit the polar paradox and to put forward new concepts, hypotheses, and theories. In bulk oil, new evidences have been brought to demonstrate that the crucial site of oxidation is not the air-oil interface, as postulated by the polar paradox, but association colloids formed with traces of water and surface active molecules such as phospholipids. The role of these association colloids on lipid oxidation and its inhibition by antioxidant is also addressed as well as the complex influence of the hydrophobicity on the ability of antioxidants to protect lipids from oxidation. In oil-in water emulsion, we have covered the recently discovered non linear (or cut-off) influence of the hydrophobicity on antioxidant capacity. For the first time, different mechanisms of action are formulated in details to try to account for this nonlinear effect. As suggested by the great amount of biological studies showing a cut-off effect, this phenomenon could be widespread in dispersed lipid systems including emulsions and liposomes as well as in living systems such as cultured cells. Works on the cut-off effect paves the way for the determination of the critical chain length which corresponds to the threshold beyond which antioxidant capacity suddenly collapses. The systematic search for this new physico-chemical parameter will allow designing novel phenolipids and other amphiphilic antioxidants in a rational fashion. Finally, in both bulk oils and emulsions, we feel that it is now time for a paradigm shift from the polar paradox to the next theories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2011.650335DOI Listing
December 2015

Influence of whey protein-beet pectin conjugate on the properties and digestibility of β-carotene emulsion during in vitro digestion.

Food Chem 2014 Aug 13;156:374-9. Epub 2014 Feb 13.

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA. Electronic address:

The impact of a whey protein isolate (WPI)-beet pectin (BP) conjugate (formed by dry-heating) on the physical properties and digestibilities of β-carotene and carrier oil in oil-in-water emulsions was studied when they passed through a model gastrointestinal system. β-Carotene emulsions were stabilized by WPI, unconjugated and conjugated WPI-BP, separately. The emulsions were then passed through an in vitro digestion model and the mean droplet size, droplet distribution, zeta-potential, free fatty acids and β-carotene released were measured. The stability to droplet flocculation and coalescence during digestion was increased for the WPI-BP conjugate stabilized emulsion. Addition of BP onto the WPI stabilized emulsions could inhibit the releases of carrier oil (MCT) and β-carotene. The releases of free fatty acids and β-carotene did not differ greatly between the unconjugated and conjugated WPI-BP stabilized emulsions. These results have important implications for protein-polysaccharide stabilized emulsions and conjugates used for the protection and delivery of bioactive compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.02.019DOI Listing
August 2014

Interactions between α-tocopherol and rosmarinic acid and its alkyl esters in emulsions: synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effect?

J Agric Food Chem 2012 Oct 4;60(41):10320-30. Epub 2012 Oct 4.

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Chenoweth Laboratory, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, United States.

Many antioxidants can interact to produce synergistic interactions that can more effectively inhibit lipid oxidation in foods. Esterification of rosmarinic acid produces a variety of compounds with different antioxidant activity due to differences in polarity and thus differences in partitioning in oil, water, and interfacial regions of oil-in-water emulsions (O/W). Therefore, rosmarinic acid and rosmarinate esters provide an interesting tool to study the ability of antioxidant to interact in O/W emulsions. In O/W emulsions, rosmarinic acid (R0) exhibited the strongest synergistic interaction with α-tocopherol while butyl (R4) and dodecyl (R12) rosmarinate esters exhibited small synergistic interaction and eicosyl rosmarinate esters (R20) exhibited slightly antagonistic interaction. Fluorescence quenching and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies showed that water-soluble rosmarinic acid (R0) exhibited more interactions with α-tocopherol than any of the tested esters (R4, R12, R20). This was also confirmed in O/W emulsions where R0 altered the formation of α-tocopherol quinone and α-tocopherol increased the formation of caffeic acid from R0. This formation of caffeic acid was proposed to be responsible for the synergistic activity of R0 and α-tocopherol since the formation of an additional antioxidant could further increase the oxidative stability of the emulsion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf302673jDOI Listing
October 2012

New insights into the role of iron in the promotion of lipid oxidation in bulk oils containing reverse micelles.

J Agric Food Chem 2012 Apr 22;60(13):3524-32. Epub 2012 Mar 22.

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, United States.

Formation of physical structures, known as association colloids, in bulk oils can promote lipid oxidation. However, the cause of this accelerated lipid oxidation is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether transition metals were important prooxidants in bulk oils containing reverse micelles produced from 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and water. The Fe(III) chelator deferoxamine (DFO) increased the oxidative stability of stripped soybean oil (SSO) containing reverse micelles from 2 to 7 days. Because phosphatidylcholine (1,2-dibutyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) that does not form reverse micelles is not prooxidative, these results suggest that the prooxidant activity of DOPC reverse micelles could be due to their ability to concentrate both endogenous iron and lipid hydroperoxides at the water-lipid interface, thereby increasing the ability of iron to decompose lipid hydroperoxides. DFO was also able to improve the activity of α-tocopherol and Trolox in SSO containing DOPC reverse micelles increasing the lag phase from 2 to 11 and 13 days, respectively. DOPC reverse micelles decreased iron-promoted α-tocopherol and Trolox decomposition and decreased the ability of α-tocopherol and Trolox to decrease Fe(III) concentrations. Overall, these results suggest that iron is an important prooxidant in bulk oils containing reverse micelles; therefore, finding ways to control iron reactivity in association colloids could provide new technologies to increase the oxidative stability of oils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf300138hDOI Listing
April 2012

An investigation of the versatile antioxidant mechanisms of action of rosmarinate alkyl esters in oil-in-water emulsions.

J Agric Food Chem 2012 Mar 29;60(10):2692-700. Epub 2012 Feb 29.

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Chenoweth Laboratory, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, United States.

The antioxidant polar paradox postulates that nonpolar antioxidants are more effective in oil-in-water emulsions than polar antioxidants. However, this trend is often not observed with antioxidants esterified with acyl chains to vary their polarity. In this study, the nonpolar eicosyl rosmarinate (20 carbons, R20) was less effective at inhibiting lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions than esters with shorter fatty acyl chains such as butyl (R4), octyl (R8), and dodecyl (R12) esters. Interestingly, in the presence of surfactant micelles, the antioxidant activity of R20 was significantly increased while the antioxidant activity of R4 and R12 was slightly decreased. The presence of surfactant micelles increased the concentration of R20 at the interface of the surfactant micelles and/or emulsion droplets as determined by partitioning studies, front-face fluorescence properties, and the ability of R20 to interact with the interfacial probe, 4-hexadecylbenzenediazonium. A possible explanation for why the antioxidant activity of R20 was so dramatically increased by surfactant micelles is that a portion of the nonpolar R20 localizes in the emulsion droplet core and the surfactant micelles are able to increase the interfacial concentrations of R20 and thus its ability to scavenge free radicals produced from the decomposition of interfacial lipid hydroperoxides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf204848bDOI Listing
March 2012

Biogenic amine formation in Nham, a Thai fermented sausage, and the reduction by commercial starter culture, Lactobacillus plantarum BCC 9546.

Food Chem 2011 Dec 11;129(3):846-53. Epub 2011 May 11.

Food Biotechnology Research Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), 113 Thailand Science Park, Phaholyothin Rd., Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.

Biogenic amines are of concern for sausage due to their toxicological effects on nervous, blood pressure, gastric and intestinal systems. In this study, the influence of raw pork meat quality and starter culture inoculation on biogenic amines accumulation in Nham, a Thai traditional fermented pork, were studied. Before Nham processing, pork meat was stored at 30°C for 6h, and at 4 and -20°C for 2days. Formation of biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine, histamine and tyramine) was significantly higher in Nham processed from stored meat. Accumulation of these biogenic amines in Nham reduced significantly by the addition of Lactobacillus plantarum BCC 9546, a commercial Nham starter culture. The results highlight the importance of using fresh meat products and the inclusion of an appropriate starter culture to minimise the formation of biogenic amines during the process of Nham fermentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.05.033DOI Listing
December 2011

Effects of chitosan and rosmarinate esters on the physical and oxidative stability of liposomes.

J Agric Food Chem 2010 May;58(9):5679-84

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA.

Liposomes have substantial potential to deliver bioactive compounds in foods. However, the oxidative degradation and physical instability of liposomes limit their utilization. This research evaluated the ability of chitosan and rosmarinic acid and its esters to increase the physical and oxidative stability of liposomes. Particle size analysis studies showed that the physical stability of liposomes was enhanced by depositing a layer of cationic chitosan onto the negatively charged liposomes. The combination of octadecyl rosmarinate (40 microM) and chitosan coating resulted in significantly greater inhibition of lipid oxidation in the liposomes compared to chitoson or octadecyl rosmarinate alone. Increasing the concentrations of octadecyl rosmarinate to a concentration of 40 microM in the chitosan-coated liposomes decreased lipid oxidation. Only butyl rosmarinate exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than free rosmarinic acid. Eicosyl rosmarinate (20 carbons) had lower antioxidant activity than all other rosmarinic acid derivatives. These results suggest that by combining the inclusion of appropriate antioxidants such as rosmarinic acid and the deposition of a chitosan coating onto the surface of liposomes may significantly increase the oxidative and physical stability of liposomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf100133bDOI Listing
May 2010

Influence of minced pork and rind ratios on physico-chemical and sensory quality of Nham - a Thai fermented pork sausage.

Meat Sci 2005 Feb;69(2):355-62

National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 113 Paholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.

The effects of incorporating varying levels of minced pork and rind on physico-chemical and sensory quality of Nham were studied. An increase in cooked pork rind resulted in higher moisture, lipid, and initial pH values of Nham (P<0.05). However, no significant effects were observed on fermentation characteristics of Nham (P>0.05). At the end of fermentation, Nham with a higher meat component exhibited higher texture profile analysis force, hardness, and cohesiveness (P<0.05). The results suggested the importance of meat on the restructuring effect, which contributes to the texture formation of Nham. Incorporation of a higher amount of cooked pork rind improved water-binding properties, leading to decreased weight loss and released water. Based on the results of sensory evaluation, up to 43% pork rind can be used in the formulation with no adverse effect on texture and overall liking of Nham. However, the ratio of 5:5 was the most appropriate for minimising the cost of production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.08.006DOI Listing
February 2005