Publications by authors named "Atena Variji"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mechanisms of COVID-19 Entry into the Cell: Potential Therapeutic Approaches Based on Virus Entry Inhibition in COVID-19 Patients with Underlying Diseases.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 Feb 11;20(1):11-23. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran AND Cellular, and Molecular Biology Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran AND Department of Pathology, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus spread from Wuhan, China, in 2019 and is spreading rapidly around the world. COVID-19 victims are almost associated with cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and other underlying diseases. Concerning the high prevalence of these disorders, widespread mortality threatens global society, and its fatality rate may increase with increasing COVID-19 prevalence in countries with older populations. Therefore, evaluating patients' clinical status with severe COVID-19 infection and their medical history can help manage treatment. Currently, one of the considered treatments is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) inhibition. This study investigated virus entry mechanisms through membrane receptors, their role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and underlying diseases, and treatment methods based on the viral entrance inhibition. According to existing studies, inhibition of ACE2 can increase oxidative stress, inflammation, fibrosis and ultimately exacerbate underlying diseases such as cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, diabetes, and hypertension in individuals with COVID-19. The ACE2 inhibition is not suitable for patients with COVID-19 with underlying diseases, but it seems that the recombinant ACE2 solution is more appropriate for inhibiting the virus in these patients if hypotension would be monitored.
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February 2021

Improved risk assessment of coronary artery disease by substituting paraoxonase 1 activity for HDL-C: Novel cardiometabolic biomarkers based on HDL functionality.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 04 1;31(4):1166-1176. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background And Aims: Developing laboratory assays to evaluate HDL functions and improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment has recently emerged as a challenge. The present study was conducted to help predict the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) by investigating new cardiometabolic risk factors based on substituting paraoxonase 1 (PON1) as a critical enzyme in the functionality of HDL for that of HDL-C.

Methods And Results: The present study recruited 274 subjects undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography, 92 without significant CAD (non-CAD), and 182 with a severe CAD. The diagnostic accuracy of the new biomarkers in non-CAD versus multi-vessel disease was obtained in descending order of AUC as 0.72 (P < 0.001) for log (TG/PON1), 0.70 (P < 0.001) for nonHDL-C/PON1, and 0.67 (P < 0.001) for LDL-C/PON1. After performing a multivariate adjustment for age, gender, BMI, statin therapy, and diabetes mellitus, the increased odds of CAD remained significant for the new cardiometabolic ratios as independent variables [adjusted OR = 1.47 (1.15-1.88), p = 0.002 for LDL-C/PON1; adjusted OR = 2.15 (1.41-3.5), p = 0.009 for nonHDL-C/PON1; adjusted OR = 5.03 (2.14-13.02), p = 0.004 for log (TG/PON1)]. CAD was diagnosed with an optimal discriminating cutoff of 1.84 for LDL-C/PON1, 2.8 for nonHDL-C/PON1, and 0.48 for log (TG/PON1).

Conclusions: To improve CAD's risk assessment, the PON1 activity was proposed as an alternative to HDL-C in the commonly used atherogenic lipid ratios. Substituting the PON1 activity for the HDL-C concentration can provide an index of the HDL activity. The present study sought to exploit the lipoprotein-related risk factors of CAD from a more effective perspective.
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April 2021

Importance of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) as an antioxidant and antiatherogenic enzyme in the cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes: Genotypic and phenotypic evaluation.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2020 Mar 7;161:108067. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran; Diabetes Research Center, Imam Teaching Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Electronic address:

Oxidant-antioxidant imbalance is involved in the etiology of different diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), liver disorders, kidney diseases, cancers and diabetes mellitus. Antioxidant enzymes play a key role in striking an oxidant-antioxidant balance. Moreover, paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme that binds with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the circulation, and antioxidant and antiaterogenic properties of this lipoprotein are significantly associated with PON1. Research suggests PON1 contributes to the pathogenesis of certain human diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). The association between PON1 and T2D appear to be reciprocal so that the disease significantly decreases PON1 levels and in turn, the genetics of PON1 may have a role the risk of susceptibility to T2D. Several factors that reduce the activity and concentration of PON1 in patients with T2D include increased glycation and loss-of-function polymorphisms. The genotypic and phenotypic evaluations of PON1 are therefore crucial for assessing the risk of cardiovascular complications in these patients, and strategies for increasing or restoring PON1 levels are useful for reducing or preventing their cardiovascular complications as their main cause of mortality. The present review aimed at discussing and emphasizing the key role of PON1 in T2D as a silent and dangerous disease.
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March 2020

The combined utility of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) as two important HDL-associated enzymes in coronary artery disease: Which has a stronger predictive role?

Atherosclerosis 2019 01 8;280:7-13. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran; Immunogenetics Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) are HDL-associated enzymes that contribute significantly to the formation of dysfunctional HDL. The present study thus seeks to comparatively analyze the predictive role of PON1, MPO and the MPO/PON1 ratio and to also evaluate which one has a stronger predictive role in their combined utility as an MPO/PON1 ratio in coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: PON1 activity and MPO concentrations were determined in patients with established CAD and those without significant CAD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn by plotting true positivity versus false positivity.

Results: The ROC curve analyses showed that PON1 (AUC = 61%, p = 0.003) and MPO/PON1 (AUC = 60%, p = 0.01) have a better diagnostic performance than MPO (AUC = 50%, p = 0.42) in detecting patients with CAD. PON1 and MPO/PON1 were found to have a significantly stronger discriminatory power for the age range ≥52 and < 60 years (AUC = 69%, p = 0.008 for PON1; AUC = 66%, p = 0.022 for MPO/PON1). The multivariate analysis revealed PON1 as an independent variable that was significantly associated with the multi-vessel disease [odds ratio (OR) = 0.98; p = 0.017]. At the cutoff point of 30 μmol/mL/min for PON1 and 1.85 for MPO/PON1, specificities were 97% and 73% and sensitivities 30% and 54% for discriminating patients with single-vessel disease from non-CAD subjects.

Conclusions: The diagnostic performance of PON1 alone was comparable to that of the MPO/PON1 ratio for CAD risk assessment; however, MPO may increase the true positive rate. A larger number of blocked vessels seems to be associated with an increased predictive power for both PON1 and MPO/PON1. Recent data support the fact that PON1 and MPO may potentially be appropriate therapeutic targets for preventing CAD.
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January 2019