Publications by authors named "Atena Mansouri"

15 Publications

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Crosstalk between non-coding RNAs expression profile, drug resistance and immune response in breast cancer.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Dec 21:106041. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Drug resistance is one of the most critical challenges facing researchers in treating breast cancer. Despite numerous treatments for breast cancer, including conventional chemical drugs, monoclonal antibodies, and immunotherapeutic drugs known as immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), many patients resist various approaches. In recent years, the relationship between gene expression profiles and drug resistance phenotypes has attracted much attention. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are regulatory molecules that have been shown to regulate gene expression and cell transcriptome. Two categories, microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs have been more considered and studied among these ncRNAs. Studying the role of different ncRNAs in chemical drug resistance and ICI resistance together can be beneficial in selecting more effective treatments for breast cancer. Changing the expression and action mechanism of these regulatory molecules on drug resistance phenotypes is the main topic of this review article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.106041DOI Listing
December 2021

Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Status in Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

J Clin Med 2021 Dec 14;10(24). Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 9177948954, Iran.

Background: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterizied by elevated levels of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) which is an important source of substrates to be oxidized by different oxidative agents. Subsequently, the oxidized LDLs (oxLDLs) induce further oxidative reactions in FH patients, which contributes to the development of atherosclerosis and advanced cardiovascular events in these patients. This study aimed to investigate the association of oxidant/antioxidant markers with FH.

Methods: This case-control study comprised 18 HoFH, 18 HeFH, and 20 healthy subjects. Oxidant/antioxidant markers including MDA, MPO, thiol, nitric oxide (NO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), SOD, and CAT were assessed by colorimetric methods. Prooxidant-antioxidant balance was also measured by pro-oxidant antioxidant balance (PAB) assay.

Results: The levels of MDA ( < 0.001), MPO activity ( < 0.001), thiol ( < 0.001), NO ( < 0.01), and PAB ( < 0.001) were notably higher in HoFH group in comparison with healthy subjects. HeFH group also showed significantly higher levels of thiol ( < 0.001) and PAB ( < 0.001) when compared to healthy subjects. Elevated levels of MDA ( < 0.001) and PAB ( < 0.001) were also observed in HoFH relative to HeFH. No significant differences were found between the studied groups in the case of antioxidant enzyme activities. The results of binary logistic regression showed that PAB (OR: 0.979; = 0.033), and MDA (OR: 0.996; = 0.018) levels were inversely associated with HoFH, although, after adjustment for age and LDL-C levels, these associations were diminished.

Conclusion: Several oxidant/antioxidant differences were found between FH patients and healthy individuals as well as between HoFH and HeFH patients. These differences might be strongly dependent on plasma LDL-C levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10245867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8707741PMC
December 2021

The potential application of organoids in breast cancer research and treatment.

Hum Genet 2021 Oct 28. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Faculty of Health Science, Laser Research Centre, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, Johannesburg, 2028, South Africa.

Tumor heterogeneity is a major challenge for breast cancer researchers who have struggled to find effective treatments despite recent advances in oncology. Although the use of 2D cell culture methods in breast cancer research has been effective, it cannot model the heterogeneity of breast cancer as found within the body. The development of 3D culture of tumor cells and breast cancer organoids has provided a new approach in breast cancer research, allowing the identification of biomarkers, study of the interaction of tumor cells with the microenvironment, and for drug screening and discovery. In addition, the possibility of gene editing in organoids, especially using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, is convenient, and has allowed a more detailed study of tumor behavior in models closer to the physiological condition. The present review covers the application of organoids in breast cancer research. The recent use of gene-editing systems to provide insights into therapeutic approaches for breast cancer, is highlighted. The study of organoids and the possibility of gene manipulation may be a step towards the personalized treatment of breast cancer, which has so far remained unattainable due to the high heterogeneity of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-021-02390-0DOI Listing
October 2021

Development of a stable and high loaded liposomal formulation of lapatinib with enhanced therapeutic effects for breast cancer in combination with Caelyx®: In vitro and in vivo evaluations.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Nov 29;207:112012. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Nanotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Lapatinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has poor water solubility, which results in poor and incomplete absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. To overcome this obstacle, we designed a stable and high-loaded liposomal formulation encapsulating lapatinib and examined its therapeutic efficacy in vitro and in vivo on TUBO and 4T1 cell lines. We also assessed the impact of liposomal lapatinib on the extent of the tumor and spleen-infiltrating lymphocytes and the autophagy and apoptosis gene expression within the tumor site. Our results showed that liposomal lapatinib inhibits cell proliferation and significantly induces autophagy and apoptosis compared to control groups. Moreover, when it used in combination with liposomal doxorubicin, it extended the time to end from 22.4 ± 3.5 in the control group to 40 days in the TUBO cell line and from 29.2 ± 1.7 to 38.6 ± 2.2 days in 4T1 triple-negative breast cancer cell line, which reveals its promising effects on the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our results indicated the need for further evaluations to understand liposomal lapatinib's potential effects on autophagy, apoptosis, and particularly on immune system cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2021.112012DOI Listing
November 2021

Role of Myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) in autoimmunity and its potential as a therapeutic target.

Inflammopharmacology 2021 Oct 20;29(5):1307-1315. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Internist, Assistant Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Myeloid suppressor cells (MDSCs) are an important class of immune-regulating cells that can suppress T cell function. Most of our knowledge about the function of MDSC comes from studies of cancer models. Recent studies, however, have greatly contributed to the description of MDSC involvement in autoimmune diseases. They are known as a cell population that may negatively affect immune responses by regulating the function of CD4 and CD8 cells, which makes them an attractive target for autoimmune diseases therapy. However, many questions about MDSC activation, differentiation, and inhibitory functions remain unanswered. In this study, we have summarized the role of MDSCs in various autoimmune diseases, and the potential of targeting them for therapeutic benefits has been discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-021-00846-3DOI Listing
October 2021

Selection of DNA aptamers for tramadol through the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment method for fabrication of a sensitive fluorescent aptasensor based on graphene oxide.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Oct 16;259:119840. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Pharmaceutical Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Tramadol hydrochloride (TH), as an atypical opioid and a 4-phenyl-piperidine analogue of codeine, is mainly used for treating moderate to severe pains. Due to its extensive application, the consequent need for its analysis in various samples is essential. The current study focuses on the introduction of a rapid fluorescent assay using graphene oxide (GO) and aptamer for determination of tramadol in serum samples. Specific ssDNA aptamers for TH were developed by SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential Enrichment) technique using GO as a fluorescence quencher. After 10 rounds, two aptamers (Apt19 and Apt39) were selected from various families. Then, the binding constants of aptamers were measured using fluorometric assay and finally Apt39 (labeled with ATTO 647N) was chosen for development of a fluorescent aptasensor because this aptamer bound to TH with high affinity (K = 178.4 nM) and specificity. The current analytical system showed detection limits of 1.04 nM and 2.56 nM in serum sample and phosphate buffer saline (10 mM PBS), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119840DOI Listing
October 2021

Crosstalk between MMP-13, CD44, and TWIST1 and its role in regulation of EMT in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Jun 19;476(6):2465-2478. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Immunology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play key roles in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) for the development of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. MMP-13 is an extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzyme that plays crucial roles in angiogenesis, cell cycle regulation, niche maintenance, and transforming squamous epithelial cells in various tissues. CD44, a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on esophageal tumor cells, is required for EMT induction and invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The transcription factor TWIST1, as EMT and stemness marker, regulates MMPs expression and is identified as the downstream target of CD44. In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable interplay between the expression of key genes contributing to ESCC development, including MMP-13, TWIST1, and CD44 with clinical features for introducing novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets in the disease. The gene expression profiling of MMP-13, TWIST1, and CD44 was performed using quantitative real-time PCR in tumor tissues from 50 ESCC patients compared to corresponding margin non-tumoral tissues. Significant overexpression of MMP-13, CD44S, CD44V3, CD44V6, and TWIST1 were observed in 74%, 36%, 44%, 44%, and 52% of ESCC tumor samples, respectively. Overexpression of MMP-13 was associated with stage of tumor progression, metastasis, and tumor location (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between TWIST1 overexpression and grade (P < 0.05). Furthermore, overexpression of CD44 variants was associated with stage of tumor progression, grade, tumor invasion, and location (P < 0.05). The results indicated the significant correlation between concomitant expression of MMP-13/TWIST1, TWIST1/CD44, and CD44/MMP-13 with each other in a variety of clinicopathological traits, including depth of tumor invasion, tumor location, stage of tumor, and lymph node involvement in ESCC tissue samples (P < 0.05). Collectively, our results indicate that the TWIST1-CD44-MMP-13 axis is involved in tumor aggressiveness, proposing these genes as regulators of EMT, diagnostic markers, and therapeutic targets in ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-021-04089-2DOI Listing
June 2021

The Role of Interleukin-4 and 13 Gene Polymorphisms in Allergic Rhinitis: A Case Control Study.

Rep Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Jul;8(2):111-118

Department of Laboratory Sciences, School of Paramedical Sciences, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is an IgE-mediated inflammatory disorder with high morbidity rates. The eitiology of this disease is understood to occur from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. T helper type 2 cells have been shown to have a crucial role in atopic disease due to their production of the cytokines, intelukin and , involved in inflammation. Research has shown single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the and genes to be associated increased levels of IgE and with allergic diseases such as, allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Specifically, the rs2243250 SNP of IL-4 and the rs20541 SNP of have been shown to be associated with AR.

Methods: A case-control study was designed to investigate the relationship between the two SNPs rs2243250 and rs20541 with the incidence of AR. The SNPs were examined in patients with AR and healthy controls (86 patients and 86 controls). Blood samples were collected and DNA was extracted to evaluate the SNPs by RFLP-PCR.

Results: Recessive analysis model of the gene (GG vs. AA+AG) revealed that the GG genotype was more common in AR patients (P=0.36) )OR=0.8 [81% CI 0.38-1.6]). For the gene (TC vs. TT+CC), the TC genotype was more common in AR patients (P = 0.0022)) OR=0.71 [60% CI 1.41-5.02]). Furthermore, in the IL-4 gene, the 590 T>C polymorphism had a significant association with AR. However, no association was found between AR and the rs20541 polymorphism.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the polymorphism (rs20541, Exo 4, G>A, Arg130Gln) and IL-4 polymorphism (rs2243250= C-590T, promoter, T>C) are co-associated with AR and sensitivity to aeroallergens. However, this study used a cohort of AR patients and healthy controls from the northeast of Iran. Given the influence of ethnicity and environment on genetics, further investigation is needed to elucidate the role of SNPs in and in AR among different populations.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6844616PMC
July 2019

In vitro selection of tacrolimus binding aptamer by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment method for the development of a fluorescent aptasensor for sensitive detection of tacrolimus.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2020 Jan 31;177:112853. Epub 2019 Aug 31.

Targeted Drug Delivery Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Tacrolimus (TAC) is an immunosuppressant for preventing solid-organ transplant rejection. Because of its narrow therapeutic window, analytical methods which can detect TAC in serum samples with high accuracy and reliability are required. In this study, specific aptamers (Apt122 and Apt125) for TAC were isolated via systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment method using magnetic beads to immobilize the target. After determination of binding constants of aptamers by flow cytometry analysis, Apt122 was selected and labeled with ATTO 647 N as a fluorophore to develop a fluorescent sensing platform for detection of TAC using graphene oxide (GO) as a fluorescence quencher. The designed aptasensor could detect TAC in phosphate buffer saline (10 mM PBS) and serum samples with detection limits as low as 1.4 and 2.5 nM, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2019.112853DOI Listing
January 2020

Targeted delivery of tacrolimus to T cells by pH-responsive aptamer-chitosan- poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanocomplex.

J Cell Physiol 2019 08 18;234(10):18262-18271. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Pharmaceutical Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Tacrolimus (TAC) acts as an inhibitor of calcineurin, which inhibits the production of interleukin-2. In this study, we aimed to design a targeted delivery platform with poly (lactide-co-glycolide; PLGA) nanoparticles modified with chitosan (CS) and CD8AP17s aptamer (Apt). MOLT-4 cells as CD8 positive and JURKAT cells as CD negative were adopted to investigate the efficacy of the proposed delivery system in vitro. The particle size and Ζ potential of the TAC-PLGA-CS-Apt nanocomplex were 345 nm and 13.7 mV, respectively. Release study showed an efficient TAC release from complex in citrate buffer (pH 5.5). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that TAC-PLGA-CS-Apt nanocomplex was highly selective toward MOLT-4 cells. Complex increased the cellular uptake of TAC in MOLT-4 cells (target) while reducing its cytotoxicity in JURKAT cells (nontarget). Our study showed that complex nanoconjugate could efficiently deliver TAC into MOLT-4 cells as a model of cytotoxic T cell and it could be considered as a potential candidate for TAC delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28458DOI Listing
August 2019

Correlation between expression of CatSper1,2 and sperm parameters in the gamma irradiated adult mouse testis.

Int J Radiat Biol 2019 06 23;95(6):691-696. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

j Department of Medical Education , Brighton & Sussex Medical School, Falmer , Brighton , UK.

CatSper protein channels are responsible for the entry of Ca2+ into sperm cells. These proteins play an important role in motility and male fertility. So it is important to find out whether or not environmental factors, such as gamma radiation, have an effect on the expression of Catsper genes. In this study, we investigated the effects of gamma radiation on the expression of CatSper1 and CatSper2 genes. Twenty-one male NMRI mice were divided into three groups: a control group without gamma radiation, and two experimental groups; Group 1 treated with 1 Gy of gamma radiation, and Group 2 treated with a higher dose of 2 Gy gamma radiation. Testes were removed from all groups of animals 35 days following irradiation and the testicular tissue, processed and embedded in paraffin blocks for sectioning and histological examination. Sperm samples were also taken from the epididymis for microscopic. Sperm parameters such as sperm count, morphology, motility, and viability rates were analyzed. Expression of CatSper genes was evaluated using Real-time PCR. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software and ANOVA test. Our results showed that after treatment with gamma radiation, testes morphology was changed. Epididymal sperm count, motility, and morphology rates were significantly affected in both experimental groups compared to the control group. The relative expressions of CatSper 1 and 2 genes were significantly reduced in the irradiated mice (1 Gy and 2 Gy) than non-irradiated ones. Gamma radiations not only change testes histology and sperm parameters, but also decrease the expression of CatSper 1 and 2 genes in male mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09553002.2019.1552372DOI Listing
June 2019

Association of Two CD44 Polymorphisms with Clinical Outcomes of Gastric Cancer Patients

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 May 26;19(5):1313-1318. Epub 2018 May 26.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: CD44 is an important cell adhesion molecule that plays a key role in growth, invasion, proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. CD44 protein over-expression is associated with a poor prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) and previous studies have shown that CD44 gene polymorphisms could affect survival and recurrence. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that polymorphisms impacting on the CD44 signaling pathway may predict clinical outcomes in patients with GC. Materials and Methods: DNA was extracted from blood of 150 healthy individuals and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue of 150 patients. The two polymorphisms rs187116 and rs7116432 were studied by RFLP-PCR and sequencing techniques. Results: There was a strong significant correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CD44 gene, tumor recurrence, and overall survival (p <0.0001). The existence of a significant relationship between tumor recurrence and overall survival was proved in this study, with at least one allele G for the polymorphism rs187116 and at least one allele A for polymorphism rs7116432. Conclusion: These results provide evidence of a relationship between CD44 gene polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in our GC patients. This result could help identify individuals with GC who have a high risk of tumor recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.5.1313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6031830PMC
May 2018

Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Allergic Rhinitis in an Iranian Population.

Rep Biochem Mol Biol 2017 Apr;5(2):97-102

Division of Human Genetics, Immunology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.; Department of Laboratory Sciences, School of Paramedical Sciences, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: The development of allergic rhinitis (AR) is caused by the interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. In this study, the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and AR in an Iranian population was identified.

Methods: This case-control study was performed on 86 patients with AR and 86 healthy subjects. This study aimed to evaluate a potential association between two SNPs, rs1269486 and rs2229360, and AR. Blood samples were collected and DNA was extracted for the evaluation of these SNPs by RFLP-PCR.

Results: A statistically-significant association was found between rs1269486 and AR (P<0.001). The frequencies of the A and GA genotypes were less in patients than in controls. The frequencies of the G allele and the GG genotype were greater in patients than in controls (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: SNP rs1269486 of was associated with AR and sensitivity to aeroallergens in our population. Because of the significance of this gene in AR, studying the association between polymorphisms and AR is recommended for other populations.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5346276PMC
April 2017

Evaluation of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and its correlation with lymphatic metastasis in human gastric cancer.

Med Oncol 2015 Aug 15;32(8):217. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Division of Human Genetics, Immunology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Bu-Ali square, 9196773117, Mashhad, Iran.

Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an IL-7-like type 1 inflammatory cytokine that is mainly produced by epithelial cells in the skin, lungs, thymus, and gastrointestinal tract. This cytokine is a master regulator involved in T helper 2 cell-type inflammation immune responses. Various cell types, including T, B, mast, dendritic, and cancer or cancer-associated cells, are activated via TSLP. TSLP expression is also associated with various human cancers and produced by Helicobacter pylori-infected human gastric epithelial cells. TSLP is a multi-functional protein that can act as both an oncogene and a tumor suppressor. The aim of this study was to examine the role of TSLP in the progression of gastric cancer (GC) and its correlation with clinicopathological features in GC patients. Because of the relationship between H. p ylori infection and GC, we also examined gastric tissue specimens for H. p ylori DNA. In this study, fresh tumoral tissues and distant tumor-free samples from 50 GC patients were assessed for TSLP mRNA expression by quantitative real-time PCR. The GC samples were also assessed for H. p ylori DNA using primers specific for H. p ylori 16S rRNA and the UreC genes by PCR. TSLP mRNA was overexpressed in 20 of the 50 (40%) GC samples relative to their corresponding normal tissues. TSLP overexpression was significantly correlated with tumor cell metastasis to lymph nodes. Of the 20 patients with TSLP overexpression, 17 (85.0%) had metastasis to lymph nodes (p = 0.023). In addition, the presence of H. p ylori was confirmed by PCR in 22 of the 50 (44%) cases and 10 (50%) of the 20 TSLP overexpressors. We show that human GC cells produce TSLP and a significant correlation was seen between TSLP overexpression and GC metastasis to lymph nodes. This is the first report to indicate that TSLP may play a role in lymph node involvement in GC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12032-015-0653-4DOI Listing
August 2015

Expression analysis of CD44 isoforms S and V3, in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2015 Apr;18(4):380-4

Division of Human Genetics, Immunology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objectives: CD44 is a member of the cell adhesion molecules family. Naturally, CD44S, along with CD44V3 influence the cell motility, migration, and adhesion, while in tumor cells they lead to tumor invasion, progression, and metastasis. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the CD44S and CD44V3 expression in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC) and to reveal their correlations with clinicopathological features of patients.

Materials And Methods: Fresh tumoral and distant tumor-free esophageal tissues were obtained from 50 patients with ESCC. Using quantitative real-time PCR, the expression levels of CD44S and CD44V3 were quantified and compared in both groups of cells. The patients had not received any therapeutic interference, such as chemotherapy or radiation, prior to sampling.

Results: Significant overexpression of CD44S and CD44V3 mRNA was observed in 13 (26.0%, P=0.03) and 11 (22.0%, P=0.007) tumor specimens, respectively. The expression of the genes were significantly correlated not only with each other (P=0.0001), but also with differentiation grade of tumor (P=0.033), stage of tumor progression (P=0.003), and depth of tumor invasion (P=0.00). In addition, low level of CD44V3 mRNA expression was attended to be associated with tumor invasion.

Conclusion: There is no correlation between CD44S expression with clinicopathological features of patients; however, simultaneous expression of these genes has an important effect on tumorigenesis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4439453PMC
April 2015
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