Publications by authors named "Atefeh Ameri"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Lipase@zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-90: A highly stable and recyclable biocatalyst for the synthesis of fruity banana flavour.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 6;166:1301-1311. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451, Tehran 1417614411, Iran. Electronic address:

A zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-90) has been synthesized through solvothermal method. The structure was characterized by means of FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The synthesized ZIF-90 was applied as a support for immobilization of porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL). The immobilized enzyme (PPL@ZIF-90) exhibited immobilization yield and efficiency of 66 ± 1.8% and 89 ± 1.4%, respectively. The pH and thermal stability of PPL was improved after immobilization and the initial activity was retained at about 57% after 20 days of storage at 4 °C for PPL@ZIF-90. Moreover, about 57% of the original activity was remained following 10 cycles of application. In Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies, K value for PPL@ZIF-90 was lower, while, the V was higher than free PPL. Moreover, optimized conditions to produce fruity banana flavour upon esterification of butyric acid were investigated. The optimum esterification yield was 73.79 ± 1.31% in the presence of 245 mg PPL@ZIF-90, alcohol/acid ratio of 2.78 and 39 h reaction time. PPL@ZIF-90 showed 39% relative esterification yield after six cycles of reuse. The results suggested that PPL@ZIF-90 can be used as a potential effective biocatalyst for synthesis of isoamyl butyrate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.011DOI Listing
January 2021

Optimization of immobilization conditions of Bacillus atrophaeus FSHM2 lipase on maleic copolymer coated amine-modified graphene oxide nanosheets and its application for valeric acid esterification.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Nov 16;162:1790-1806. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cosmetic Products Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

The thermoalkalophilic lipase from Bacillus atrophaeus (BaL) was immobilized onto amine-functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets coated with the poly (maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) copolymer (GO-NH-PMAO) and activated with glutaraldehyde as spacer arm through interfacial activation and subsequent multipoint covalent attachment. Experimental design method was applied for optimization of immobilization conditions including GO-NH-PMAO concentration, buffer concentration, pH, sonication time, enzyme concentration, glutaraldehyde concentration, time, and temperature. The optimum specific activity of the immobilized BaL (105.95 ± 2.37 U/mg) reached at 5 mg/mL for GO-NH-PMAO, 25 mM of buffer, pH 6.0, 60 min sonication time, 100 mM glutaraldehyde, 60 U/mL of enzyme, and 4 h of immobilization time at 25 °C, which was very close to the predicted amount (106.08 ± 1.42 U/mg). Maximum immobilization yield (81.35%) and efficiency (277.63%) were determined in optimal immobilization conditions. The obtained results clearly indicated that the immobilized BaL exhibited better stability at extreme temperature and pH than the free BaL. At temperature of 90 °C and pH 11, more than 90% of the initial activity of the immobilized BaL was retained. Furthermore, the immobilized BaL retained about 90% of its initial activity after 10 days of storage and 6 cycles of application. The esterification studies showed that maximum bioconversion of valeric acid to pentyl valerate using the free BaL (34.5%) and the immobilized BaL (96.3%) occurred in the xylene medium after 48 h of incubation at 60 °C. Therefore, the BaL immobilized on GO-NH-PMAO was introduced as an effective biocatalyst to synthesize green apple flavour ester.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.101DOI Listing
November 2020

Immobilization of Thermoalkalophilic Lipase from Bacillus atrophaeus FSHM2 on Amine-Modified Graphene Oxide Nanostructures: Statistical Optimization and Its Application for Pentyl Valerate Synthesis.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2020 Jun 10;191(2):579-604. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Synthesis of (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, statistical optimization of conditions for immobilization of Bacillus atrophaeus lipase (BaL) on as-synthesized support, and application of the immobilized BaL for esterification of valeric acid were carried out in this investigation. The optimum specific activity of the immobilized BaL (81.60 ± 0.28 U mg) was achieved at 3 mg mL of GO-NH, 50 mM of phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, 60 min sonication time, 100 mM glutaraldehyde, 25 U mL of enzyme, and 8 h immobilization time at 4 °C. The immobilized BaL retained about 90% of its initial activity after 10 days of storage. Moreover, about 70% of the initial activity of the immobilized BaL was retained after 10 cycles of application. The results of esterification studies exhibited that maximum pentyl valerate synthesis using the free BaL (34.5%) and the immobilized BaL (92.7%) occurred in the organic solvent medium (xylene) after 48 h of incubation at 60 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-019-03180-1DOI Listing
June 2020

Rapid and Facile Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Palladium Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Properties and Cytotoxic Effects Against Fibroblast-Like (HSkMC) and Human Lung Carcinoma (A549) Cell Lines.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2020 Sep 28;197(1):132-140. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cosmetic Products Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

We report here a simple microwave irradiation method (850 W, 3 min) for the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) using ascorbic acid (as reducing agent) and sodium alginate (as stabilizer agent). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), UV-Visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Antioxidant properties and cytotoxic effects of as-synthesized Pd NPs and Pd (II) acetate were also assessed. UV-Vis study showed the formation of Pd NPs with maximum absorption at 345 nm. From TEM analysis, it was observed that the Pd NPs had spherical shape with particle size distribution of 13-33 nm. Based on DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay, the antioxidant activities of Pd NPs were significantly higher than the Pd (II) acetate (p < 0.05). At the same concentration of 640 μg/mL, the scavenging activities were 32.9 ± 3.2% (Pd (II) acetate) and 27.2 ± 2.1% (Pd NPs). For A549 cells treated 48 h with Pd NPs, Pd (II) acetate, and cisplatin, the measured concentration necessary causing 50% cell death (IC) was 7.2 ± 1.7 μg/mL, 32.1 ± 2.1 μg/mL, and 206.2 ± 3.5 μg/mL, respectively. On HSkMC cells, the IC of the Pd NPs (320 μg/mL) was higher compared to Pd (II) acetate (228.7 ± 3.6 μg/mL), which confirmed lower cytotoxicity of the Pd NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01984-0DOI Listing
September 2020

Preliminary survey of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in nosocomial uropathogen in north-central Iran.

Heliyon 2019 Sep 17;5(9):e02349. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Department of Laboratory Sciences, Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing bacteria, including have increasingly subjected to therapeutic limitations and patients with these infections are at high risk for treatment failure, long hospital stays, high health care costs, and high mortality. The aim of this study was to screen the prevalence of the , and ESBL genes in . strains isolated from nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs). During the March 2016 to December 2017, one hundred isolates of were collected from urine specimens of patients suffering from nosocomial UTI referred to Khatam Al-Anbia hospital in Shahrud, north-central Iran. All isolates were identified by standard bacteriological tests. The pattern of antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to the CLSI guidelines. The presence of the ESBLs was investigated using the double-disc synergy test (DDST). Polymerase chain reaction technique was used to detect the , and genes in DDST positive isolates. Most isolates showed remarkable resistance to tested antibiotics with highest rate against nitrofurantoin (75%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (65%). The imipenem was the most effective antibiotic against isolates. ESBL phenotype was detected in 50 (50%) of isolates. The prevalence of , and genes among 50 ESBLs-positive isolates was 25 (50%), 15 (30%) and 35 (70%) respectively. The and genes were seen in 25 isolates (50%) simultaneously. The findings of this study indicated the 50% frequency rate of ESBL-producing in our geographic region. Since the treatment of infections caused by this bacterium is associated with many limitations, this high prevalence is a warning sign to adopt new control policies to prevent further spread of this microorganism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6819946PMC
September 2019

Antimicrobial, anti-biofilm, and anti-proliferative activities of lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Acinetobacter junii B6.

Microb Pathog 2020 Jan 17;138:103806. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Lipopeptide biosurfactants (LPBs) are amphiphilic compounds produced by microorganisms exhibiting various biological activities. The main aim of the present study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial, anti-biofilm, and cytotoxic effects of LPB produced by Acinetobacter junii (AjL). We determined AjL minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as two fungal strains. Also, the anti-biofilm activity of AjL against the biofilm produced by clinically isolated bacterial strains was investigated. The AjL non-selectively showed activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The obtained results of the present study exhibited that the AjL in concentrations nearly below critical micelle concentration (CMC) has an effective antibacterial activity. It was found that the MIC values of AjL were lower than standard antifungal and it exhibited nearly 100% inhibition against Candida utilis. The attained results of the biofilm formation revealed that AjL disrupted the biofilm of Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 1250 μg/ml and 2500 μg/ml concentrations. The attained results of cytotoxic effect (determined by WST-1 assay) of the AjL revealed IC of 7.8 ± 0.4 mg/ml, 2.4 ± 0.5 mg/ml, and 5.7 ± 0.1 mg/ml, against U87, KB, and HUVEC cell lines, respectively. The results indicated that AjL has a potential application in the relatively new field of biomedicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103806DOI Listing
January 2020

Hydrogels For Peptide Hormones Delivery: Therapeutic And Tissue Engineering Applications.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2019 26;13:3405-3418. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Peptides are the most abundant biological compounds in the cells that act as enzymes, hormones, structural element, and antibodies. Mostly, peptides have problems to move across the cells because of their size and poor cellular penetration. Therefore, a carrier that could transfer peptides into cells is ideal and would be effective for disease treatment. Until now, plenty of polymers, e.g., polysaccharides, polypeptides, and lipids were used in drug delivery. Hydrogels made from polysaccharides showed significant development in targeted delivery of peptide hormones because of their natural characteristics such as networks, pore sizes, sustainability, and response to external stimuli. The main aim of the present review was therefore, to gather the important usages of the hydrogels as a carrier in peptide hormone delivery and their application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S217211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770672PMC
April 2020

Ondansetron enhanced diclofenac-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2019 Sep 23;33(9):e22378. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

This study was performed to investigate the effect of ondansetron, a serotonin receptor (5-HT3) antagonist, in the alleviation of diclofenac-induced kidney injuries. NMRI mice were randomly divided into six groups and treated with (A) untreated control group, (B) diclofenac (100 mg/kg), (C) ondansetron (1 mg/kg), (D to F) ondansetron (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, respectively) and diclofenac (100 mg/kg) for last 3 days of experiment. The oxidative stress tests strongly demonstrated the negative synergistic effects of diclofenac and ondansetron, regarding the observation of dose-dependent enhancement of malondialdehyde concentration, and reduction of glutathione content, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. Histopathological analyses revealed dose-dependent tubular epithelial cells degeneration, outstanding mononuclear cells infiltration, clear necrosis at the papillary region of kidney, dilation, and vascular hyperemia in mice kidney tissues treated with ondansetron and diclofenac. Conclusively, these findings suggested the possible ondansetron-diclofenac interaction through the induction of oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22378DOI Listing
September 2019

Statistical optimization of cultural medium composition of thermoalkalophilic lipase produced by a chemically induced mutant strain of FSHM2.

3 Biotech 2019 Jul 15;9(7):268. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

2Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Extremophilic microbial derived lipases have been widely applied in different biotechnological processes due to their resistance to harsh conditions such as high salt concentration, elevated temperature, and extreme acidic or alkaline pH. The present study was designed to overproduce the halophilic, thermoalkalophilic lipase of FSHM2 through chemically induced random mutagenesis and optimization of cultural medium components assisted by statistical experimental design. At first, improvement of lipase production ability of FSHM2 was performed through exposure of the wild bacterial strain to ethidium bromide for 5-90 min to obtain a suitable mutant of lipase producer (designated as EB-5, 4301.1 U/l). Afterwards, Plackett-Burman experimental design augmented to D-optimal design was employed to optimize medium components (olive oil, maltose, glucose, sucrose, tryptone, urea, (NH)SO, NaCl, CaCl, and ZnSO) for lipase production by the EB-5 mutant. A maximum lipase production of 14,824.3 U/l was predicted in the optimum medium containing 5% of olive oil, 0.5% of glucose, 0.5% of sucrose, 2% of maltose, 2.5 g/l of yeast extract, 1.75 g/l of urea, 1.75 g/l of (NH)SO, 2.5 g/l of tryptone, 2 g/l of NaCl, 1 g/l of CaCl, and 1 g/l of ZnSO. A mean value of 14,773 ± 576.9 U/l of lipase was acquired from real experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-019-1789-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6571094PMC
July 2019

Toxicity of microwave-assisted biosynthesized zinc nanoparticles in mice: a preliminary study.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2019 Dec;47(1):1846-1858

c Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy , Kerman University of Medical Sciences , Kerman , Iran.

This study was designed to describe the oral acute and subacute toxicities and underlying toxicological mechanisms of biogenic Zn NPs in mice. The Zn NPs were prepared by a green microwave-assisted synthesis method in the presence of Lavandula vera leaf extract. Determination of median lethal dose (LD) of Zn NPs and the subacute toxicity after 14 days of exposure was performed as a measurement of substance toxicity through general toxicological, hematological, serum, and histopathological investigations. The western blotting was used to determine the cleaved-caspase-3 expression in the sampled tissues. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was applied to estimate the Zn levels in tissues. The SEM analyses revealed that the biogenic Zn NPs were spherical-shaped with the size range of 30-80 nm. The LD value above 5 g/kg indicated that biogenic Zn NPs could be classified as non-toxic chemicals. In subacute toxicity, no significant differences were found in the body weight as well as hematological and oxidative stress (OS) biomarkers after exposure to Zn NPs at the dose of 1 g/kg in comparison to the control. The AAS results indicated that Zn NPs were mainly distributed in the testis, liver, and brain. The findings of histology images of Zn NPs at the dose of 1 g/kg were similar to those of the control. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed in cleaved-caspase-3 expression after exposure to Zn NPs at the dose of 5 g/kg. The results demonstrated that changes in the OS were not related to caspase pathway and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) dose of biogenic Zn NPs in 14-days subacute toxicity study was lower than 1 g/kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2019.1611592DOI Listing
December 2019

Cytotoxicity investigations of biogenic tellurium nanorods towards PC12 cell line.

IET Nanobiotechnol 2018 Dec;12(8):1144-1149

Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

The authors evaluated the cytotoxicity underlying mechanisms of biogenic tellurium (Te) nanorods (NRs) produced by the strain Te on the PC12 cell line. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) value was estimated at 5.05 ± 0.07 ng/ml for biogenic Te NRs and 2.44 ± 0.38 ng/ml for KTeO, respectively. The viability of PC12 was inhibited concentration dependent at doses of 1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 ng/ml. Te NRs principally induced late apoptosis or necrosis at IC concentration, without effect on caspase-3 activities. Furthermore, Te NRs reduced glutathione and enhanced malondialdehyde levels, and also reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These findings revealed that biogenic Te NRs were less toxic than KTeO. Additionally, they induced cytotoxity towards the PC12 cell line through the activation of late apoptosis independent of the caspase pathway, and may also enhance oxidative stress in the nervous system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-nbt.2018.5137DOI Listing
December 2018

Overproduction of thermoalkalophilic lipase secreted by Bacillus atrophaeus FSHM2 using UV-induced mutagenesis and statistical optimization of medium components.

Prep Biochem Biotechnol 2019 3;49(2):184-191. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

a Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology , Kerman University of Medical Sciences , Kerman , Iran.

Microbial enzymes of extremophilic origin serve as a vital source of stable industrial enzymes. The present study focused on overproduction of a thermoalkalophilic lipase produced by Bacillus atrophaeus FSHM2 through UV-induced random mutagenesis (5-45 min exposure to UV light) and factorial experimental design augmented to response surface methodology. Firstly, a UV-induced mutant (designated as UV-45) was developed after the exposure of wild strain to UV irradiation for 45 min which was able to secrete 3484.8 U/L lipase. Afterward, Plackett-Burman experimental approach augmented to central composite design was employed to optimize medium components (olive oil, maltose, glucose, sucrose, yeast extract, tryptone, urea, (NH)SO, NaCl, CaCl, and ZnSO) for lipase production by the UV-45 mutant strain. The maximum lipase production of 5505.3 U/L were predicted in medium containing 5% of olive oil, 0.69% of glucose, 0.69% of sucrose, 2.5% of maltose, yeast extract (0.7 g/L), urea (0.44 g/L), (NH)SO (2.44 g/L), tryptone (1.19 g/L), NaCl (1.61 g/L), CaCl (3.81 g/L), and ZnSO (1.42 g/L). A mean value of 5161.3 ± 83.3 U/L of lipolytic activity was acquired from real experiments. To sum up, the lipolytic activity of wild type strain (1720.4 U/L) increased by 3-fold after UV-induced mutagenesis and medium components optimization (5161.3 U/L).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826068.2019.1566148DOI Listing
March 2019

Cytotoxicity of biologically synthesised bismuth nanoparticles against HT-29 cell line.

IET Nanobiotechnol 2018 08;12(5):653-657

Sudent Research Committee, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

This study was purposed to examine the cytotoxicity and functions of biologically synthesised bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) produced by sp. SFG on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line of HT-29. The structural properties of Bi NPs were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The cytotoxic effects of Bi NPs were analysed using flow cytometry cell apoptosis while western blot analyses were applied to analyse the cleaved caspase-3 expression. Oxidative stress (OS) damage was determined using the measurement of the glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) value of Bi NPs was measured to be 28.7 ± 1.4 µg/ml on HT-29 cell line. The viability of HT-29 represented a concentration-dependent pattern (5-80 µg/ml). The mode of Bi NPs induced apoptosis was found to be mainly related to late apoptosis or necrosis at IC concentration, without the effect on caspase-3 activities. Furthermore, Bi NPs reduced the GSH and increased the MDA levels and decreased the SOD and CAT activities. Taken together, biogenic Bi NPs induced cytotoxicity on HT-29 cell line through the activation of late apoptosis independent of caspase pathway and may enhance the OS biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-nbt.2017.0295DOI Listing
August 2018

Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Biologically Synthesized Tellurium Nanorods; A Preliminary Study.

Iran J Biotechnol 2017 29;15(4):268-276. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Recent theranostic (therapeutic or diagnostic) applications of tellurium nanoparticles have attracted a great interest for development of different methods for synthesis of this valuable nanostructure, especially via biological resources. In the present study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of the tellurium nanorods (Te NRs) biosynthesized by a bacterial strain strain Te were evaluated. The antimicrobial effect of Te NRs and potassium tellurite against different bacterial and fungal pathogens was assessed by microdilution method. Furthermore, the disk diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial effect of the biogenic Te NRs and potassium tellurite against , alone or in combination with various antibiotics. Also, the biogenic Te NRs were investigated for antioxidant activity using 2, 2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and reducing power assay. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of the purified Te NRs showed individual and rod-shaped nanostructure (~22 nm diameter by 185 nm in length). Based on the data obtained from both microdilution and disk diffusion method the K TeO exhibited a higher antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to the Te NRs. The measured IC for the biogenic Te NRs (i.e. DPPH radical scavenging activity) was found to be 24.9 μg.mL, while, K TeO has represented only 17.6 ± 0.8 % DPPH radical scavenging effect at the concentration of 160 μg.mL. The reducing power assay revealed a higher electron-donating activity for Te NRs compared to KTeO. Based on the data obtained from both microdilution and disk diffusion method the KTeO exhibited a higher antimicrobial and antifungal activity than Te NRs. Te NRs didn't show the antibacterial effect against the tested bacterial strain: MRSA and showed an inhibitory effect and antibacterial activity of the effective antibiotics. However, more studies should be performed to explore the action mechanism of the produced biogenic Te NRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijb.1580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5903914PMC
December 2017

Statistical optimization of kojic acid production by a UV-induced mutant strain of Aspergillus terreus.

Braz J Microbiol 2018 Oct - Dec;49(4):865-871. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

The ability of four Aspergillus strains for biosynthesis of kojic acid was evaluated among which Aspergillus terreus represented the highest level (2.21g/L) of kojic acid production. Improvement kojic acid production ability of A. terreus by random mutagenesis using different exposure time to ultraviolet light (5-40min) was then performed to obtain a suitable mutant of kojic acid production (designated as C, 7.63g/L). Thereafter, design of experiment protocol was employed to find medium components (glucose, yeast extract, KHPO (NH)SO, and pH) influences on kojic acid production by the C mutant. A 2 fractional factorial design augmented to central composite design showed that glucose, yeast extract, and KHPO were the most considerable factors within the tested levels (p<0.05). The optimum medium composition for the kojic acid production by the C mutant was found to be glucose, 98.4g/L; yeast extract, 1.0g/L; and KHPO, 10.3mM which was theoretically able to produce 120.2g/L of kojic acid based on the obtained response surface model for medium optimization. Using these medium compositions an experimental maximum Kojic acid production (109.0±10g/L) was acquired which verified the efficiency of the applied method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjm.2018.03.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6175716PMC
December 2018

Acute and subacute toxicities of biogenic tellurium nanorods in mice.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Nov 18;90:222-230. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

The current study was performed to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicities of biogenic tellurium nanorods (Te NRs). The Te NRs were prepared using Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain Te in a culture medium containing KTeO (1 mM) and their physiochemical properties were investigated using TEM, EDX and XRD. The median lethal dose (LD) of Te NRs and potassium tellurite (KTeO) were determined in mice and the subacute toxicity was also evaluated. The experimental design involved certain general toxicological, haematological, serum and histopathological investigations. The TEM and XRD analyses showed that the biogenic nanoparticles were rod-shaped and hexagonal. The toxicological evaluation showed that the LD values of Te NRs and KTeO were 60 and 12.5 mg/kg, respectively. Higher doses of Te NRs (6 mg/kg) and KTeO (1.25 mg/kg) were accompanied by signs of toxicity, including lower body weight, elevation in MDA and depletion in GSH content, SOD and CAT activity, and changes in biochemistry parameters. No obvious histopathological changes were observed in the treatment with Te NRs. In conclusion, the biogenic Te NRs were less toxic as compared to KTeO, and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) dose of Te NRs in 14 days subacute toxicity study was lower than 1.2 mg/kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.09.014DOI Listing
November 2017

Microwave-assisted biosynthesis of zinc nanoparticles and their cytotoxic and antioxidant activity.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2017 Jan 3;39:116-123. Epub 2016 Sep 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

The present study was designed for microwave assisted synthesis of zinc nanoparticles (Zn NPs) using Lavandula vera leaf extract in the presence of ZnSO (1mM). The biogenic Zn NPs were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Thereafter, the cytotoxic effect of ZnSO and Zn NPs on different cell lines was investigated by MTT-based cytotoxicity assay and their antioxidant properties were assessed using DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The SEM micrograph showed that the Zn NPs had spherical shape with the size range of 30-80nm. For A549, MCF-7, HT-29, and Caco-2 cell lines treated with Zn NPs, the concentration necessary causing 50% cell death (IC) was found to be 22.3±1.1μgmL, 86±3.7μgmL, 10.9±0.5μgmL, and 56.2±2.8μgmL, respectively. In the case of ZnSO, the same results (IC) were observed at concentration of 81.6±1.3μgmL (A549), 121.0±2.4μgmL (MCF-7), 43.0±1.4μgmL (HT-29), and 85.7±2.3μgmL (Caco-2). The obtained results of antioxidant activity showed that the IC values of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and Zn NPs were 44μgmLand 65.3μgmL, respectively, while ZnSO at concentration of 200μgmL exhibited only 10.9% DPPH radical scavenging effect. Moreover, the reducing power of Zn NPs and BHA were significantly higher than ZnSO (p<0.05). To sum up, application of L. vera leaf extract combined with microwave heating energy led to simple and fast formation of Zn nanostructures exhibited higher antioxidant and cytotoxic activity compared to soluble Zn ions. However, identification of the related mechanisms merit further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.09.001DOI Listing
January 2017