Publications by authors named "Asmaa Mamoune"

9 Publications

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Progressive Development of PTH Resistance in Patients With Inactivating Mutations on the Maternal Allele of GNAS.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 06;102(6):1844-1850

Reference Center for Rare Disorders of Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism, Platform of Expertise Paris-Sud for Rare Diseases and Filière OSCAR, AP-HP, Bicêtre Paris-Sud Hospital, 94270 Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

Context: Parathormone (PTH) resistance is characterized by hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphatemia, and elevated PTH in the absence of vitamin D deficiency. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A [PHP1A, or inactivating parathormone (PTH)/PTHrp signaling disorder 2, according to the new classification (iPPSD2)], is caused by mutations in the maternal GNAS allele.

Objective: To assess PTH resistance over time in 20 patients affected by iPPSD2 (PHP1A), diagnosed because of family history, ectopic ossification, or short stature, and carrying a GNAS mutation.

Methods: We gathered retrospective data for calcium, phosphate, thyrotropin (TSH), and PTH levels at regular intervals. PTH infusion testing (teriparatide) was performed in 1 patient.

Results: Patients were diagnosed at a mean age of 3.9 years and had a mean follow-up of 2 years. TSH resistance was already present at diagnosis in all patients (TSH, 13.3 ± 9.0 mIU/L). Over time, PTH levels increased (179 to 306 pg/mL; P < 0.05), and calcium levels decreased (2.31 to 2.21 mmol/L; P < 0.05), but phosphate levels did not decrease with age as expected for healthy individuals. One patient born with ectopic ossifications showed an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate upon PTH infusion, similar to that of controls, at 7 months of age, but an impaired response at 4 years of age.

Conclusions: In patients with iPPSD2 (PHP1A), PTH resistance and hypocalcemia develop over time. These findings highlight the importance of screening for maternal GNAS mutations in the presence of ectopic ossifications or family history, even in the absence of PTH resistance and hypocalcemia. The follow-up of these patients should include regular assessments of calcium, phosphate, and PTH levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2016-3544DOI Listing
June 2017

Acute rhabdomyolysis and inflammation.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2015 Jul 17;38(4):621-8. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

Institut Imagine, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité 1163, 75015, Paris, France.

Rhabdomyolysis results from the rapid breakdown of skeletal muscle fibers, which leads to leakage of potentially toxic cellular content into the systemic circulation. Acquired causes by direct injury to the sarcolemma are most frequent. The inherited causes are: i) metabolic with failure of energy production, including mitochondrial fatty acid ß-oxidation defects, LPIN1 mutations, inborn errors of glycogenolysis and glycolysis, more rarely mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency, purine defects and peroxysomal α-methyl-acyl-CoA-racemase defect (AMACR), ii) structural causes with muscle dystrophies and myopathies, iii) calcium pump disorder with RYR1 gene mutations, iv) inflammatory causes with myositis. Irrespective of the cause of rhabdomyolysis, the pathology follows a common pathway, either by the direct injury to sarcolemma by increased intracellular calcium concentration (acquired causes) or by the failure of energy production (inherited causes), which leads to fiber necrosis. Rhabdomyolysis are frequently precipitated by febrile illness or exercise. These conditions are associated with two events, elevated temperature and high circulating levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. To illustrate these points in the context of energy metabolism, protein thermolability and the potential benefits of arginine therapy, we focus on a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis, aldolase A deficiency. In addition, our studies on lipin-1 (LPIN1) deficiency raise the possibility that several diseases involved in rhabdomyolysis implicate pro-inflammatory cytokines and may even represent primarily pro-inflammatory diseases. Thus, not only thermolability of mutant proteins critical for muscle function, but also pro-inflammatory cytokines per se, may lead to metabolic decompensation and rhabdomyolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-015-9827-7DOI Listing
July 2015

A thermolabile aldolase A mutant causes fever-induced recurrent rhabdomyolysis without hemolytic anemia.

PLoS Genet 2014 Nov 13;10(11):e1004711. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

INSERM U781, Institut Imagine des Maladies Génétiques, Université Paris Descartes et Centre de Référence des Maladies Héréditaires du Métabolisme, Hôpital Necker, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Aldolase A deficiency has been reported as a rare cause of hemolytic anemia occasionally associated with myopathy. We identified a deleterious homozygous mutation in the ALDOA gene in 3 siblings with episodic rhabdomyolysis without hemolytic anemia. Myoglobinuria was always triggered by febrile illnesses. We show that the underlying mechanism involves an exacerbation of aldolase A deficiency at high temperatures that affected myoblasts but not erythrocytes. The aldolase A deficiency was rescued by arginine supplementation in vitro but not by glycerol, betaine or benzylhydantoin, three other known chaperones, suggesting that arginine-mediated rescue operated by a mechanism other than protein chaperoning. Lipid droplets accumulated in patient myoblasts relative to control and this was increased by cytokines, and reduced by dexamethasone. Our results expand the clinical spectrum of aldolase A deficiency to isolated temperature-dependent rhabdomyolysis, and suggest that thermolability may be tissue specific. We also propose a treatment for this severe disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4230727PMC
November 2014

Mutations in human lipoyltransferase gene LIPT1 cause a Leigh disease with secondary deficiency for pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2013 Dec 17;8:192. Epub 2013 Dec 17.

Reference Center of Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Imagine Institute, University Paris Descartes, Hospital Necker Enfants Malades, APHP, Paris, France.

Background: Synthesis and apoenzyme attachment of lipoic acid have emerged as a new complex metabolic pathway. Mutations in several genes involved in the lipoic acid de novo pathway have recently been described (i.e., LIAS, NFU1, BOLA3, IBA57), but no mutation was found so far in genes involved in the specific process of attachment of lipoic acid to apoenzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHc), α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDHc) and branched chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDHc) complexes.

Methods: Exome capture was performed in a boy who developed Leigh disease following a gastroenteritis and had combined PDH and α-KGDH deficiency with a unique amino acid profile that partly ressembled E3 subunit (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase / DLD) deficiency. Functional studies on patient fibroblasts were performed. Lipoic acid administration was tested on the LIPT1 ortholog lip3 deletion strain yeast and on patient fibroblasts.

Results: Exome sequencing identified two heterozygous mutations (c.875C > G and c.535A > G) in the LIPT1 gene that encodes a mitochondrial lipoyltransferase which is thought to catalyze the attachment of lipoic acid on PDHc, α-KGDHc, and BCKDHc. Anti-lipoic acid antibodies revealed absent expression of PDH E2, BCKDH E2 and α-KGDH E2 subunits. Accordingly, the production of 14CO2 by patient fibroblasts after incubation with 14Cglucose, 14Cbutyrate or 14C3OHbutyrate was very low compared to controls. cDNA transfection experiments on patient fibroblasts rescued PDH and α-KGDH activities and normalized the levels of pyruvate and 3OHbutyrate in cell supernatants. The yeast lip3 deletion strain showed improved growth on ethanol medium after lipoic acid supplementation and incubation of the patient fibroblasts with lipoic acid decreased lactate level in cell supernatants.

Conclusion: We report here a putative case of impaired free or H protein-derived lipoic acid attachment due to LIPT1 mutations as a cause of PDH and α-KGDH deficiencies. Our study calls for renewed efforts to understand the mechanisms of pathology of lipoic acid-related defects and their heterogeneous biochemical expression, in order to devise efficient diagnostic procedures and possible therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-1172-8-192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3905285PMC
December 2013

Combination of lipid metabolism alterations and their sensitivity to inflammatory cytokines in human lipin-1-deficient myoblasts.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2013 Dec 6;1832(12):2103-14. Epub 2013 Aug 6.

Inserm U781, Imagine Institut des Maladies Génétiques, Université Paris Descartes et Centre de Référence des Maladies Héréditaires du Métabolisme, Hôpital Necker, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Lipin-1 deficiency is associated with massive rhabdomyolysis episodes in humans, precipitated by febrile illnesses. Despite well-known roles of lipin-1 in lipid biosynthesis and transcriptional regulation, the pathogenic mechanisms leading to rhabdomyolysis remain unknown. Here we show that primary myoblasts from lipin-1-deficient patients exhibit a dramatic decrease in LPIN1 expression and phosphatidic acid phosphatase 1 activity, and a significant accumulation of lipid droplets (LD). The expression levels of LPIN1-target genes [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors delta and alpha (PPARδ, PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, very long (ACADVL), carnitine palmitoyltransferase IB and 2 (CPT1B and CPT2)] were not affected while lipin-2 protein level, a closely related member of the family, was increased. Microarray analysis of patients' myotubes identified 19 down-regulated and 51 up-regulated genes, indicating pleiotropic effects of lipin-1 deficiency. Special attention was paid to the up-regulated ACACB (acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta), a key enzyme in the fatty acid synthesis/oxidation balance. We demonstrated that overexpression of ACACB was associated with free fatty acid accumulation in patients' myoblasts whereas malonyl-carnitine (as a measure of malonyl-CoA) and CPT1 activity were in the normal range in basal conditions accordingly to the normal daily activity reported by the patients. Remarkably ACACB invalidation in patients' myoblasts decreased LD number and size while LPIN1 invalidation in controls induced LD accumulation. Further, pro-inflammatory treatments tumor necrosis factor alpha+Interleukin-1beta(TNF1α+IL-1ß) designed to mimic febrile illness, resulted in increased malonyl-carnitine levels, reduced CPT1 activity and enhanced LD accumulation, a phenomenon reversed by dexamethasone and TNFα or IL-1ß inhibitors. Our data suggest that the pathogenic mechanism of rhabdomyolysis in lipin-1-deficient patients combines the predisposing constitutive impairment of lipid metabolism and its exacerbation by pro-inflammatory cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.07.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4007099PMC
December 2013

Study of LPIN1, LPIN2 and LPIN3 in rhabdomyolysis and exercise-induced myalgia.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2012 Nov 6;35(6):1119-28. Epub 2012 Apr 6.

Paris Descartes University, INSERM U781 and Reference Center of Metabolic Diseases, Necker Hospital, Paris, France.

Background: Recessive LPIN1 mutations were identified as a cause of severe rhabdomyolysis in pediatric patients. The human lipin family includes two other closely related members, lipin-2 and 3, which share strong homology and similar activity. The study aimed to determine the involvement of the LPIN family genes in a cohort of pediatric and adult patients (n = 171) presenting with muscular symptoms, ranging from severe (CK >10 000 UI/L) or moderate (CK <10 000 UI/L) rhabdomyolysis (n = 141) to exercise-induced myalgia (n = 30), and to report the clinical findings in patients harboring mutations.

Methods: Coding regions of LPIN1, LPIN2 and LPIN3 genes were sequenced using genomic or complementary DNAs.

Results: Eighteen patients harbored two LPIN1 mutations, including a frequent intragenic deletion. All presented with severe episodes of rhabdomyolysis, starting before age 6 years except two (8 and 42 years). Few patients also suffered from permanent muscle symptoms, including the eldest ones (≥ 40 years). Around 3/4 of muscle biopsies showed accumulation of lipid droplets. At least 40% of heterozygous relatives presented muscular myalgia. Nine heterozygous SNPs in LPIN family genes were identified in milder phenotypes (mild rhabdomyolysis or myalgia). These variants were non-functional in yeast complementation assay based on respiratory activity, except the LPIN3-P24L variant.

Conclusion: LPIN1-related myolysis constitutes a major cause of early-onset rhabdomyolysis and occasionally in adults. Heterozygous LPIN1 mutations may cause mild muscular symptoms. No major defects of LPIN2 or LPIN3 genes were associated with muscular manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-012-9461-6DOI Listing
November 2012

Successful treatment of congenital hyperinsulinism with long-acting release octreotide.

Eur J Endocrinol 2012 Feb 2;166(2):333-9. Epub 2011 Nov 2.

Centre de Référence des Maladies Héréditaires du Métabolisme, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP, Université Paris Descartes, 149 Rue de Sèvres, 75015 Paris, France.

Context: Congenital hyperinsulinism (HI) is a common cause of hypoglycemia in infancy. The medical treatment of diazoxide-unresponsive HI is based on a somatostatin analogue.

Objective: This study aims at replacing three daily s.c. octreotide (Sandostatin, Novartis) injections by a single and monthly i.m. injection of long-acting release (LAR) octreotide (Sandostatin LP, Novartis) in HI patients.

Subjects And Method: LAR octreotide was injected every 4 weeks during 6 months and s.c. octreotide injections were stopped after the third injection of LAR octreotide. After this 6-month study, LAR octreotide was continued, with an average follow-up of 17 months. Ten HI pediatric patients unresponsive to diazoxide and currently treated with s.c. octreotide were included in the trial. Glycemias and other parameters (HbA1c, IGF1, height, weight, quality of life (QoL), and satisfaction) were monitored at each monthly visit.

Results: For all ten patients, glycemias were maintained in the usual range, HbAlc (mean 5.5%; 95% CI: 4.6-6.2) and IGF1 (mean 89.7 ng/ml; 95% CI: 26-153) were unchanged. Patients gained height significantly (mean 2.7 cm; 95% CI: 1.9-3.4) and no side effect was noted during the study and the later follow-up. Plasma octreotide levels were stable under LAR octreotide. Parents' questionnaires of general satisfaction were highly positive whereas children's QoL evaluation remained unchanged.

Conclusion: In these diazoxide-unresponsive HI patients, LAR octreotide was efficient, well tolerated and contributed to a clear simplification of the medical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-11-0874DOI Listing
February 2012

DU145 human prostate carcinoma invasiveness is modulated by urokinase receptor (uPAR) downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling.

Exp Cell Res 2004 Sep;299(1):91-100

Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

Tumor cell motility and invasion have been linked to upregulated signaling from both the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and that for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR). However, we do not know whether these events are interdependent or unrelated, despite the obvious diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Gene microarray analyses have suggested that EGFR signaling via phospholipase C-gamma (PLCgamma) induces uPAR transcription. We utilized two sublines of the DU145 human prostate carcinoma cell line that are genetically engineered to differentially activate the EGFR/PLCgamma cascade and are variously invasive in vitro and in vivo. uPAR protein levels in these cells were found to be dependent on PLC signaling, pharmacologic inhibition of PLC signaling reduced uPAR expression. To determine whether uPAR was a required element in EGFR-mediated invasion, we stably expressed uPAR cDNA in either sense or antisense orientation in the two DU145 sublines. Interestingly, uPA production was modulated in parallel, although to a lesser degree, with uPAR in these sublines. Antisense to uPAR significantly restricted invasion of the highly invasive DU145 WT cells through Matrigel and reduced aggressiveness of tumors in nude mice. Up-regulation of uPAR significantly increased the invasiveness of the moderately invasive DU145 parental (DU145 P) cells through Matrigel, but this increased invasiveness was not seen in mice. uPA activity appears to contribute to invasiveness at least through Matrigel, as antibody to uPA or amiloride limited the transmigration. These results support a model of tumor invasion promoted by autocrine EGFR signaling involving reinforcing altered gene expression, of uPAR at least, that further induces cell motility. Herein, a number of key molecules whose expression levels are interrelated, including both EGFR and uPAR, are required but none are sufficient in the absence of other keys molecules in promoting tumor progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2004.05.008DOI Listing
September 2004

Calpain-2 as a target for limiting prostate cancer invasion.

Cancer Res 2003 Aug;63(15):4632-40

Department of Pathology, 713 Scaife, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

Mortality and morbidity of prostate cancer result from extracapsular invasion and metastasis. This tumor progression depends on active cell motility. Previous studies have shown that calpain-regulated rear detachment enabling forward locomotion is required for cell migration initiated by growth factor and adhesion receptors. Therefore, we asked whether calpain would be a target for limiting tumor progression, using as our model the PA DU-145 human prostate carcinoma cell line and a highly invasive subline, wild-type DU-145, derived from it. In vitro, the calpain-specific inhibitor CI-I (ALLN) and the preferential-but-less-specific inhibitor leupeptin decreased transmigration of both cell lines across a Matrigel barrier. These calpain inhibitors limited epidermal growth factor-induced motility but did not alter the growth rate of the tumor cells, as expected. Antisense down-regulation of the growth factor-activated calpain-2 (m-calpain) isoform also reduced transmigration and cell motility. These in vitro findings were then buttressed by in vivo studies, in which i.p. DU-145 tumor xenografts were treated with leupeptin. Tumor invasion into the diaphragm was reduced by leupeptin treatment for both the PA and wild-type DU-145 cells (from 1.7 to 0.78 for the parental line and 2.3 to 1.2 for the invasive derivative, respectively). Tumor cells of both types engineered to express calpain-2 antisense constructs also demonstrated a similar 50% reduced invasiveness in vivo. Finally, we found by gene expression survey of 53 human prostate tumors and 23 normal prostates that calpain was not up-regulated in relationship to invasiveness or metastatic activity, consistent with expectation from the biological role of this effector. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that epigenetic activation of calpain plays an important role in the invasion of human prostate cancer and that it can be targeted to reduce tumor progression.
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August 2003