Publications by authors named "Asmaa Gaber Abdou"

73 Publications

Stratification of urothelial bladder carcinoma depending on immunohistochemical expression of GATA3 and CK5/6.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2021 Jun 9:1-17. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebein Elkom, Egypt.

Bladder urothelial carcinoma (BUC) has two pathways with distinct molecular features and prognosis, non-muscle invasive (NMI) and muscle invasive (MI) tumors. The aim is to investigate the expression of GATA3 and CK5/6 in BUC with correlation to clinicopathologic parameters, including their impact on survival beside their potential use to stratify cases into prognostic subgroups. This study included 80 cases of BUC stained immunohistochemically by GATA3 and CK5/6. The cases were divided into four groups regarding expression status of both markers (luminal, basal, mixed, and null). GATA3 percentage of expression decreased in urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation, MI tumors, high-grade tumors, tumors with involved lymph nodes, presence of perineural invasion, presence of bilharziasis, presence of lympho-vascular invasion, and high mitotic count. CK5/6 positivity was higher in urothelial carcinoma cases with squamous differentiation, MI tumors, and presence of perineural invasion. Pure urothelial carcinoma and NMI were in favor of luminal group (GATA3 +ve/CK5/6 -ve). Univariate analysis showed that the presence of bilharziasis was associated with shorter PFS ( = .04). GATA3 and CK5/6 could be used for the stratification of urothelial bladder carcinoma into subtypes with different characteristics. Luminal bladder cancer represents the most common type (60%) that carries favorable features. Bilharziasis-associated urothelial carcinoma carries poor outcome manifested by short PFS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2021.1937212DOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of L-carnitine and atorvastatin on a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion injury of spinal cord.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2021 Apr 26:1-24. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Medical Physiology, Menoufia University, Shebein Elkom, Egypt.

Pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in acute spinal cord injury, leading to myelin breakdown, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis of neurons and glial cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible protective effects of L-carnitine (carn) or atorvastatin (ator) on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Rats were randomized into nine equal groups (n = 8): control and control taking carn (100 mg/kg BW), ator (2.5 mg/kg BW) or both, as well as sham-operation, IRI and IRI taking same doses of carn, ator or both. Neurological assessments were done 48 hours after IRI, and serum nitrite/nitrate was measured. Finally, lumbar segments of spinal cord were excised, and part was homogenized and prepared for measuring tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. The other part was sectioned for evaluation of histopathological changes and for immunostaining by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Bax and Bcl-2. The IRI increased ROS (nitrite/nitrate, MDA, AOPP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β), and decreased antioxidants (GSH, GPx, SOD, catalase) with impaired sensory and motor functions. Astrogliosis was detected by GFAP, and increased apoptosis was demonstrated by increasing Bax and decreasing Bcl-2. Treatment with carn or ator alone decreased TNF-α, IL-1β, nitrite/nitrate, MDA and AOPP, and increased GSH, GPx, SOD, and catalase with improvement of neurological functions and histological studies. Combination of carn and ator improved most of measured IRI-affected parameters better than isolated carn or ator administration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2021.1914085DOI Listing
April 2021

The significance of endocan immunohistochemical expression in chronic plaque psoriasis.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Dermatology, Andrology and STDs Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebeen Elkom, Egypt.

Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with immune-mediated mechanism. Endocan is a soluble dermatan sulfate proteoglycan expressed by endothelium of blood vessels.

Aims: The present study aims to evaluate immunohistochemical localization of endocan in psoriatic skin in comparison with normal skin and to correlate its expression with the clinical and pathological data of psoriasis.

Patients/methods: Skin biopsies from 36 psoriatic patients and 40 normal subjects were taken and processed for immunohistochemical staining of endocan.

Results: Endocan was expressed in 63.9% and in 36.1% of epidermal keratinocytes and dermal endothelial and inflammatory cells of psoriatic skin, respectively, compared with its expression in 30% of epidermis of normal skin. Diffuse epidermal expression of endocan was in favor of cases with more angiogenesis and its intense expression was in favor of marked acanthosis and with cases affecting trunk as main presentation. Positive dermal endocan expression was significantly associated with marked parakeratosis and with more angiogenesis.

Conclusion: Endocan is over-expressed in psoriatic skin from epidermal keratinocytes and dermal endothelial and inflammatory cells. Endocan enhances angiogenesis and proliferation of psoriatic skin contributing to pathogenic mechanisms of psoriasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.14086DOI Listing
March 2021

Evaluation of the Langerhans cells role in vitiligo and its relationship to NB-UVB.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebein Elkom, Egypt.

Background: Langerhans cells (LCs) are antigen-presenting cells that are characterized by CD1a and CD207/langerin expression. The disturbance in the communication network among keratinocytes, melanocytes, and antigen-presenting cells may be involved in vitiligo pathogenesis.

Aims: The current work aims to detect and quantify LCs in involved skin of patients affected by vitiligo before and after treatment with NB-UVB using CD1a immunohistochemistry, in addition to correlate percentage of LCs with the clinicopathological parameters.

Methods: Twenty vitiligo patients and 10 age and sex matched controls were investigated. Patients were received NB-UVB thrice weekly for 12 weeks.

Results: There was a significant reduction in LCs percentage in skin affected by vitiligo before treatment in comparison with normal skin. About 65% (13/20) of vitiligo patients responded to NB-UVB, and the liability to respond was correlated with LCs percentage in specimens before treatment. However, there was no statistical difference between specimens before and after treatment regarding LCs percentage.

Conclusions: Reduction in LCs in vitiligo may be a sign of active disease and melanocytes destruction. The percentage of LCs affects response to NB-UVB since higher percentage is associated with greater response to therapy. Therefore, modulation of LCs as a type of immunotherapy could be beneficial in improvement of vitiligo.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.14012DOI Listing
February 2021

Stratification of urinary bladder carcinoma based on immunohistochemical expression of CK5, CK14 and CK20.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2021 May 19;42(3):236-251. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebein Elkom, Egypt.

Molecular subtyping of urothelial carcinoma (UC) is similar to that of breast cancer and is based on the developmental biology approach. The aim of the present study is to assess the prognostic impact of CK5, CK14, and CK20 expression in urinary bladder cancer (UBC) with the potential to stratify them into different subtypes. The current study examined the immunohistochemical expression of CK5, CK14, and CK20 in 90 specimens of UBC. CK5 was expressed in 81.1% of the cases and was significantly associated with old age, muscle invasion, presence of bilharziasis, and tendency for poor overall survival. CK20 was expressed in 47.8% of the cases and was associated with nonmuscle invasion and pure UC while 50% of the cases expressed CK14 that were associated with muscle invasion and perineural invasion. Most squamous cell carcinoma and those associated with bilharziasis were belonged to Ck5+/CK20- subgroup while pure UC and those lacked bilharziasis were located in the Ck5+/CK20+ subgroup. The basal group (Ck5+/CK14+/CK20-) showed high proliferative features compared to the intermediate group (Ck5+/CK14-/CK20-). Generally, presence of CK5 is associated with adverse features especially in the group lacking CK20; however, basal and intermediate subgroups share CK5 expression but they show different proliferative capacities, so their distinction by CK14 is helpful.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2020.1845726DOI Listing
May 2021

Correlation between immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67and P63 and aggressiveness of urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2021 Mar 18;42(2):188-201. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Urology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebein Elkom, Egypt.

Urothelial carcinoma is the most common urinary malignancy with a wide proportion of cancer morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study is to evaluate Ki-67 and p63 immunoexpression and their correlation with grade and stage of bladder urothelial carcinoma. Fifty cases of bladder urothelial carcinoma were investigated and were submitted to immunohistochemical staining for p63 and Ki-67, which were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. A high percentage of p63 immunoexpression showed a significant association with low-grade tumors ( < .05), while Ki-67 mean percentage of expression was higher in high-grade tumors, advanced stage and multiple tumors compared to low grade, early-stage and single tumors without statistical association. Furthermore, the mean percentage of p63 was higher in urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation compared to pure urothelial carcinoma with an absence of statistical significance. P63 could help in the identification of bladder tumors with squamous differentiation since identifying these cases is important regarding prognostic and therapeutic aspects. Ki 67 seems to be associated with features of bladder tumor progression as multiplicity, high grade and advanced stage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2020.1844752DOI Listing
March 2021

Case Report: Multifocal non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features presenting in a female child.

F1000Res 2020 25;9:645. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Pathology, Menoufia University, Shebein Elkom, Menoufia, 32511, Egypt.

Non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) was introduced as a separate entity by the World Health Organization in 2017 with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria.  Most NIFTP cases have been reported in adults and few cases have been diagnosed in children. Here, we present a classic case of NIFTP affecting a 10-year old female child. We also review previous reports of NIFTP in children regarding size, focality, nodal metastasis, recurrence, type of operation and follow-up data. The present report adds a new case of NIFTP in the paediatric age group characterized by multifocality, absence of nodal invasion and indolent course until last follow-up, recommending less aggressive management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.23687.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594245PMC
April 2021

Immunohistochemical expression of BCAP 31 in chronic plaque psoriasis.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2020 Sep 1;41(5):852-863. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University , Shebein Elkom, Egypt.

Psoriasis is a common chronic skin inflammatory disease characterized by an exaggerated proliferation of keratinocytes. B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (BCAP 31) plays critical roles in induction of proliferation and apoptosis. The current study aimed at evaluation of the immunohistochemical localization of BCAP 31 in psoriatic skin compared to normal skin in addition of correlating BCAP31 expression with the clinical and pathological parameters of psoriasis. The present study was carried out on skin biopsies from 30 psoriatic patients and 10 normal skin (control group). BCAP31 was not expressed in normal skin either epidermis or dermis, while it was expressed in epidermis of 15 psoriatic cases and in dermis of 13 cases with a significant difference between the two groups ( < .05). Strong epidermal BCAP 31 expression was associated with marked parakeratosis ( = .025). There was a significant co-parallel epidermal and dermal expression of BCAP31 in psoriasis ( < .05). The role of BCAP 31 is not only confined to its expression by affected keratinocytes but extended to its localization to dermal lymphocytes where they were correlated with each other. The up- regulation of BCAP 31 in psoriatic lesion compared to normal skin may suggest its use as a target therapy for treatment of psoriasis that necessitates further studies to clarify.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2020.1785493DOI Listing
September 2020

Tumour-infiltrating Langerhans cells in non-melanoma skin cancer, a clinical and immunohistochemical study.

Ecancermedicalscience 2020 15;14:1045. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebein Elkom, 32511, Egypt.

Non-melanoma skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents 78.5% of all skin malignant tumours in Egypt. Dendritic cells can be found in almost all human tumours, they play an important role in antitumour immunity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the percentage of Langerhans cells using CD1a in non-melanoma skin cancer, including BCC and SCC and to correlate this percentage with their clinicopathological features. The current study was performed on surgically excised specimens of 41 patients presented with non-melanoma skin cancer (26 BCC and 15 SCC) and 16 healthy volunteer control subjects. The mean and median percentage of Langerhans cells were higher in normal epidermis of control compared to malignant tumour tissue (p < 0.0001) and adjacent epidermis overlying malignant tumour tissue (p = 0.007). Langerhans cells were significantly seen in BCC cases more than SCC (p = 0.035) and they were seen in facial lesions more than those arising from other sites (p = 0.007). The reduction of Langerhans cells is a way for non-melanoma skin cancer to develop and progress. Marked reduction of Langerhans cells in SCC compared to BCC could refer to their role as a barrier against metastasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3332/ecancer.2020.1045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289606PMC
May 2020

Hepatoprotective effect of artichoke leaf extracts in comparison with silymarin on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2020 18;41(1):84-96. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Medical Physiology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebein El-Kom, Egypt.

Acetaminophen is a common analgesic-antipyretic agent, which is safe in therapeutic doses but in higher doses can produce hepatic necrosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of artichoke, silymarin, and both agents in acetaminophen-induced liver damage in mice. Forty male mice were divided into five main groups, (1) control (2) Acetaminophen (APAP) (3) Artichoke leaf extracts (ALE) and APAP (4) silymarin and APAP group (5) ALE, silymarin and APAP groups. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP). The liver was excised, weighed and dissected into two parts, one used for measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione reductase, and the other part used for histopathological examination and assessment of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemical expression. APAP group showed a significant increase in liver weight, ALT, AST, ALP, MDA, and PCNA expression with a significant decrease in glutathione reductase in comparison to control group. All these parameters were significantly improved in the three treated groups when compared to APAP group. APAP group showed marked portal inflammation and parenchyma necrosis. Co-administration of ALE and/or silymarin to acetaminophen treated mice showed a significant reduction in PCNA expression compared to APAP group. Both ALE and silymarin co-treatment showed a significant decrease in PCNA percentage to a level near to control group. Artichoke and/or silymarin are suggested to protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice by ameliorating liver enzymes, antioxidant effect, decreasing liver damage and proliferation. ALT, alanine transaminase. AST, aspartate transaminase. ALP, alkaline phosphatase.MDA, malondialdehyde. PCNA, proliferative cell nuclear antigen.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2019.1692029DOI Listing
February 2020

Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma of Cervical Lymph Node: A Challenging Diagnosis.

J Microsc Ultrastruct 2019 Jul-Sep;7(3):143-145

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebein Elkom, Egypt.

Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a rare malignant tumor that could arise in both nodal and extranodal sites, with only nine previously reported cases demonstrating cytologic features. In this report, we describe a case of FDCS in a 60-year-old female who presented with neck mass. Fine-needle aspiration cytology and subsequent core biopsy were suggestive of metastatic carcinoma. The cytologic features were epithelioid-to-spindle cell morphology, vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, intranuclear inclusions, and occasional binucleated and multinucleated forms. However, absence of cytokeratin expression was against the diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma. The definitive diagnosis was reached by the demonstration of CD21 and CD23 expression. The pathologist should be aware of this rare malignant tumor, especially its cytologic features in aspirated material. The differential diagnosis in the above case was metastatic carcinoma, melanoma, and malignant granular cell tumor. The demonstration of expression of one or more dendritic cell marker is the clue for the diagnosis, which could be applied on cytological preparations with sufficient material.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_57_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6753701PMC
September 2019

Diagnostic Value of TROP-2 and CK19 Expression in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Both Surgical and Cytological Specimens.

Clin Pathol 2019 Jan-Dec;12:2632010X19863047. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebein Elkom, Egypt.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) represents the most common primary malignant thyroid tumor and its diagnosis is dependent on the presence of classic nuclear features that are sometimes seen in some non-neoplastic and benign lesions. Several immunohistochemical markers are used individually or in combination to help in differentiation of PTC from mimickers. The aim of the current study was to assess the diagnostic value of TROP-2 and cytokeratin 19 (CK19) expression in differentiating PTC from other mimickers both singly and in combination. The current study was carried out on 77 surgical specimens (56 PTC and 21 non-neoplastic cases) and 12 cytological specimens (4 THY2, 6 THY4, and 2 THY5). TROP-2 was negative in 81% of non-neoplastic surgical specimens and in 100% of THY2 cytological specimens while it was positive in 71.4% of PTC surgical specimens and 100% of THY4/THY5 cytological specimens. Sensitivity and specificity of TROP-2 positive expression for diagnosis of PTC in surgical specimens reached 71% and 81%, respectively, while it reached 100% for both in cytological specimens. Cytokeratin 19 showed positive expression in 85.7% of non-neoplastic surgical specimens and in 92.9% of PTC surgical specimens. Cytokeratin 19 showed negative expression in 75% of Thy2 cases while it was positive in all studied Thy4 and Thy5 cases. Sensitivity and specificity of CK19 total estimated score for diagnosis of PTC in surgical specimens were 78.6% and 66.7%, respectively, while it reached 100% and 75% in cytological specimens. Positive TROP-2 and CK19 expression in PTC were associated with lymph node metastasis. TROP-2 is a specific rather than sensitive marker while CK19 is a sensitive rather than specific marker in differentiating PTC from other mimickers in surgical specimens. The diagnostic validity of both markers was superior in diagnosis of classic PTC compared with follicular variant PTC. TROP-2 is superior to CK19 in diagnosis of PTC in cytological specimens. Both TROP-2 and CK19 could be used preoperatively in adjunct to hematoxylin and eosin for more confident diagnosis of thyroid cytology and along with radiology as predictors of lymph node metastasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2632010X19863047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6647210PMC
July 2019

Immunolocalization of MUC1 in chronic plaque psoriasis.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2019 26;40(5):515-527. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Dermatology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University , Shebein El-Kom , Egypt.

Psoriasis is a chronic skin inflammatory disease with immunological, hyperproliferative and angiogenic dysfunction. MUC1 is a molecular sensor and signal transductor that responds to external stimuli generating cellular responses, which include cell proliferation, growth, differentiation, migration, invasion, survival and secretion of growth factors, and cytokines. The current study aimed at evaluation of the possible role of MUC1 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis through its immunohistochemical localization in involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin compared to normal skin in addition of correlating MUC1 expression with the clinical and pathological parameters of psoriasis. The current study investigated 30 patients with psoriasis and 10 controls. MUC1 was expressed in epidermis in 30% of normal skin compared to 20% of uninvolved epidermis and 63.3% of involved epidermis of psoriatic skin. MUC1 was seen staining endothelial cells of capillaries and inflammatory cells in dermis in 10% of normal skin, 0% of uninvolved psoriasis, and 83.3% of involved psoriasis. Dermal expression of MUC1 in psoriasis was associated with mild to moderate degrees of epidermal acanthosis (). Intense MUC1 expression by psoriatic epidermis was associated with short disease duration ( = .044). The upregulation of MUC1 in involved psoriatic lesion compared to uninvolved and normal skin may suggest MUC1 role in pathogenesis of psoriasis especially early stages. MUC1 may be responsible for less severity of psoriasis in old aged patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2019.1646660DOI Listing
October 2019

Second to fourth digit ratio in female patients with acne vulgaris: Could it be a predictor of androgen receptor status?

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2019 Nov-Dec;85(6):590-596

Department of Dermatology, Andrology and STDs, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Al Minufya, Egypt.

Background: Second to fourth digit (2D:4D) ratio is the ratio of index to ring fingers length. It reflects prenatal androgen exposure and sensitivity. Androgens are important in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, This ratio may therefore be of significance in determining the expression of androgen receptors.

Aim: To investigate the relationship between second to fourth digit ratio and androgen receptor expression in female patients with acne vulgaris and to assess its association with clinical aspects of acne vulgaris.

Methods: Females patients (n = 352) with different degrees of acne vulgaris severity and 168 age-matched females were enrolled. Right, left and total second to fourth digit ratios were calculated. Biopsies from all participants were processed for androgen receptor expression by immunohistochemical method.

Results: Right, left and total second to fourth digit ratios were significantly lower in acne vulgaris patients than controls (P < 0.001 for all), and each of them had a significant negative correlation with duration of acne vulgaris (P < 0.001; P = 0.013; P < 0.001, respectively). Androgen receptors were detected in epidermal keratinocytes, hair follicles, sebaceous glands and fibroblasts. Right second to fourth digit ratio showed a negative correlation with androgen receptor H score of keratinocytes (r = -0.28;P = 0.02), hair follicles (r = -0.22; P = 0.05) and fibroblasts (r= -0.37;P = 0.001), while left second to fourth digit ratio demonstrated negative correlation with androgen receptor H score of sebocytes (r = -0.397; P < 0.000) only.

Limitations: Lack of follow-up and absence of male participants were the main limitations of this study.

Conclusion: A masculine second to fourth digit ratio in female patients could anticipate acne vulgaris development, its duration and severity. Moreover, this ratio is associated with an upregulation of cutaneous androgen receptors. Taken together, second to fourth digit ratio could help in designing plans for treatment of acne vulgaris.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_35_18DOI Listing
February 2020

Progranulin and beta-catenin in psoriasis: An immunohistochemical study.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2019 Dec 15;18(6):2019-2026. Epub 2019 May 15.

Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebin El Kom, Egypt.

Background/objectives: Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted glycoprotein that was investigated in many skin diseases. It plays an important role in inflammatory response and autophagy which could be mediated through Wnt/β-catenin pathway. However, the role of PGRN in pathogenesis of psoriasis has not been clearly well-known. Therefore, we aimed by this study to investigate the possible role of progranulin in psoriasis pathogenesis through evaluation of its immunohistochemical expression in lesional and perilesional skin of psoriasis patients and to investigate if its hypothesized role is mediated through β-catenin or not.

Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 37 patients presented with variable degrees of psoriasis vulgaris severity vs 37 age and sex-matched apparently healthy volunteers. Psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score was used to evaluate the severity of psoriasis. From all cases (lesional and perilesional) and controls, skin biopsies were taken for histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of PGRN and β-catenin.

Results: There was a significant stepwise upregulation of PGRN from controls (76.2 ± 11.9) to perilesional (178.7 ± 11.8) and lesional (242.7 ± 12.7) psoriatic skin (P < 0.001). PGRN expression was significantly correlated with psoriasis severity (r = 0.61; P < 0.001). β-catenin showed a significant stepwise downregulation from control (210.0 ± 19.3) to perilesional (131.4 ± 9.2) and lesional (97.3 ± 11.5) psoriatic skin(P < 0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between PGRN and β-catenin expression in psoriatic skin (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Progranulin has a pro-inflammatory effect in the psoriasis pathogenesis, which could be mediated through a decreasing β-catenin expression in psoriasis. PGRN may be used as a target for immunotherapy in psoriasis management program.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12966DOI Listing
December 2019

Immunohistochemical Expression of E- and N-Cadherin in Nodular Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostatic Carcinoma.

J Microsc Ultrastruct 2019 Jan-Mar;7(1):19-27

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebein El Kom, Egypt.

Background: Different theories have been postulated to explain the development of nodular prostatic hyperplasia (NPH). Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a physiologic process in which the epithelial cells lose their polarity and cell-cell adhesion and acquire a mesenchymal phenotype.

Aim: The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential role of E- and N-cadherin in the induction of EMT in NPH and prostatic carcinoma.

Methods: This study was carried out on 55 cases of NPH and 20 cases prostatic carcinoma for evaluation of immunohistochemical expression of E and N cadherins.

Results: Most NPH (54/55 cases, 98.2%) and all cases of prostatic carcinoma showed positive N-cadherin expression in prostatic glands and stroma. High percentage of N-cadherin expression by stromal cells was significantly in favor of prostatic carcinoma compared to NPH. High percentage of N-cadherin expression by epithelial cells of carcinoma group was significantly associated with young age while its high expression by stromal cells was significantly associated with multicentricity. About 96.4% of NPH and 75% of prostatic carcinoma showed positive E-cadherin expression with a significant difference. No significant association between E-cadherin and N-cadherins in both NPH and prostatic carcinoma was identified.

Conclusions: The prominent expression of N-cadherin in large numbers of NPH and prostate carcinoma cases in the epithelial and stromal components could point to the occurrence of EMT in those diseases. It also opens a new gate for treatment of those patients by targeting N-cadherin molecule. The absence of inverse association between E-cadherin and N-cadherins in NPH and prostatic carcinoma may indicate that cadherin switch is not an essential step for the development of EMT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_46_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442322PMC
April 2019

Immunohistochemistry of Janus Kinase 1 (JAK1) Expression in Vitiligo.

J Pathol Transl Med 2018 Nov 23;52(6):363-368. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebein Elkom, Egypt.

Background: Vitiligo is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the destruction of melanocytes causes white spots on the affected skin. Janus kinase (JAK) is a family of intracellular, non-receptor tyrosine kinases that transduce cytokine-mediated signals via the JAK-signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway. The aim of the present study is to explore the possible role of JAK1 in the pathogenesis of vitiligo using immunohistochemical methods.

Methods: The current study was conducted in a sample of 39 patients who presented with vitiligo and 22 healthy individuals who were age and sex matched as a control group. We used immunohistochemistry to evaluate JAK1 status (intensity and distribution) and assess the percentage of residual melanocytes using human melanoma black 45 (HMB45).

Results: Intense and diffuse JAK1 expression was significantly more likely to indicate vitiliginous skin compared to normal skin (p < .001). Strong and diffuse JAK1 expression was associated with short disease duration, female sex, and lower percentage of melanocytes (detected by HMB45) (p < .05).

Conclusions: JAK1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, as indicated by intense and diffuse expression compared to control and association with lower percentage of melanocytes detected by HMB45 immunostaining.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2018.09.18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6250933PMC
November 2018

Evaluation of the diagnostic value of emerin and CD56 in papillary thyroid carcinoma - an immunohistochemical study.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2018 6;39(5):521-537. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

a Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine , Menoufia University , Shebein Elkom , Egypt.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is diagnosed in both cytological and histological specimens on the basis of distinct nuclear morphology. These features may not be prominent in some PTC variants and may be seen in some benign conditions. It is necessary to differentiate PTC from other neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions since it affects treatment strategy and patients' fate. Emerin is a type II integral membrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane that has a characteristic staining pattern in PTC. CD56 is a homophilic membrane glycoprotein that is expressed in thyroid follicular epithelial cells and adrenal glands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of emerin (positivity, percentage, and highlighting nuclear features) and CD56 (positive versus negative) both singly and in combination for differentiation of PTC from other neoplastic and nonneoplastic mimics. This study was performed on 50 cases of PTC, 9 cases of follicular adenoma (FA), and 12 cases of nonneoplastic thyroid lesions using immunohistochemistry for detection of emerin and CD56. Positive emerin expression was seen in 82% of PTC and in 16.7% of nonneoplastic cases with an absence of expression in FA. CD56 was expressed in 88.9% of FA, 91.7% of nonneoplastic cases and in a minority of PTC cases (6%). Positive emerin revealed 82% sensitivity and 90% specificity, while emerin-highlighted nuclear changes was more specific (95%). Negative CD56 expression revealed 84% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Combined positive emerin (including highlighting nuclear changes) and negative CD56 showed 72% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Positive emerin expression (moderate/strong) and its highlighting nuclear changes combined with negative CD56 could be a very helpful procedure in difficult and overlapping cases with high diagnostic validity (high specificity and positive predictive value).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2018.1514508DOI Listing
October 2018

Immunohistochemical expression HIF1α in chronic plaque psoriasis, an association with angiogenesis and proliferation.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2018 17;39(3):249-262. Epub 2018 May 17.

b Dermatology Departments, Faculty of Medicine , Menoufia University , Shebein Elkom , Egypt.

Psoriasis is characterized by excessive cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and regions of hypoxia. Hypoxia stimulates production of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) such as HIF1α. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible role of HIF1α in pathogenesis of psoriasis and to correlate its expression with angiogenesis and proliferation in involved and uninvolved skin in patients with plaque psoriasis using CD34 and Ki-67. The current study was performed on 40 skin specimens of patients presented with chronic plaque psoriasis both involved and uninvolved together with 40 specimens from age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers as a control group. The specimens were submitted for HIF1α, CD34, and Ki-67 immunostaining. HIF1α was expressed in 37.5% of normal skin with mild intensity and cytoplasmic localization instead of its expression in 72.5% and 100% of uninvolved and involved psoriatic skin, respectively. Nucleocytoplasmic pattern of HIF1α was seen in 34.5% and 37.5% of uninvolved and involved psoriatic skin, respectively. Positive and intense expression of HIF1α as well as its nucleocytoplasmic localization were significantly in favor of psoriatic skin either involved or uninvolved in comparison to normal skin (P < 0.05). Intense HIF1α was significantly associated with microvessel density in both involved and uninvolved skin (P < 0.05). Nucleocytoplasmic pattern was significantly associated with epidermal acanthosis (P < 0.05) and tended to be associated with percentage of Ki-67 of psoriatic skin (P = 0.06). The present study demonstrated that HIF1α is upregulated in the skin of psoriatic cases (involved and uninvolved) compared to normal skin indicating its role in pathogenesis of psoriasis especially its active nuclear form that showed an association with angiogenesis and proliferation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2018.1472605DOI Listing
August 2018

C-Jun expression in lichen planus, psoriasis, and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, an immunohistochemical study.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2018 8;39(1):58-69. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

c Dermatology Departments , Shibin Elkom Teaching Hospital , Shibin Elkom , Egypt.

The AP-1 transcription factor complex is a key player in regulating inflammatory processes, cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell transformation. The aim of the present study is to investigate C-Jun (one of AP-1complex) expression and its proliferative role in skin samples of lichen planus, psoriasis as common inflammatory skin diseases and squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemical method. The present study was carried out on skin biopsies of 15 psoriatic patients, 15 lichen planus patients, 15 SCC, and 15 normal skin biopsies. Nuclear expression of C-Jun was detected in basal and few suprabasal layers of epidermis of normal skin. C-Jun was expressed in the whole epidermal layers of both psoriasis (14/15) and lichen planus (15/15) in addition to its expression in lymphocytic infiltrate in the latter in about half of cases (8/15). C-Jun was also expressed in 93.3% (14/15) of SCC in a percentage lower than that of psoriasis, lichen planus, and normal skin. The percentage of C-Jun expression in SCC was significantly associated with an early stage (p = 0.000), free surgical margins (p = 0.022), and small tumour size (p = 0.003).

Conclusions: The marked reduction of C-Jun in SCC in comparison to normal skin and inflammatory skin dermatoses may refer to its tumour suppressor activity. C-Jun expression in SCC carries favourable prognosis. Absence of significant association between C-Jun and Ki-67 either in SCC or inflammatory skin diseases indicates that it does not affect proliferative capacity of cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2017.1395347DOI Listing
February 2018

Perianal Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a rare presentation in an adult male.

Autops Case Rep 2017 Jul-Sep;7(3):38-43. Epub 2017 Sep 30.

Menoufia University, Liver Institute. Shebein Elkom, Menoufia, Egypt.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease characterized by a proliferation of cells that show immunophenotypic and ultrastructural similarities with antigen-presenting Langerhans cells of mucosal sites and skin. LCH in adults is rare, and there are still many undiagnosed/misdiagnosed patients. We describe LCH involvement of the perianal region of a 33-year-old male with a previous history of diabetes insipidus. The differential diagnosis and all the reported cases of LCH of the perianal skin involvement since its description in 1984 till 2016 are discussed. LCH should be considered in the differential diagnosis of perianal ulceration, especially in young patients where topical drug treatment has failed. The history of previous central diabetes insipidus of unknown etiology demands imaging studies in order to rule out central involvement of the disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4322/acr.2017.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5634433PMC
September 2017

Immunohistochemical expression of ER-α and PR in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Ecancermedicalscience 2017 13;11:748. Epub 2017 Jun 13.

Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Gamal Abd-Elnaser street, Shebein Elkom 32511, Egypt.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer with multiple risk factors including exposure to ionising radiation. Oestrogens contribute to papillary carcinoma development by promoting cell proliferation and invasion of mutated epithelial follicular cells. The present study aimed to assess ER-α and PR expression in PTC and to correlate their expression with the clinicopathological parameters in this cancer. This study included 62 primary and six metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma cases. Nineteen and 38.7% of primary PTC cases showed positive nuclear expression for ER and PR, respectively. Metastatic cases showed 66.7% positive ER expression and all were negative for PR. Oestrogen receptor expression showed significant higher positivity in metastatic compared to primary PTC ( = 0.02) and it was significantly associated with primary PTC associated with thyroiditis ( = .002). Progesterone receptor expression was significantly associated with old age in primary PTC ( = .003) and it showed significant coparallel expression with ER ( = .000). Oestrogen and progesterone receptors expressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma opening the door for further studies to verify if those patients could benefit from hormonal therapy. Oestrogen receptor seems to have a role in metastatic process of PTC as malignant cells express it in metastatic more than primary site. The presence of lymphocytes in the stroma may promote ER expression in adjacent PTC, necessitating further studies on PTC cases associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis to verify this assumed relationship.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3332/ecancer.2017.748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5493440PMC
June 2017

Evaluation of the effect and mechanism of action of local phenytoin in treatment of vitiligo.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2017 22;38(5):523-537. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

b Dermatology Department, Faculty of Medicine , Menoufia University , Shebein Elkom , Egypt.

There are many theories explaining vitiligo such as genetic, autoimmune, neural, free radicals, biochemical, intrinsic defect, melanocytorrhagy, and convergent theories. Phenytoin is a widely used anticonvulsant, which is used in cutaneous medicine for treatment of ulcers and epidermolysis bullosa. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of topical phenytoin gel in the treatment of vitiligo patients and explaining the underlying mechanism using immunohistochemistry for evaluation of HMB45, CD4, and CD8. Only 9 patients out of 28 experienced response to phenytoin in the form of dull, white color change and light brown color. Post-phenytoin treatment biopsies showed decreased density of inflammation, increased melanin and increased HMB45 positive cells together with an increased number of CD4 positive lymphocytes and decreased number of CD8 positive lymphocytes. These observations did not reach significant level (P > 0.05). A high percentage of CD4 positive lymphocytes was significantly associated with a long duration of vitiligo (p = 0.03) and segmental vitiligo type (p = 0.02). The current study applied phenytoin as 2% concentrated gel for 3 months, which is a relatively short duration without observed side effects throughout the period. These results indicate that topical phenytoin of low concentrations may have beneficial effects through immunomodulatory activity by affecting CD4 and CD8 counts and subsequently the ratio between them. Further studies are recommended to combine phenytoin with other antivitiligo agents as local corticosteroids or phototherapy to clarify if it could potentiate their effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2017.1344129DOI Listing
January 2018

Significance of stromal-1 and stromal-2 signatures and biologic prognostic model in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Cancer Biol Med 2017 May;14(2):151-161

Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebein Elkom 325001, Egypt.

Objective: : Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous group of tumors with different biological and clinical characteristics that have diverse clinical outcomes and response to therapy. Stromal-1 signature of tumor microenvironment of DLBCL represents extracellular matrix deposition and histiocytic infiltrate, whereas stromal-2 represents angiogenesis that could affect tumor progression.

Methods: : The aim of the present study is to assess the significance of stromal-1 signature using SPARC-1 and stromal-2 signature using CD31 expression and then finally to construct biologic prognostic model (BPM) in 60 cases of DLBCL via immunohistochemistry.

Results: : Microvessel density (<0.05) and SPARC percentage of expression (<0.001) were higher in DLBCL, including germinal and nongerminal cases, compared with reactive follicular hyperplasia. High microvessel density was significantly associated with splenic involvement (=0.008), high mitotic count (=0.045), and presence of capsular invasion (=0.035). Percentage of SPARC expression was significantly associated with splenic involvement (=0.03). Constructing BPM showed that 42 cases (70%) were of low biologic score (0-1) and 18 cases (30%) were of high biologic score (2-3). Low BPM cases showed less probability for splenic involvement (=0.04) and a higher rate of complete response to therapy compared with high score cases (=0.08).

Conclusions: : The DLBCL microenvironment could modulate tumor progression behavior since angiogenesis and SPARC positive stromal cells promote dissemination by association with spleen involvement and capsular invasion. Biologic prognostic models, including modified BPM, which considered cell origin of DLBCL and stromal signature pathways, could determine DLBCL progression and response to therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2017.0007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5444927PMC
May 2017

Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-3 mRNA Expression as a Prognostic Marker for Invasive Duct Carcinoma not Otherwise Specified.

J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Feb 1;11(2):XC01-XC05. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Lecturer, Department of Pathology, Menoufia University , Shebein Elkom, Menoufia, Egypt .

Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the Erythroblastosis Oncogene B(ErbB) receptor family holds crucial role in its pathogenesis. Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 3 ( gene over expression in breast tissue has been associated with aggressive clinical behaviour and bad prognosis.

Aim: To evaluate mRNA expression level as a prognostic marker for breast cancer and to correlate its level with other established prognostic parameters.

Materials And Methods: This study was carried out on specimens of 100 cases that were divided into 40 patients presented with fibroadenoma and 60 patients presented with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) not otherwise specified and underwent modified radical mastectomy. All specimens were investigated for , ER and PR expression by Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative assay of mRNA expression using real time PCR technique.

Results: There was a significant high mRNA level in carcinoma cases compared to fibroadenoma. In malignant cases, mRNA level was significantly associated with advanced T stage, advanced N stage, number of positive lymph nodes, large tumour size and cases associated with an adjacent in situ component. Moreover, mRNA level was of highest values in Her-2/neu positive group followed by triple negative cases with the lowest level in luminal group (p<0.05).

Conclusion: gene is upregulated in IDC especially those carrying poor prognostic features. mRNA level may identify a subset of patients with a poor prognosis, and who could undergo further evaluation for the efficacy of targeted anticancer therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2017/23812.9442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5376811PMC
February 2017

Diagnostic value of smoothelin and vimentin in differentiating muscularis propria from muscularis mucosa of bladder carcinoma.

Int J Biol Markers 2017 Jul 24;32(3):e305-e312. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebein Elkom - Egypt.

Background: Determination of the extent of involvement or pathological staging is one of the requirements for adequate evaluation of bladder cancer specimens. Therefore, the differentiation between MP and MM is essential for proper treatment and avoiding over or under staging.

Aim: The present study aimed at evaluation of diagnostic value of smoothelin and vimentin expression both singly and in combination for differentiation between MM and MP.

Methods: This study was carried out on 59 cystectomy specimens of primary bladder carcinoma and eleven cystoscopic biopsies for non-neoplastic bladder lesions (cystitis).

Results: Histologically, MM was identified clearly in 40 cases and MP was identified in all 70 examined cases. The cases were immunostained for smoothelin and vimentin. Intensity of smoothelin expression showed significant difference (P = 0.001) between MM and MP with 97.5% sensitivity and 95% specificity and the percentage of smoothelin expression was significantly higher in MP compared to MM (P = 0.001) with 95.7% sensitivity and 85% specificity (using 65% as cut-off point). Vimentin was negative in MP and showed positive expression in 32 cases (80%) of MM with a statistical significant difference (P = 0.001) providing 80% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Combined moderate to strong smoothelin and negative vimentin offered 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity towards the identification of MP.

Conclusions: Differentiation of MM from MP can be made based on histopathological criteria, which are unfortunately overlapping in many cases. Moderate to strong smoothelin expression with negative vimentin could be very helpful procedure in difficult and overlapping cases with a high diagnostic validity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5301/jbm.5000252DOI Listing
July 2017

BCL6 mRNA Expression Level in Invasive Duct Carcinoma not otherwise Specified.

J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Dec 1;10(12):XC01-XC04. Epub 2016 Dec 1.

Lecturer, Department of Pathology, Shebein Elkom , Menoufia, Egypt .

Introduction: B-Cell Lymphoma 6 (BCL6) has an oncogenic role in tumourigenesis of various malignancies. It represses genes involved in terminal differentiation and plays complementary role with Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) in triple-negative breast cancer cellular function.

Aim: To evaluate the expression of BCL6 in cancer breast and determine its correlation with the clinico-pathological features including the molecular subtype of breast carcinoma.

Materials And Methods: This prospective case control study was carried out on 150 patients, divided into 100 cases of invasive duct carcinoma not otherwise specified and 50 benign breast lesions including fibroadenoma and fibrocystic disease. Fresh tissues were excised, which were then subjected to RNA extraction. The BCL6 mRNA level was assessed using real-time reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

Results: There was a significant higher levels of BCL6 mRNA in malignant cases compared to benign ones (p<0.001). The level of BCL6 mRNA was higher in cases showing advanced tumor stage (p<0.04), triple negative subtype and associated in situ component (p<0.001) compared to cases with an early stage, luminal or Her 2-neu positive subtypes and those lacking in situ component.

Conclusion: BCL6 is up-regulated in breast cancer and is associated with poor prognostic features such as advanced stage and triple negative molecular subtype. BCL6 inhibitors might be considered as targeted therapy for breast cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2016/22796.8985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5296560PMC
December 2016

Stem Cell Markers (Cytokeratin 17 and Cytokeratin 19) in Scarring and Nonscarring Alopecia.

J Cutan Aesthet Surg 2016 Jul-Sep;9(3):165-171

Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebein Elkom, Egypt.

Background: Alopecia is one of the most important hair follicle (HF) disorders, which is divided into scarring (cicatricial) and nonscarring (noncicatricial) types.

Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of stem cell (SC) markers such as cytokeratin (CK) 17 and CK19 in scarring and nonscarring alopecia.

Materials And Methods: Thirty patients with scalp alopecia (15 with scarring alopecia and 15 without) together with ten healthy volunteers were included in this study. Biopsies were taken from all participants and stained for CK17 and CK19 using immunohistochemistry.

Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the nonscarring group and the control group with regard to CK17 expression in the outer layers of the HFs ( = 0.00) and CK19 staining of the inner layers of the HFs ( = 0.008). There was a statistically significant difference between the scarring and the control groups regarding CK17 expression in the outer ( = 0.00) and the inner layers ( = 0.00) of the HFs and CK19 expression in the inner layers of the HFs ( = 0.00). CK17 expression in the outer layers ( = 0.02) and the inner layers of the HFs ( = 0.00) together with CK19 expression in the inner layers of the HFs ( = 0.00) showed statistically significant differences between scarring and nonscarring alopecia groups.

Conclusions: The presence of SC markers (CK17 and CK19) in the HFs was affected in both scarring and nonscarring alopecia, but the defect in scarring alopecia is more evident than that of nonscarring alopecia. The persistence of SC markers in some types of scarring alopecia could give a hope for the recovery of these lesions. Further studies are recommended to clarify the benefit from using HF SCs in the treatment of alopecia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-2077.191650DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5064680PMC
October 2016

HIF-1α and GLUT-1 Expression in Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia, Type I and II Endometrial Carcinoma: A Potential Role in Pathogenesis.

J Clin Diagn Res 2016 May 1;10(5):EC20-7. Epub 2016 May 1.

Assistant Lecturer, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University , Egypt .

Introduction: Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α) is one of the major adaptive responses to hypoxia, regulating the activity of glucose transporter -1 (GLUT-1), responsible for glucose uptake.

Aim: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of both HIF-1α and GLUT-1 in type I and II endometrial carcinoma and their correlation with the available clinicopathologic variables in each type.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on archival blocks diagnosed from pathology department between April 2010 and August 2014 included 9 cases of atypical hyperplasia and 67 cases of endometrial carcinoma. Evaluation of both HIF-1α and GLUT-1 expression using standard immunohistochemical techniques performed on cut sections from selected paraffin embedded blocks.

Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis of the variables and statistical significances were calculated by non-parametric chi-square test using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 12.0 (SPSS).

Results: HIF-1α was expressed in epithelial (88.9%, 52.2%, 61.2% and 50%) and stromal (33.3%, 74.6%. 71.4% and 83.3%) components of hyperplasia, total cases of EC, type I and II EC, respectively. GLUT-1 was expressed in the epithelial component of 88.9%, 98.5%, 98% and 100% of hyperplasia, total EC cases, type I and II EC, respectively. The necrosis related pattern of epithelial HIF-1α expression was in favour of type II (p=0.018) and grade III (p=0.038). HIF-1α H-score was associated with high apoptosis in both type I and total cases of EC (p=0.04). GLUT-1 H-score was negatively correlated with apoptotic count (p=0.04) and associated with high grade (p=0.003) and advanced stage in total EC (p=0.004). GLUT-1 H-score was correlated with the pattern of HIF-1α staining in all cases of EC (p= 0.04).

Conclusion: The role of HIF-1α in epithelial cells may differ from that of stromal cells in EC; however they augment the expression of each other supporting the crosstalk between them. The stepwise increase in H- score of GLUT-1 in the studied cases implies its potential role in carcinogenesis of EC. HIF-1α may promote GLUT-1 expression in EC especially surrounding areas of necrosis. The differences between type I and type II EC regarding HIF-1α and GLUT-1 expression may confirm the differences in their aetiopathogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2016/19576.7805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4948402PMC
May 2016

Hepatocyte-like Versus Mesenchymal Stem Cells in CCl4-induced Liver Fibrosis.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2017 Nov/Dec;25(10):736-745

Departments of *Physiology †Pathology ‡Clinical Pathology, Faculty Of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebin Elkom, Egypt.

It is still a matter of debate as to whether in vitro mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived hepatocytes may efficiently repopulate a host liver to provide adequate functional substitution. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and consistency of in vitro hepatic differentiation from Wharton jelly-derived MSCs, and to validate their therapeutic potential in experimentally induced liver fibrosis compared with nondifferentiated MSCs. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into 4 main groups: (I) normal control group; (II) carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated group (injected CCl4 solution twice a week for 8 wk); (III) MSC-treated group (a single intravenous dose of MSCs from human umbilical cord at the fourth week of induction of fibrosis); and (IV) hepatocyte-like stem cells (HLCs)-treated group (a single intravenous dose of MSCs after in vitro conversion to hepatocyte at the fourth week of induction of fibrosis). Portal blood flow velocity and resistance, serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, albumin, and total bilirubin were measured. Liver homogenate was prepared for malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (measured as nitrites), and TGFβ (transforming growth factor beta) assessment. Assessment of human cells homing into liver rat and their function was performed using immunohistochemistry for detection of human hepatocytes and α-fetoprotein antigens. Significant elevation of serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and bilirubin, liver malondialdehyde, nitrites, TGFβ, fibrotic score, and significant reduction in serum albumin, liver SOD, and portal flow velocity in the CCl4-treated group were found when compared with normal rats. All these parameters significantly reversed in MSC-treated and hepatocyte-treated groups when compared with the CCl4-treated group. The MSC-treated group shows statistically better results in most liver function and oxidation parameters when compared with the HLC-treated group. Human MSCs can differentiate in vitro into functional HLCs. Transplantation of both MSCs and HLCs was feasible and effective in a liver fibrosis rat model. However, MSCs were better in regaining liver function. Future studies should address strategies to improve long-term implantation of MSCs and HLCs in the host liver.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAI.0000000000000373DOI Listing
November 2018