Publications by authors named "Asmaa F Khafaga"

58 Publications

Osteoblast-activating peptide exhibits a specific distribution pattern in mouse ovary and may regulate ovarian steroids and local calcium levels.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):5796-5814. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Basic Veterinary Sciences, Hokkaido University Sapporo 060-0818, Japan.

Osteoblast-activating peptide (OBAP) is a novel protein affecting osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, but its ovarian expression is yet to be reported. Osteoporosis is a common disease, caused mainly by low estrogen levels in females. We investigated whether OBAP regulates estrogen synthesis and osteoporosis. Using immunohistochemical analyses, we studied the distribution of OBAP in different parts of the mouse ovary. We also attempted to clarify the correlation of OBAP with ovarian steroids and calcium-regulating factors in the same ovarian tissues, including aromatase (CYP19), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), calmodulin, calbindin, and calcium-sensing receptor. The ovarian interstitial endocrine cells (IC) showed the greatest localization of OBAP, followed by the mature corpus luteum and the oocytes of mature Graafian follicles (MGF), while there were strong negative correlations of OBAP with CYP19. Strong positive correlations with 3β-HSD (except MGF), RANK (except IC), and calmodulin (except MGF and IC) were demonstrated. OBAP also showed partially positive correlations with ER and PR in the corpus luteum and with IC and calbindin in the MGF. We conclude that OBAP might be related to estrogen synthesis and calcium homeostasis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290782PMC
June 2021

Celecoxib repurposing in cancer therapy: molecular mechanisms and nanomedicine-based delivery technologies.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, 21521, Egypt.

While cancer remains a significant global health problem, advances in cancer biology, deep understanding of its underlaying mechanism and identification of specific molecular targets allowed the development of new therapeutic options. Drug repurposing poses several advantages as reduced cost and better safety compared with new compounds development. COX-2 inhibitors are one of the most promising drug classes for repurposing in cancer therapy. In this review, we provide an overview of the detailed mechanism and rationale of COX-2 inhibitors as anticancer agents and we highlight the most promising research efforts on nanotechnological approaches to enhance COX-2 inhibitors delivery with special focus on celecoxib as the most widely studied agent for chemoprevention or combined with chemotherapeutic and herbal drugs for combating various cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nnm-2021-0086DOI Listing
July 2021

Influence of COVID-19 on the poultry production and environment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Rio Verde University, Rio Verde, 75901-970, Brazil.

Although chickens are not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, several coronavirus disease outbreaks have been described concerning poultry processing facilities in different countries. The COVID-19 pandemic and the developed strain caused 2nd, 3rd, and recent Indian strain waves of epidemics that have led to unexpected consequences, such as forced reductions in demands for some industries, transportation systems, employment, and businesses due to public confinement. Besides, poultry processing plants' conditions exacerbate the risks due to the proximity on the line, cold, and humidity. Most workers do not have access to paid sick time or adequate health care, and because of the low wages, they have limited reserves to enable them to leave steady employment. In addition, workers in meat and poultry slaughterhouses may be infected through respiratory droplets in the air and/or from touching dirty surfaces or objects such as workstations, break room tables, or tools. Egg prices have increased dramatically during the lockdown as consumers have started to change their behaviors and habits. The COVID pandemic might also substantially impact the international poultry trade over the next several months. This review will focus on the effect of COVID-19 on poultry production, environmental sustainability, and earth systems from different process points of view.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15052-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269985PMC
July 2021

Pathological and Immunohistochemical Microscopy of Natural Cases of Canine and Feline Neoplastic Mammary Lesions.

Microsc Microanal 2021 Jun 15:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Edfina22758, Egypt.

Mammary cancer is the second most common tumor worldwide. Small animal mammary neoplasms provide an outstanding model to study cancer in humans, as tumors in both share a similar environment, histopathologic features, and biological behavior. This study aims to investigate the percentage and microscopy of breast tumors in affected dogs and cats; its relationship to breed, age, and sex; and the immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Ki-67, and cytokeratin 8. Twenty-four females (12 dogs and 12 cats) and one male were examined from February 2018 to February 2020. The highest percentage of mammary neoplasia from the highest to the lowest manifested as tubular carcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, fibroadenoma, and cystic papillary carcinoma. The current study reported the second micropapillary invasive carcinoma in a male cat and the third lipid-rich carcinoma in a female cat. Although tubular carcinoma was the most common mammary neoplasm in cats, leiomyosarcoma was the most common in dogs. The immunohistochemical staining revealed diffuse and intense cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for cytokeratin 8 in lipid-rich carcinomas. However, moderate expression of ER in benign tumors and slight to moderate ER expression in malignant mammary lesions were reported. On the contrary, there was a negative PR expression in benign lesion. It could be concluded that a close relationship between ER expression and nuclear antigen Ki-67 was found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S143192762101196XDOI Listing
June 2021

Beneficial effects and health benefits of Astaxanthin molecules on animal production: A review.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Sep 6;138:69-78. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, PR China; National Beef Cattle Improvement Center, Northwest A&F University, 712100 Yangling, Shaanxi, PR China. Electronic address:

Astaxanthin (AST) is a red pigment of carotenoid and is considered a high-quality keto-carotenoid pigment with food, livestock, cosmetic, therapeutic and nutraceutical proposes. Astaxanthin exists naturally in fish, crustacean, algae, and birds that naturally exists, principally as fatty acid esters. Many investigations have exhibited the beneficial impacts of astaxanthin when utilized as a pharmaceutical agent in animal nutrition. Astaxanthin has a variety of considerable biological actions, such as being antihypertensive, an antioxidant, anti-obesity properties, and anti-carcinogenic. Astaxanthin has recently acquired popularity as a powerful immunomodulator to maintain the health status and well-being of both animals and humans. The use of astaxanthin is broadly utilized in medical sciences and the nutrition pf aquatic species; however, it presently has limited applications in broader animal nutrition. Understanding astaxanthin's structure, source, and mode of action in the body provides a conceptual base for its clinical application and could enhance the screening of compounds associated with the treatment of many diseases. This review article aims to clarify the important aspects of astaxanthin such as its synthesis, bioavailability, and therapeutics actions, with special interest in practical applications. Awareness of this benefits and production is expected to aid the livestock industry to develop nutritional strategies that ensure the protection of animal health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2021.05.023DOI Listing
September 2021

Expression of Acute Phase Protein, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Epithelial Cadherin, and S100 Protein in Brain Tissues from Natural Cases of Ovine Encephalitic Listeriosis.

Microsc Microanal 2021 May 24:1-9. Epub 2021 May 24.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Medicine, Alexandria University, Abbis21944, Egypt.

Listeriosis is a disease that is induced by infection with the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Much is still unknown about the pathogenesis of encephalitic listeriosis. We aimed to identify the contribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), S100, and acute-phase proteins (APPs) in pathogenesis, clinical and preclinical diagnosis of natural cases of encephalitic listeriosis. Of 1,325 Ossimi sheep, 64 were suspected of having listeriosis from 2018 to 2020. Prospective cohort evaluation of clinical and postmortem findings was performed, in addition to bacterial isolation, the measurement of APPs in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of GFAP, S100, and E-cadherin. Infected sheep showed nervous symptoms ranging from neck stretching to complete paralysis. APPs were significantly increased in the CSF of both clinically and preclinically diseased animals; however, serum APPs were only significantly increased in clinically diseased animals. Histopathological evaluation revealed microabscesses, meningoencephalitis, and perivascular cuffing of the brainstem of infected sheep. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed strong expression of GFAP and S100 in necrotic areas and negative expression of E-cadherin. The measurement of CSF APPs could be useful in the preclinical diagnosis of sheep listeriosis. GFAP and S100 proteins could be involved in the pathogenesis of listeriosis; however, E-cadherin does not appear to be involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1431927621000325DOI Listing
May 2021

Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine for the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19: A Fiction, Hope or Hype? An Updated Review.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2021 28;17:371-387. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Poultry, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44511, Egypt.

In December 2019, the novel coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19) that began in China had infected so far more than 109,217,366 million individuals worldwide and accounted for more than 2,413,912 fatalities. With the dawn of this novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), there was a requirement to select potential therapies that might effectively kill the virus, accelerate the recovery, or decrease the case fatality rate. Besides the currently available antiviral medications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), the chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (CQ/HCQ) regimen with or without azithromycin has been repurposed in China and was recommended by the National Health Commission, China in mid-February 2020. By this time, the selection of this regimen was based on its efficacy against the previous SARS-CoV-1 virus and its potential to inhibit viral replication of the SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. There was a shortage of robust clinical proof about the effectiveness of this regimen against the novel SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, extensive research effort has been made by several researchers worldwide to investigate whether this regimen is safe and effective for the management of COVID-19. In this review, we provided a comprehensive overview of the CQ/HCQ regimen, summarizing data from in vitro studies and clinical trials for the protection against or the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Despite the initial promising results from the in vitro studies and the widespread use of CQ/HCQ in clinical settings during the 1st wave of COVID-19, current data from well-designed randomized controlled trials showed no evidence of benefit from CQ/HCQ supplementation for the treatment or prophylaxis against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Particularly, the two largest randomized controlled trials to date (RECOVERY and WHO SOLIDARITY trials), both confirmed that CQ/HCQ regimen does not provide any clinical benefit for COVID-19 patients. Therefore, we do not recommend the use of this regimen in COVID-19 patients outside the context of clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S301817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092643PMC
April 2021

Boswellia serrata suppress fipronil-induced neuronal necrosis and neurobehavioral alterations via promoted inhibition of oxidative/inflammatory/apoptotic pathways.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 27;785:147384. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Histology and Cytology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22516, Egypt. Electronic address:

Boswellic acid (BA) is a pentacyclic terpenoid derived from the gum-resin of Boswellia serrate. It is known for its strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. It has improved spatial learning and provides neuroprotection against trimethyltin-induced memory impairment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible neuroprotective activity of B. serrata extract (BSE) containing BA against fipronil (FPN)-induced neurobehavioral toxicity in Wister male albino rats. Sixty male rats were allocated equally into six groups. The first group served as control; the second and third groups received BSE at two different oral doses (250 or 500 mg/kg body weight [BW], respectively). The fourth group was orally intoxicated with FPN (20 mg/kg BW), whereas the fifth and sixth groups served as preventive groups and co-treated with FPN (20 mg/kg BW) and BSE (250 or 500 mg/kg BW, respectively). The experiment was conducted over 8 weeks period. Results revealed that co-treatment with BSE led to significant (p > 0.05) dose-dependent reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL6), tumor necrosis factors-alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor Kappa-B (NF-κB), Cyclooxegenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), serotonin, and acetylcholine (ACh). Conversely, significant (p > 0.05) up regulation of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) has reported in BSE-co-treated groups. In addition, significant (p > 0.05) promotion in neurobehaviours, histopathologic imaging of the cerebral, cerebellar, and hippocampal regions, and immunohistochemical expression of caspase-3 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were also reported in the BSE-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, BSE (500 mg/kg BW) is a natural, promising neuroprotective agent that can mitigate FPN-induced neurobehavioral toxicity via the suppression of oxidative, inflammatory, and apoptotic pathways and relieve neuronal necrosis and astrogliosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147384DOI Listing
September 2021

Potential role of important nutraceuticals in poultry performance and health - A comprehensive review.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Jul 20;137:9-29. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243 122, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

Antibiotics use in poultry as a growth promoter leads to the propagation of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and incorporation of drug residues in foods; therefore, it has been restricted in different countries. There is a global trend to limit the use of antibiotics in the animal products. Prevention of the antibiotics use in the poultry diets led to the reduction in the growth performance. Consequently, there is a high demand for natural substances that lead to the same growth enhancement and beneficially affect poultry health. These constituents play essential roles in regulating the normal physiological functions of animals including the protection from infectious ailments. Nutraceuticals administration resulted beneficial in both infectious and noninfectious diseases. Being the natural components of diet, they are compatible with it and do not pose risks associated with antibiotics or other drugs. Nutraceuticals are categorized as commercial additives obtained from natural products as an alternative feed supplement for the improvement of animal welfare. This group includes enzymes, synbiotics, phytobiotics, organic acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the present review, the summary of various bioactive ingredients that act as nutraceuticals and their mode of action in growth promotion and elevation of the immune system has been presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2021.04.009DOI Listing
July 2021

Aging-Related Functional and Structural Changes in Renal Tissues: Lesson from a Camel Model.

Microsc Microanal 2021 Mar 10:1-13. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Histology and Cytology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour22511, Egypt.

Renal aging is a progressive, physiological, and anatomical change that naturally occurs in all animal species. To date, no information is available concerning the aging-related structural and functional changes in camel kidneys. A total of 25 healthy male camels (14 aged 4–6 years and 11 aged 18–22 years) were included in this study. After the camels were slaughtered, samples were collected from all the camels’ kidneys and prepared for histopathological, immunohistochemical, and gene expression evaluations. The most striking observation was the significant decline in the immunohistochemical abundance of podocin and the significant upregulation of smoothening in the aging camels’ kidneys. However, the nonsignificant changes have reported for nephrin, calbindin, autophagy 5 (ATG5), aquaporin 1, and toll-like receptor 9. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of sirtuin 1, superoxide dismutase 1, superoxide dismutase 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and erythropoietin were significantly decreased in the aging camels’ kidneys. While the significant upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein and the nonsignificant increase in ATG5 expression levels were reported in the aging camels’ kidneys. The present findings provide better understanding of the complex events and initiating factors of aging, allowing for the development of a future therapeutic strategy to preserve adequate renal function throughout life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1431927621000210DOI Listing
March 2021

A novel 'smart' PNIPAM-based copolymer for breast cancer targeted therapy: Synthesis, and characterization of dual pH/temperature-responsive lactoferrin-targeted PNIPAM-co-AA.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jun 13;202:111694. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21321, Egypt; Cancer Nanotechnology Research Laboratory (CNRL), Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. Electronic address:

Despite the active research towards introducing novel anticancer agents, the long-term sequelae and side effects of chemotherapy remain the major obstacle to achieving clinical success. Recent cancer research is now utilizing the medicinal chemistry toolbox to tailor novel 'smart' carrier systems that can reduce the major limitations of chemotherapy ranging from non-specificity and ubiquitous biodistribution to systemic toxicity. In this aspect, various stimuli-responsive polymers have gained considerable interest due to their intrinsic tumor targeting properties. Among these polymers, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) has been chemically modified to tune its thermoresponsivity or even copolymerized to endow new stimulus responsiveness for enhancing tumor targeting. Herein, we set our design rationale to impart additional active targeting entity to pH/temperature-responsive PNIPAM-based polymer for more efficient controlled payloads accumulation at the tumor through cellular internalization via synthesizing novel "super intelligent" lactoferrin conjugated PNIPAM-acrylic acid (LF-PNIPAM-co-AA) copolymer. The synthesized copolymer was physicochemically characterized and evaluated as a smart nanocarrier for targeting breast cancer. In this regard, Honokiol (HK) was utilized as a model anticancer drug and encapsulated in the nanoparticles to overcome its lipophilic nature and allow its parenteral administration, for achieving sustainable drug release with targeting action. Results showed that the developed HK-loaded LF-PNIPAM-co-AA nanohydrogels displayed high drug loading capacity reaching to 18.65 wt.% with excellent physical and serum stability. Moreover, the prepared HK-loaded nanohydrogels exhibited efficient in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities. In vivo, HK-loaded nanohydrogels demonstrated suppression of VEGF-1 and Ki-67 expression levels, besides inducing apoptosis through upregulating the expression level of active caspase-3 in breast cancer-bearing mice. Overall, the developed nanohydrogels (NGs) with pH and temperature responsivity provide a promising nanocarrier for anticancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2021.111694DOI Listing
June 2021

COVID-19: pathogenesis, advances in treatment and vaccine development and environmental impact-an updated review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 18;28(18):22241-22264. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Poultry, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44511, Egypt.

Diseases negatively impact the environment, causing many health risks and the spread of pollution and hazards. A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a recent respiratory syndrome epidemic in humans. In December 2019, the sudden emergence of this new coronavirus and the subsequent severe disease it causes created a serious global health threat and hazards. This is in contrast to the two aforementioned coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 (in 2002) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus MERS-CoV (in 2012), which were much more easily contained. The World Health Organization (WHO) dubbed this contagious respiratory disease an "epidemic outbreak" in March 2020. More than 80 companies and research institutions worldwide are working together, in cooperation with many governmental agencies, to develop an effective vaccine. To date, six authorized vaccines have been registered. Up till now, no approved drugs and drug scientists are racing from development to clinical trials to find new drugs for COVID-19. Wild animals, such as snakes, bats, and pangolins are the main sources of coronaviruses, as determined by the sequence homology between MERS-CoV and viruses in these animals. Human infection is caused by inhalation of respiratory droplets. To date, the only available treatment protocol for COVID-19 is based on the prevalent clinical signs. This review aims to summarize the current information regarding the origin, evolution, genomic organization, epidemiology, and molecular and cellular characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 as well as the diagnostic and treatment approaches for COVID-19 and its impact on global health, environment, and economy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13018-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969349PMC
May 2021

Corrigendum to "Herbs as thermoregulation agents: A comprehensive review" [Sci. Total Environ. 703 (2020): 1-19/134399].

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 3;771:145659. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Poultry, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt; Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt; Department of Animal Husbandry and Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Edfina 22758, Egypt; Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Edfina 22758, Egypt; Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, 40100, Pakistan; Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Kadirli School of Applied Sciences, Osmaniye, Turkey; Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma'an 71110, Jordan; Department of Medical Analysis, Princess Aisha Bint Al-Hussein Faculty of Nursing and Health Sciences, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma'an 71110, Jordan; Department of Zoology, Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; Chrono-Environnement Laboratory, UMR CNRS 6249, Bourgogne Franche-Comté University, Besançon Cedex, France; Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145659DOI Listing
June 2021

Dietary supplementation of silver-silica nanoparticles promotes histological, immunological, ultrastructural, and performance parameters of broiler chickens.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 18;11(1):4166. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Edfina, 22758, Egypt.

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as a promising alternative to antibiotics in poultry feed. In this study, silver-doped silica nanoparticles ([email protected]) were prepared in powder form, using starch, via the chemical reduction method and sol-gel technique followed by full characterization. [email protected] were added to the poultry diet at three doses (2, 4, and 8 mg/kg diet). The safety of the oral dietary supplementation was estimated through the evaluation of the growth performance and hematological, biochemical, and oxidative parameters of birds. Moreover, the immunohistochemical examination of all body organs was also performed. Results of this study showed that [email protected] have no negative effects on the growth performance and hematological, biochemical, and oxidative parameters of birds. Moreover, the immunohistochemical examination revealed the minimum inflammatory reactions and lymphoid depletion under a dose level of 8 mg/kg. In conclusion, [email protected] could be considered as a promising and safe nano-growth promoter in broilers when added to poultry diet under a dose level of 4 mg/kg diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83753-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892842PMC
February 2021

Corrigendum to "Herbs as thermoregulation agents: A comprehensive review" [Sci. Total Environ. 703 (2020) 1-19/134399].

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 8;767:145624. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Poultry, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt; Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt; Department of Animal Husbandry and Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Edfina 22758, Egypt; Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Edfina 22758, Egypt; Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, 40100, Pakistan; Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Kadirli School of Applied Sciences, Osmaniye, Turkey; Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma'an 71110, Jordan; Department of Medical Analysis, Princess Aisha Bint Al-Hussein Faculty of Nursing and Health Sciences, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma'an 71110, Jordan; Department of Zoology, Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; Chrono-Environnement Laboratory, UMR CNRS 6249, Bourgogne Franche-Comté University, Besançon Cedex, France; Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145624DOI Listing
May 2021

The Strategy of Boosting the Immune System Under the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Front Vet Sci 2020 8;7:570748. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Poultry, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19) has raised considerable concern on the entire planet. On March 11, 2020, COVID-19 was categorized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic infection, and by March 18, 2020, it has spread to 146 countries. The first internal defense line against numerous diseases is personalized immunity. Although it cannot be claimed that personalized nutrition will have an immediate impact on a global pandemic, as the nutritional interventions required a long time to induce beneficial outcomes on immunity development, nutritional strategies are still able to clarify and have a beneficial influence on the interplay between physiology and diet, which could make a positive contribution to the condition in the next period. As such, a specific goal for every practitioner is to evaluate different tests to perceive the status of the patient, such as markers of inflammation, insulin regulation, and nutrient status, and to detect possible imbalances or deficiencies. During the process of disease development, the supplementation and addition of different nutrients and nutraceuticals can influence not only the viral replication but also the cellular mechanisms. It is essential to understand that every patient has its individual needs. Even though many nutrients, nutraceuticals, and drugs have beneficial effects on the immune response and can prevent or ameliorate viral infections, it is essential to detect at what stage in COVID-19 progression the patient is at the moment and decide what kind of nutrition intervention is necessary. Furthermore, understanding the pathogenesis of coronavirus infection is critical to make proper recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.570748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820179PMC
January 2021

Approaches to prevent and control Campylobacter spp. colonization in broiler chickens: a review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 26;28(5):4989-5004. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Poultry and Fish Diseases Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, El-Behera University, Damanhour, 22511, Egypt.

Campylobacter, Gram-negative bacteria, is the most common cause of acute bacterial enteritis in human beings, both in developing and developed countries. It is believed that poultry, in particular broiler chickens, is the main host of human infection with Campylobacter. Handling and consumption of contaminated chicken meat are the usual modes of transmission. Prevention and reduction of Campylobacter colonization in poultry farms will cut off the road of infection transmission to humans throughout the food chain. With the incidence of antibiotic resistance and with growing concern about superbugs, the search for natural and safe alternatives will considerably increase in the coming years. In this review, we will discuss the prevalence and risk factors of Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens and sources of infection. This review also provides extensive and recent approaches to prevent and control Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens, including biosecurity measures, natural feed/drinking water additives with antimicrobial properties, bacteriocins, bacteriophages, antimicrobial peptides, and vaccination strategies to prevent and control the incidence of human campylobacteriosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11747-3DOI Listing
February 2021

Phytogenic Products and Phytochemicals as a Candidate Strategy to Improve Tolerance to Coronavirus.

Front Vet Sci 2020 20;7:573159. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Poultry, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Coronaviruses are the causative agents of many infectious diseases in human and animals. These included severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), avian infectious bronchitis (IBV) in poultry, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans. These results had considerable death burdens and negative influences on social-economic life. Since the appearance of the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, continuous investigations have been carried out by researchers to find active compounds, mainly from plants, as natural sources, that could inhibit or stop the proliferation of the causative agent of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2). The most common symptoms caused by infections with COVID-19 can include cough, fever, and sore throat. Nevertheless, there is a shortage of active antiviral compounds for treating different strains of coronavirus. Herbal medicine is a class of medication that originates from nature and is aimed at decreasing the use of preservatives, excipients, or other additives and, consequently, lesser side effects. The rapid spread of COVID-19 infection besides the lack of knowledge about any treatments and the growing concern of the public from the virus directed us toward writing this review article in an aim to provide alternatives to the allopathic medicine use. There is a wealth of chemical diversity in the naturally existing compounds, including their antiviral activities, which may encourage their utilization as therapeutics against viral infections, including coronaviruses. The majority of publications on the herbal remedies of coronavirus, MERS, or SARS focused primarily on the use of polar compounds. These substances displayed encouraging inhibitory influences on coronavirus in humans. These include psoralidin, scutellarein, silvestrol, tryptanthrin, caffeic acid, quercetin, myricetin, saikosaponin B2, griffithsin (lectins), and isobavachalcone. Some other agents like lycorine may be useful, if the antiviral activity is obtained by concentrations below the toxic plasma levels. According to the available literatures, the most promising inhibitors of coronaviruses are polyphenolic compounds, which are small molecules with conjugated fused ring structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.573159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7606864PMC
October 2020

L-theanine: an astounding sui generis amino acid in poultry nutrition.

Poult Sci 2020 Nov 6;99(11):5625-5636. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, PR China. Electronic address:

L-theanine (γ-Glutamylethylamide) is a nonprotein water soluble amino acid (AA) mostly found in leaves of Camellia sinensis (green tea). This is a key component of green tea and is considered as the most abundant form of total AAs in green tea (i.e., about 50%). L-theanine is an exclusive taste ingredient of tea producing an attractive flavor and aroma in tea. It has biological effects such as antioxidant, growth promoter, immune booster, anti-stresser, hepatoprotective, antitumor, antiaging, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antianxiety activities that are worth noticing. It could reduce the oxidative impairment by reducing the synthesis of reactive oxygen species, oxidative parameters, and lipid damage as well as increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The oral ingestion of L-theanine enhanced γδ T-cell proliferation. Therefore, it is being considered an essential compound of green tea that has the ability to improve immune function. The L-theanine can be used as a potential treatment for hepatic injury and immune-related liver diseases via the downregulation of the inflammatory response through the initiation of nitric oxide synthesis and glutathione production which are likely to be critical for the control of hepatic diseases as well as for the improvement of immune function. In addition, it could be used as a best natural feed additive with a potent antistressor by decreasing the levels of corticosterone, dopamine, and noradrenaline. After systematically reviewing the literature, it is noticed that most studies were carried out on mice, pig, human, and butterfly; while dietary supplementation studies of L-theanine in animal and poultry especially among broilers are very limited because of less awareness of this AA. So, the aim of this review is to encourage the veterinarian and poultry researchers to conduct more research at the molecular level about this AA to expose its more beneficial effects and its mechanism of absorption for potential use of this unique green tea AA in poultry nutrition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.07.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7647716PMC
November 2020

Probiotics in poultry feed: A comprehensive review.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2020 Nov 29;104(6):1835-1850. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Poultry, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

The use of antibiotics to maintain animal well-being, promote growth and improve efficiency has been practised for more than 50 years. However, as early as the 1950s, researchers identified concern on the development of resistant bacteria for the antibiotics streptomycin and tetracycline used in turkeys and broilers respectively. These findings laid the groundwork for agricultural officials to impose stricter regulatory parameters on the use of antibiotics in poultry feeds. Probiotics are live micro-organisms included in the diet of animals as feed additives or supplements. Commonly known as a direct-fed microbial, probiotics provide beneficial properties to the host, primarily through action in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the animal. Supplementation of probiotics in the diet can improve animal health and performance, through contributions to gut health and nutrient use. For instance, supplementation of probiotics has been demonstrated to benefit farm animals in immune modulation, structural modulation and increased cytokine production, which positively affect the intestinal mucosal lining against pathogens. Bacillus subtilis has been a popular bacterium used within the industry and was shown to improve intestinal villus height. Increasing the villus height and structure of the crypts in the GIT allows for the improvement of nutrient digestion and absorption. Tight junctions maintain important defences against pathogenic bacteria and cellular homeostasis. Heat stress can be a major environmental challenge in the poultry industry. Heat stress causes the bird to fluctuate its internal core temperature beyond their comfort zone. To overcome such challenges, poultry will attempt to balance its heat production and dissipation through behavioural and physiological adaptation mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13454DOI Listing
November 2020

Dietary Origanum vulgare essential oil attenuates cypermethrin-induced biochemical changes, oxidative stress, histopathological alterations, apoptosis, and reduces DNA damage in Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

Aquat Toxicol 2020 Nov 6;228:105624. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Department of Poultry and Fish Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Edfina 22758, Behera Province, Egypt. Electronic address:

The study was designed to evaluate the possible protective roles of dietary Origanum vulgare essential oil (OVEO) against cypermethrin (CP)-induced serum biochemical changes and oxidative stress of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Moreover, histopathological alterations, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and DNA damage in the gills and hepatic tissues were also assessed. Briefly, fish were allotted into six groups with three triplicates whereas a group fed on basal diet and did not exposed to CP and served as control (CTR), two groups were fed on diets supplemented with two levels of OVEO (0.5 % and 1.0 %), a group exposed to sub-lethal concentration of CP (1/10 of 96 h-LC = 0.4134 μg/L), and two other groups exposed to the same concentration of CP and fed on diets supplemented with both levels of OVEO (CP + 0.5 % OVEO, and CP + 1.0 % OVEO), respectively, for 30 days. CP induced significant elevation of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea, and creatinine levels indicating hepato-renal toxicity (P < 0.05). Besides, there was a significant decrease in serum catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities (P < 0.05). Moreover, CP induced significant histopathologic alterations in gills, anterior kidneys, and hepatic tissues with activation of apoptosis (Caspase-3) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Comet assay demonstrated significant DNA damage in gills and liver tissues of the CP-exposed group. Interestingly, a significant attenuation of serum ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine, CAT, and SOD levels (P < 0.05) was noticed in CP-exposed fish and concurrently fed diets supplemented with either 0.5 % or 1.0 % OVEO. Moreover, histopathologic alterations and apoptosis were significantly reduced along with a concomitant significant decrease in DNA damage (P < 0.05) which indicated the mitigation of DNA damage. Conclusively, the study showed that OVEO is an effective counteractive treatment against CP-induced damage in exposed common carp and is recommended during the formulation of fish rations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105624DOI Listing
November 2020

Cellular and functional adaptation to thermal stress in ovarian granulosa cells in mammals.

J Therm Biol 2020 Aug 12;92:102688. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, Sadat City, 32897, Egypt.

Climate change represents a significant environmental challenge to human welfare. One of many negative impacts may be on animal reproduction. Elevated ambient temperature unfavourably influences reproductive processes in mammals. High temperature can affect reproductive processes such as follicle development and may alter follicular fluid concentrations of amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, enzymes, antioxidants defence and growth factors. These impacts may lead to inferior oocyte competence and abnormal granulosa cell (GCs) function. Mammalian oocytes are enclosed by GCs that secret hormones and signalling molecules to promote oocyte competence. GCs are essential for proper follicular development, oocyte maturation, ovulation, and luteinization. Many environmental stressors, including thermal stress, affect GC function and alter oocyte development and growth. Several studies documented a link between elevated ambient temperature and increased generation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS can damage DNA, reduce cell proliferation, and induce apoptosis in GCs, thus altering oocyte development. Additionally, thermal stress induces upregulation of thermal shock proteins, such as HSP70 and HSP90. This review provides an update on the influence of thermal stress on GCs of mammals. Discussions include impacts to steroidogenesis (estradiol and progesterone), proliferation and cell cycle transition, apoptosis, oxidative stress (ROS), antioxidants related genes, heat shock proteins (HSPs) and endoplasmic reticulum responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2020.102688DOI Listing
August 2020

Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of chitosan and its derivatives and their applications: A review.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 22;164:2726-2744. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt. Electronic address:

In this era, there is a global concern in the use of bioactive molecules such as chitosan in the field of antimicrobial and antioxidant benefits. Because of its biodegradability, biological compatibility, antimicrobial, antioxidants activity, and high safety, chitosan could be used in a large number of applications. It could exist in many forms, such as fibers, gels, films, sponges, nanoparticles, and beads. The different biological activities of chitosan and its products are extensively investigated to broaden the application fields in several areas. Chitosan's natural properties depend strongly on water and other solvent solubility. Consequently, the chitosan oligosaccharides with a low polymerization degree are getting significant attention in the pharmaceutical and medical applications because they have lower viscosity and higher water solubility than chitosan. The objective of this review article is to put the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of chitosan and its derivatives under the spotlight. The impacts of chitosan on physicochemical parameters like molecular weight and deacetylation degree on its bioactivities are also identified. Additionally, other applications of chitosan and its derivatives, including wound healing products, wastewater treatment, and cosmetics, have also been highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.153DOI Listing
December 2020

Impact of Oral Supplementation of Different Levels of Tamoxifen on Productive and Reproductive Efficiencies and Carcass Traits of Avian48 and Arbor Acres Broilers.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Aug 6;10(8). Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Animal Husbandry and Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, Egypt.

This research was aimed at estimating the effect of oral supplementation of Tamoxifen on productive efficiency, carcass characteristics, hormonal profile and gonadal structure of two broiler breeds. One hundred and eighty chicks of each breed of Avian48 and Arbor Acres were divided into three groups: control group; TAM10 group, supplied with 10 mg Tamoxifen/kg of body weight at 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of life; and TAM20 group, supplied at the same intervals with 20 mg Tamoxifen/kg of body weight. Both levels of Tamoxifen improved productive performance at early ages, but Arbor Acres produced better results with TAM20 levels than TAM10, while Avian48 breeds reacted adversely. On the contrary, Tamoxifen supplementation significantly decreased feed intake and feed conversion (after the first two weeks of life) compared to control with a higher level of decrease reported for TAM20 treatments than TAM10 and for Arbor Acres compared to Avian48 breed. Carcass traits were not affected significantly with Tamoxifen supplementation compared to control although Arbor Acres responded better to TAM20 and Avian48 for TAM10. With regard to the effect of Tamoxifen (TAM) on sex hormones, it could be concluded that TAM10 treatments showed a stimulating effect on the level of such hormones as compared with the TAM20 group with the most favourable results being clearly detectable in 42-day-old birds although both concentrations of Tamoxifen did not differ significantly from control. However, treatment of broiler chickens with Tamoxifen in different doses caused a gradual decrease in follicle production rate and eventually led to an increase of the atretic follicles in different stages of atresia. Finally, we can conclude that Tamoxifen supplementation can improve performance and carcass efficiency of broilers without changing the hormonal profile, however much research is required to estimate the best concentration required for each breed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10081367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7459955PMC
August 2020

Molecular, functional, and cellular alterations of oocytes and cumulus cells induced by heat stress and shock in animals.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Nov 6;27(31):38472-38490. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, 530004, Guangxi, China.

Global warming is considered as the main environmental stress affecting ecosystems as well as physiological and biochemical characteristics, and survivability of living organisms. High temperature induces various stresses and causes reduction of fertility through reducing the oocyte developmental competence and alteration in surrounding cells' functions. This causes major economic loss to livestock creating a selective pressure on animals to the advantage of better adapted genotypes and to the detriment of others. In this review, a search in Science Direct, Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and SID databases until 2020 was conducted. Keywords which include heat stress, shock, high temperature, oocyte, cumulus, and animals were investigated. Studies have exhibited that heat stress can disturb the development and function of oocyte and cumulus cells (CCs) concerning reproductive efficiency. Heat stress has deleterious consequences on oocyte maturation and development via reduced number of polar body extrusion, adenosine monophosphate, and guanosine monophosphate synthesis. Heat stress caused the alteration of cytoplasmic and nuclear features as well as trans-zonal projections and gap junctions. In addition, heat stress is accompanied with reduced mitochondrial activity (copy mDNA number, distribution, and membrane potential) in cumulus-oocyte complexes. This review targets the description of results in the most recent studies that aimed to call attention to the influences of heat stress on molecular, functional, and cellular changes in oocytes and CCs in animals to design evidence on the acting mechanisms as the core of this problem from a comparative review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10302-4DOI Listing
November 2020

Growth, immunity, relative gene expression, carcass traits and economic efficiency of two rabbit breeds fed prebiotic supplemented diets.

Anim Biotechnol 2020 Jul 31:1-12. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Animal Husbandry and Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt.

The current study designed to evaluate the effect of oligosaccharide supplemented diets on growth performance, histomorphometric changes, economic efficiency and genetic expression of some growth and immunity-relative genes. One hundred and twenty weaned male rabbits, six weeks of age of two breeds (NZW and APPRI) were randomly allocated into six equal groups; the first supplemented with 0.3% Mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS), the second supplemented with 0.05% Isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) and the third considered a control group. Each group contained ten equal replicates. The highest Final body weight and feed consumption were recorded in MOS and IMO groups compared with control. Fortified feed diet with IMO significantly increased duodenal villi area and length than MOS and control groups. At the same time, Spleen white bulb area and length were significantly higher in MOS and IMO than control. Supplementation of MOS and IMO significantly improved carcass traits, economic efficiency and induced certain modifications in some major key genes involved in the regulation of nutrients metabolism, immunity and growth in different tissues. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of MOS and IMO had a desirable positive impact on productive and economic efficiency in the rabbit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2020.1800485DOI Listing
July 2020

Sidr honey abrogates the oxidative stress and downregulates the hyaluronic acid concentration and gene expression of TGF-β1 and COL1a1 in rat model of thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis.

Anim Sci J 2020 Jan-Dec;91(1):e13434

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Edfina, Egypt.

Liver fibrosis is a major health concern, which might progress to cirrhosis. To date, treatment trials rely mainly on the removal of the causative factor. The current study investigated the potential ameliorative role of sidr honey on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Forty-eight Wistar albino rats were equally allocated into four groups: control; sidr honey (5g/kg body weight (BW), orally); TAA (200 mg/kg BW, IP three times weekly/15 weeks); and sidr honey plus TAA at the same dose and administration rout. Rats co-treated with sidr honey plus TAA revealed significant reduction in hepatic malondialdehyde, hyaluronic acid (HA), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, direct bilirubin, and hepatic mRNA expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and collagen type I alpha 1 chain (COL1a1) compared to TAA-exposed rats. In addition, the hepatoprotective potential of sidr honey was indicated via improvement of histopathologic picture of hepatocytes and upregulation of total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, total protein, and albumin compared to TAA-treated rats. In conclusion, daily administration of sidr honey (5 g/kg BW) is a promising natural antioxidant and fibrosuppressive agent that could ameliorate liver fibrosis via downregulation of fibrosis genes including TGF-β1 and COL1a1 and HA and via enhancement of antioxidant system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.13434DOI Listing
November 2020

Dietary origanum essential oil improved antioxidative status, immune-related genes, and resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Sep 29;104:1-7. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, 33516, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt. Electronic address:

The use of herbal essential oils in aquafeeds is an important approach to maintain the fish health status. The origanum essential oil (OEO), extracted from Origanum vulgare, was included at levels of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 g per kg diet to evaluate its beneficial effects on antioxidant, immunity status, and expression of immune-related genes of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. After 8 weeks, dietary inclusion of OEO significantly increased the activities of hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase (P < 0.05); meanwhile, levels of hepatic malonaldehyde significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The levels of serum lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity, and phagocytic index have been linearly and quadratically increased by dietary OEO in a dose-dependent regime showing their highest levels in 15-20 g OEO/kg diet. Moreover, dietary OEO significantly upregulated the relative expression of hepatic interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) genes (P < 0.05). Dietary OEO maintained the normal histomorphological criteria and density of melanomacrophage centers of spleens, and hematopoietic tissues of the anterior kidneys in all fish groups with respect to the control. After challenge with pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila, the 10-day cumulative mortality significantly decreased (P < 0.05); meanwhile, the relative percent of survival of common carp significantly increased by OEO administration (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. The obtained results reflect the beneficial roles of dietary OEO to boost the antioxidative status and the immune responses in common carp with an optimum level of 15 g/kg diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.05.056DOI Listing
September 2020

Biomonitoring of Heavy Metal Pollution Using Acanthocephalans Parasite in Ecosystem: An Updated Overview.

Animals (Basel) 2020 May 7;10(5). Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Beni-suef University, Beni-suef 65211, Egypt.

As a result of the global industrial revolution, contamination of the ecosystem by heavy metals has given rise to one of the most important ecological and organismic problems, particularly human, early developmental stages of fish and animal life. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish tissues can be influenced by several factors, including metal concentration, exposure time, method of metal ingestion and environmental conditions, such as water temperature. Upon recognizing the danger of contamination from heavy metals and the effects on the ecosystem that support life on earth, new ways of monitoring and controlling this pollution, besides the practical ones, had to be found. Diverse living organisms, such as insects, fish, planktons, livestock and bacteria can be used as bioindicators for monitoring the health of the natural ecosystem of the environment. Parasites have attracted intense interest from parasitic ecologists, because of the variety of different ways in which they respond to human activity contamination as prospective indices of environmental quality. Previous studies showed that fish intestinal helminths might consider potential bioindicators for heavy metal contamination in aquatic creatures. In particular, cestodes and acanthocephalans have an increased capacity to accumulate heavy metals, where, for example, metal concentrations in acanthocephalans were several thousand times higher than in host tissues. On the other hand, parasitic infestation in fish could induce significant damage to the physiologic and biochemical processes inside the fish body. It may encourage serious impairment to the physiologic and general health status of fish. Thus, this review aimed to highlight the role of heavy metal accumulation, fish histopathological signs and parasitic infestation in monitoring the ecosystem pollutions and their relationship with each other.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10050811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278602PMC
May 2020

Cinnamon () Oil as a Potential Alternative to Antibiotics in Poultry.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Apr 26;9(5). Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum 63514, Egypt.

The removal of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) as feed additives in poultry nutrition from the market in many countries has compelled researchers to find unconventional and safe alternatives to AGPs. Probiotics, prebiotics, enzymes, organic acids, herbs, immune-stimulants and essential oils (EO) have been investigated as feed additives in poultry production. Cinnamon (), one of the oldest medicinal plants and widely used around the world, can be used in poultry rations in the form of powder or essential oil. Essential oils produced from aromatic plants have become more interesting owing to their potential effects as hypocholesterolaemic agents, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals and stimulants of digestive enzymes. The potential insecticidal and antimicrobial activities of EO against pathogens that cause spoilage in agriculture crops and human diseases might be attributed mainly to the high content of volatile components (mainly cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and carvacrol) in cinnamon oil. The present review focuses on the effects of cinnamon oil as a feed additive on poultry performance, carcass traits, meat quality, hypocholesterolaemic impact, antioxidant activity, immunity and microbiological aspects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9050210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277619PMC
April 2020
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