Publications by authors named "Asma Ahmed"

78 Publications

Fungal Solubilisation and Subsequent Microbial Methanation of Coal Processing Wastes.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (Pilani), Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad, 500078, India.

Large quantities of rejects from coal processing plants are currently disposed of as waste piles or in ponds and rivers, resulting in environmental concerns including pollution of rivers, and ground and surface water contamination. This work investigates for the first time, a two-stage microbial process for converting coal processing wastes (coal rejects) to methane, involving (1) fungal solubilisation of coal rejects and (2) microbial methanation of the solubilised products. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trichoderma viride and Neurospora discreta were screened for their ability to solubilise coal rejects. N. discreta was found to be the most suitable candidate based on the extent of bio-solubilisation, laccase activity and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis. Bio-methanation of fungal-solubilised coal rejects was carried out in mesophilic anaerobic reactors with no additional carbon source, using inoculum from an anaerobic food digester. Coal rejects solubilised by N. discreta produced 3- to 6-fold higher methane compared to rejects solubilised by the other two fungi. No methane was produced from untreated coal rejects, demonstrating the importance of the fungal solubilisation stage. A total of 3.7 mmol of methane was generated per gram of carbon in 15 days from N. discreta-solubilised coal rejects. This process offers a timely, environment-friendly, and sustainable solution for the treatment of coal rejects and the generation of value-added products such as methane and volatile fatty acids.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-021-03681-yDOI Listing
September 2021

Membrane protein extraction and purification using partially-esterified SMA polymers.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 Dec 1;1863(12):183758. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

College of Health & Life Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

Styrene maleic acid (SMA) polymers have proven to be very successful for the extraction of membrane proteins, forming SMA lipid particles (SMALPs), which maintain a lipid bilayer around the membrane protein. SMALP-encapsulated membrane proteins can be used for functional and structural studies. The SMALP approach allows retention of important protein-annular lipid interactions, exerts lateral pressure, and offers greater stability than traditional detergent solubilisation. However, SMA polymer does have some limitations, including a sensitivity to divalent cations and low pH, an absorbance spectrum that overlaps with many proteins, and possible restrictions on protein conformational change. Various modified polymers have been developed to try to overcome these challenges, but no clear solution has been found. A series of partially-esterified variants of SMA (SMA 2625, SMA 1440 and SMA 17352) has previously been shown to be highly effective for solubilisation of plant and cyanobacterial thylakoid membranes. It was hypothesised that the partial esterification of maleic acid groups would increase tolerance to divalent cations. Therefore, these partially-esterified polymers were tested for the solubilisation of lipids and membrane proteins, and their tolerance to magnesium ions. It was found that all partially esterified polymers were capable of solubilising and purifying a range of membrane proteins, but the yield of protein was lower with SMA 1440, and the degree of purity was lower for both SMA 1440 and SMA 17352. SMA 2625 performed comparably to SMA 2000. SMA 1440 also showed an increased sensitivity to divalent cations. Thus, it appears the interactions between SMA and divalent cations are more complex than proposed and require further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2021.183758DOI Listing
December 2021

Comparison of photobiomodulation and photodynamic therapy as adjuncts to mechanical debridement for the treatment of peri-implantitis.

Technol Health Care 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Periodontics and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background And Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) as adjuncts to mechanical debridement (MD) for the treatment of peri-implantitis. The present study is based on the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the peri-implant inflammatory parameters (modified plaque index [mPI], modified gingival index [mGI], probing depth [PD]) and crestal bone loss (CBL) following MD either with PBMT or PDT in patients with peri-implantitis.

Methods: Forty-nine patients with peri-implantitis were randomly categorized into three groups. In Groups 1 and 2, patients underwent MD with adjunct PBMT and PDT, respectively. In Group 3, patients underwent MD alone (controls). Peri-implant inflammatory parameters were measured at baseline and 3-months follow-up. P-values < 0.01 were considered statistically significant.

Results: At baseline, peri-implant clinicoradiographic parameters were comparable in all groups. Compared with baseline, there was a significant reduction in mPI (P< 0.001), mGI (P< 0.001) and PD (P< 0.001) in Groups 1 and 2 at 3-months follow-up. In Group 3, there was no difference in the scores of mPI, mGI and PD at follow-up. At 3-months follow-up, there was no difference in mPI, mGI and PD among patients in Groups 1 and 2. The mPI (P< 0.001), mGI (P< 0.001) and PD (P< 0.001) were significantly higher in Group 3 than Groups 1 and 2. The CBL was comparable in all groups at follow-up.

Conclusion: PBMT and PDT seem to be useful adjuncts to MD for the treatment of peri-implant soft-tissue inflammation among patients with peri-implantitis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/THC-213062DOI Listing
July 2021

Letter to the Editor: The Efficacy of Cell-Assisted Lipotransfer Versus Conventional Lipotransfer in Breast Augmentation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Stony Brook Medicine/Southampton hospital, Southampton, NY, United States.

This is a letter to the editor about a meta-analysis titled "The efficacy of cell-assisted lipotransfer versus conventional lipotransfer in breast augmentation: a systematic review and meta-analysis" by Li and Chen published in the year 2021. The most frequently performed aesthetic procedure is breast augmentation surgery. In breast augmentation, cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL) has received high recognition due to its positive outcomes. There are controversies in the medical literature on the use of CAL for breast augmentation. This meta-analysis by Li and Chen has concluded that CAL using ASC was superior to other methods as it improved fat survival rate in breast augmentation. We have written this letter to the editor of the Aesthetic Plastic Surgery journal about this meta-analysis because of its impactful information provided by this study to the medical literature for breast augmentation surgery using cell-assisted lipotransfer. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-021-02452-8DOI Listing
July 2021

Effect of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance Programmes on Overall Survival in a Mixed Cirrhotic UK Population: A Prospective, Longitudinal Cohort Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 24;10(13). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Gastroenterology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow G4 0SF, UK.

Introduction: Surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is recommended by national and international guidelines. However, there are no trial data on whether surveillance improves clinical outcomes in a UK cirrhosis population of mixed aetiology. Our aim was to determine the impact of, and adherence to, surveillance on overall survival.

Methods: We prospectively collected data on consecutive patients diagnosed with HCC between January 2009 and December 2015 at two large UK centres. We assessed outcomes depending on whether they had been entered into an HCC surveillance programme, and if they had adhered to that.

Results: Out of 985 patients diagnosed with HCC in this study, 40.0% had been enrolled in a surveillance programme. Of these, 76.6% were adherent with surveillance and 24.4% were not. Adherence to surveillance was significantly associated with improved overall survival, even when accounting for lead-time bias using different approaches (HR for 270 days lead-time adjustment 0.64, 0.53 to 0.76, < 0.001).

Conclusions: When adjusted for lead-time bias, HCC surveillance is associated with improved overall survival; however, the beneficial effect of surveillance on survival was lower than reported in studies that did not account fully for lead-time bias.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269358PMC
June 2021

Neonatal Renal Failure in the Setting of Anorectal Malformation: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Cureus 2021 May 12;13(5):e14984. Epub 2021 May 12.

Pediatric Surgery, University of Missouri Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, USA.

Anorectal malformations (ARMs) can occur in isolation or in association with other anomalies, most commonly those of the genitourinary systems. Morbidity and mortality are highest among patients who develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) either from severe congenital anomalies (dysplastic kidneys) or from repeated infections in those who have vesicoureteral reflux or persistent recto-urinary fistulas. We describe our management strategy for a patient born with an ARM and bilateral dysplastic kidneys to highlight the nuances and complex decision-making considerations required in taking care of this complex patient population. Our patient is a male twin born at 32 weeks' gestational age who was found to have bilateral dysplastic kidneys on prenatal ultrasound. On initial examination, an imperforate anus was identified along with a severe urethral stricture. Full workup also revealed sacral dysgenesis and confirmation of the dysplastic kidneys. On day of life 3, a laparoscopic diverting sigmoid colostomy was performed; urologic evaluation confirmed the severe urethral stricture, which required dilation to place an 8F council tip catheter. Due to his small size, peritoneal dialysis could not be initiated until five weeks of age. As full volumes could not be reached with peritoneal dialysis, he was soon transitioned to continuous renal replacement therapy. At five months of age, a laparoscopic-assisted posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) was performed. As his urethral stricture had worsened, a suprapubic catheter had been placed for bladder decompression. Reversal of his colostomy was performed 15 days after PSARP. Unfortunately, the patient required three further surgical interventions due to abdominal wall and inguinal hernias contributing to filling and emptying dysfunction when utilizing peritoneal dialysis. He is currently 16 months of age and remains inpatient due to intermittent hemodialysis requirements along with autocycling of his peritoneal dialysis. He is working on developmental milestones, can pull to a stand, and is currently being evaluated for kidney transplantation. The development of ESRD in a neonate or infant with an ARM is rare and can be due to congenital dysplasia or agenesis of bilateral kidneys. While peritoneal dialysis is the preferred approach, catheter dysfunction can result from intra-abdominal adhesions or inadequate fluid removal from inguinal or abdominal wall hernias that form in the setting of increased intra-abdominal pressure required for peritoneal dialysis. Close collaboration is required between pediatric surgeons, nephrologists, and urologists to facilitate colonic and urologic reconstruction and manage catheter-related complications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194500PMC
May 2021

Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Activity of by Targeting Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B.

Front Pharmacol 2021 14;12:661803. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt.

() Pers. is one of six wild edible mushrooms that are widely used by Asian and European countries for their nutritional value. The present study assessed the anti-diabetic potential of methanolic extract (100 mg/kg body weight) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. STZ was used in a single dose of 65 mg/kg to establish diabetic models. Body weights, water/food intake and fasting blood glucose levels were measured. Histopathological analysis of the pancreas and liver were performed to evaluate STZ-induced tissue injuries. In addition, assays such as α-amylase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory, antiglycation, antioxidant and cytotoxicity were performed. The study indicated potent PTP1B inhibitory potential of with an IC value of 26.5 μg/ml as compared to the positive control, oleanolic acid (IC 36.2 μg/ml). investigation showed a gradual decrease in blood sugar level in treated mice (132 mg/dl) at a concentration of 100 mg/kg as compared to diabetic mice (346 mg/dl). The extract positively improved liver and kidney damages as were shown by their serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetate, alkaline phosphatase, serum creatinine and urea levels. Histopathological analysis revealed slight liver and pancreas improvement of mice treated with extract. Cytotoxicity assays displayed lower IC values. Based on the present results of the study, it may be inferred that are rich in bioactive compounds responsible for antidiabetic activity and this mushroom may be a potential source of antidiabetic drug. However, further studies are required in terms of isolation of bioactive compounds to validate the observed results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.661803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173442PMC
May 2021

Machine learning workflows identify a microRNA signature of insulin transcription in human tissues.

iScience 2021 Apr 31;24(4):102379. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Centre for Transplant and Renal Research, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, University of Sydney, 176 Hawkesbury Road, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.

Dicer knockout mouse models demonstrated a key role for microRNAs in pancreatic β-cell function. Studies to identify specific microRNA(s) associated with human (pro-)endocrine gene expression are needed. We profiled microRNAs and key pancreatic genes in 353 human tissue samples. Machine learning workflows identified microRNAs associated with (pro-)insulin transcripts in a discovery set of islets (n = 30) and insulin-negative tissues (n = 62). This microRNA signature was validated in remaining 261 tissues that include nine islet samples from individuals with type 2 diabetes. Top eight microRNAs (miR-183-5p, -375-3p, 216b-5p, 183-3p, -7-5p, -217-5p, -7-2-3p, and -429-3p) were confirmed to be associated with and predictive of (pro-)insulin transcript levels. Use of doxycycline-inducible microRNA-overexpressing human pancreatic duct cell lines confirmed the regulatory roles of these microRNAs in (pro-)endocrine gene expression. Knockdown of these microRNAs in human islet cells reduced (pro-)insulin transcript abundance. Our data provide specific microRNAs to further study microRNA-mRNA interactions in regulating insulin transcription.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082091PMC
April 2021

A century of BCG: Impact on tuberculosis control and beyond.

Immunol Rev 2021 05 6;301(1):98-121. Epub 2021 May 6.

Laboratory of Immunology of HIV-TB co-infection, Centre for Infectious Disease Research, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

BCG turns 100 this year and while it might not be the perfect vaccine, it has certainly contributed significantly towards eradication and prevention of spread of tuberculosis (TB). The search for newer and better vaccines for TB is an ongoing endeavor and latest results from trials of candidate TB vaccines such as M72AS01 look promising. However, recent encouraging data from BCG revaccination trials in adults combined with studies on mucosal and intravenous routes of BCG vaccination in non-human primate models have renewed interest in BCG for TB prevention. In addition, several well-demonstrated non-specific effects of BCG, for example, prevention of viral and respiratory infections, give BCG an added advantage. Also, BCG vaccination is currently being widely tested in human clinical trials to determine whether it protects against SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or death with detailed analyses and outcomes from several ongoing trials across the world awaited. Through this review, we attempt to bring together information on various aspects of the BCG-induced immune response, its efficacy in TB control, comparison with other candidate TB vaccines and strategies to improve its efficiency including revaccination and alternate routes of administration. Finally, we discuss the future relevance of BCG use especially in light of its several heterologous benefits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12968DOI Listing
May 2021

A combined community health worker and text messagingbased intervention for smoking cessation in India: Project MUKTI - A mixed methods study.

Tob Prev Cessat 2021 29;7:23. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center - Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, United States.

Introduction: We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a community health worker (CHW) led smoking cessation intervention, supplemented by text messages, and tailored to an individual's readiness to quit.

Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (April 2018-August 2019) in adult smokers residing in a semi-urban region of India. Participants in the intervention arm received CHW-led home visits and had the option of choosing to receive regular text messages. The dose and content of CHW counseling and text messages were tailored to the participant's readiness to quit. The control group received brief education only. Primary outcome was biochemically verified smoking cessation at the end of 12 months. Both intention-to-treat and as-treated analyses were performed.

Results: A total of 238 (mean age 43±12.3 years, male 96.2%) participants were enrolled; 151 (64%) in the intervention arm and 83 (35.4%) in the control arm. At 12 months, 31 (20.5%) participants in the intervention arm and 9 (10.8%) in the control arm quit smoking (absolute risk difference=9.7%; RR=1.69; 95% CI: 0.04-71.33, p=0.74). In the as-treated analysis, 17 (36.9%) of the 46 participants who received optimal dose of the intervention quit smoking.

Conclusions: CHW-led home-based counseling, supplemented by regular text messages, led to an increase in quit rates for smoking, especially among those exposed to a higher dose of the intervention. However, the difference in cessation rates was not statistically significant. Future studies should consider testing mobile application-based multimedia messaging with larger populations, as a supplement to CHW-based counseling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tpc/132469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005919PMC
March 2021

Blunt Abdominal Trauma With Hollow Viscus and Mesenteric Injury: A Prospective Study of 50 Cases.

Cureus 2021 Feb 12;13(2):e13321. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Surgery, Maharishi Markandeshwar Medical College and Hospital, Solan, IND.

Introduction Hollow viscus injury following blunt abdominal trauma is an infrequent diagnosis. Blunt hollow viscus and mesenteric injury (HVMI) is not only an uncommon finding but its timely diagnosis is also difficult. Due to its less frequency, this injury has not been studied in detail prospectively. Aims and objectives The aim of this study is to determine the causes, pattern, management, and outcome of HVMI following blunt abdominal trauma. Methodology This study was conducted from January 2015 to June 2016 in a high-volume tertiary care trauma center and teaching hospital in North India. All patients with blunt HVMI admitted during this period were included in this study. Data were collected regarding medical history, physical findings, demographics, injury dates and times, laboratory results, diagnostic tests, delay in surgical intervention, type of surgical procedure performed, site of injury, complications, and mortality. Results Out of a total of 6,570 trauma admissions, 465 blunt abdominal injuries were identified, and HVMI was found only in 50 patients. The small bowel was the most common injury, with the jejunum being the most commonly involved segment. All patients were managed surgically. The mean time to operative intervention after hospital admission was 4.5 hours (IQR: 2-8 hours). Primary repair was performed in 54% of patients. Mortality rate was high in patients with HVMI (22% patients). Septic shock was the most common cause of death. Conclusion Hollow viscus injury in blunt abdominal trauma is not so common finding. Early diagnosis and treatment is an important but difficult task. Prognosis depends on age, associated injuries, co-morbid conditions, and delay in operative intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.13321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957336PMC
February 2021

Is Emergency Appendicectomy Better Than Elective Appendicectomy for the Treatment of Appendiceal Phlegmon?: A Review.

Cureus 2020 Dec 12;12(12):e12045. Epub 2020 Dec 12.

Surgical Oncology, Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Boca Raton, USA.

Appendiceal phlegmon is considered to be sequelae to acute appendicitis which presents as an appendiceal mass composed of the inflamed appendix, the adjacent bowel loops, and the greater omentum. The definitive diagnosis can be obtained by a CT scan of the abdomen. Though conservative management was the most practiced approach, recent studies have shifted the trends towards immediate appendicectomy for the management of appendiceal phlegmon. Thus, the management of appendiceal phlegmon has been debatable. Evidence to support this review was gathered via the PubMed database as this database uses the Medline, PubMed Central, and NLM databases and also offers a quick diverse search with up-to-date citations and numerous open-access free articles focused on Medicine. We did not include other databases like Google Scholar, Embase, and Scopus due to its limited access to free articles, recent articles, and citation information. Search terms used were combinations of "Appendicitis," "Appendiceal phlegmon", "Appendiceal phlegmon (AND) appendicectomy ". The resultant studies were reviewed and cross-referenced for additional reports. Emergency appendicectomy is defined as appendicectomy carried out during the same, initial admission. An elective or interval appendicectomy is an appendicectomy carried out four to six weeks after the initial episode at a later admission. The interval is bridged by antibiotics and conservative management. Emergency appendicectomy is considered to have a higher rate of complications when compared to conservative management for appendiceal phlegmon. However, interval appendicectomy requires multiple re-admissions, leads to delayed diagnosis of any underlying pathology, and an increased risk of recurrent appendicitis. In our review, we aimed to compare and contrast the effectiveness of the different treatment modalities available for appendiceal phlegmon. Though the meta-analyses showed an increased association of complications with emergency appendicectomy, they included studies conducted before the laparoscopic era. Emergency appendicectomy decreases the financial burden, re-admission rate, and aids in the early diagnosis of any underlying pathology. In the laparoscopic era, we can consider the shifting trends towards emergency appendicectomy for the management of appendiceal phlegmon.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.12045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802400PMC
December 2020

Comparison of the Efficacy of the Various Treatment Modalities in the Management of Perianal Crohn's Fistula: A Review.

Cureus 2020 Dec 3;12(12):e11882. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Surgical Oncology, Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Tulsa, USA.

Crohn's disease (CD) is a transmural inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. With the disease's progression, adhesions and transmural fissuring, intra-abdominal abscesses, and fistula tracts may develop. An anal fistula (or fistula-in-ano) is a chronic abnormal epithelial lined tract communicating the anorectal lumen (internal opening) to the perineal or buttock skin (external opening). The risk of fistula development varies from 14%-38%. It can cause significant morbidity, which adversely impacts the quality of life. It is mostly believed that an anal crypt gland infection causes anal abscesses, leading to fistula development. Crohn's disease's pathogenesis involves Th1 and Th17 hypersensitivity due to an unknown antigen within the intestinal mucosa. Evidence to support this review was gathered via the Pubmed database. Search terms used were combinations of "Perianal fistula," "seton," "immunotherapy." Studies were reviewed and cross-referenced for additional reports. Setons are surgical thread loops passed from the external to the internal opening of the fistula tract and exteriorized through the anorectal canal, facilitating abscess drainage and inciting a local inflammatory reaction, thus promoting the resolution of the fistula. Biologicals such as anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibody (infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab), anti-IL-12/23 (ustekinumab), and anti-α₄β₇ integrin antibody (vedolizumab) have been approved for Crohn's disease targeting the Th1/Th17-mediated inflammation. Other therapeutic modalities are fistulotomy, cyanoacrylate glue, bioprosthetic plugs, mucosal advancement flap, ligation of inter-sphincteric fistula tract (LIFT), diverting stoma, proctectomy, video-assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT), and fistula laser closure (FiLaC). Our review found that chronic seton therapy should be the primary approach, especially if the patient has a perianal abscess. It has a low incidence of re-intervention, recurrent abscess formation, and side-branching of the fistulous tract, with preservation of the fistulous tract's patency and cost-effectiveness. The major disadvantage of seton therapy is the discomfort and time to achieve stability. Among the biologicals, infliximab is the only therapy which has a statistically significant effect on the healing rate of perianal Crohn's fistula compared to placebo, but the major disadvantage associated with anti-TNF as sole therapy is high re-intervention rate, prolong maintenance therapy, high recurrence rate, and severe side effects. We hypothesize that the two aspects should be addressed concurrently to increase the fistula healing or closure rate. First, the seton should be used as initial therapy to maintain tract patency to allow abscess drainage and minimize the intestinal flora colonization within the tract mucosa, thereby leukocytic infiltration and propagation of inflammation within the tract. The second aspect that has to be considered is that we should target the initial stimulation of the Th1/Th17 mediated hypersensitivity instead of a factor/cytokine involved in the inflammation mediation. Although the unknown antigen triggering such hypersensitivity is not clear, we could target the RAR-related orphan receptor γ (RORγ)-T (transcription factor involved in activation of Th17 cells) and the T-bet (transcription factor involved in activation of Th17 cells) within the GI mucosa by a novel target immune therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.11882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7781784PMC
December 2020

Aberrant Partial Chromosomal Instability With Chemotherapeutically Resistant Metachronous Colorectal Cancer Following a Synchronous Primary Colorectal Cancer: A Case Report.

Cureus 2020 Nov 3;12(11):e11308. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Surgical Oncology, Cape Fear Valley Medical Center, Fayetteville, USA.

The diagnosis of synchronous colorectal cancer (CRC) is crucial as the management, including the extent of surgical resection, depends on it. There have been numerous studies on the clinicopathological features of synchronous CRC; however, only a few studies have discussed synchronous cancer treatment. The guidelines to best manage the synchronous and metachronous CRC are limited, especially the most appropriate surgical treatment and chemotherapy based on mutational analysis of mismatch repair genes and the carcinoma sequence model. We present a rare case of a metachronous CRC with intact nuclear expression of microsatellite instability markers following a synchronous CRC, and it failed to show any significant response to surgical resection and chemoradiotherapy. A 53-year-old female presented in June 2016 with bleeding per rectum for one month, weight loss, and a recent history of altered bowel habits. The per rectal examination revealed a circumferential growth. Colonoscopy and biopsy yielded multiple polyps throughout the colon and invasive adenocarcinoma in the upper and lower one-third of the rectum. The above features were highly suggestive of synchronous CRC. Serologic studies revealed elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Excisional biopsy of mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes during proctocolectomy and end ileostomy was negative for metastasis, including the other metastatic workup preoperatively-eight months post-resection and adjuvant chemotherapy patient developed metachronous CRC. Mutational analysis showed positivity only for  (APC) while negative for , and . Immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers for mismatch repair (MMR) proteins showed intact protein expression. The patient was given multiple chemotherapy cycles throughout her course, including oral capecitabine, XELOX (capecitabine + oxaliplatin), cetuximab-capecitabine, cetuximab-irinotecan, and FOLFIRI (5-fluorouracil [5-FU] + irinotecan + folinic acid)-bevacizumab, as is the standard chemotherapy regimen for these tumors. The diagnosis of metachronous CRC with intensive follow up is crucial. IHC markers for MMR proteins showed intact protein expression ruling out the possibility of microsatellite instability and Lynch Syndrome. The only presence of APC mutation indicates a partial chromosomal instability. During the course, the patient had either stable size of the masses or developed new metastatic growth despite intensive chemotherapeutic regimes. Unfortunately, there are no precise guidelines based on aberrant mutational analysis regarding synchronous and metachronous CRCs management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.11308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714745PMC
November 2020

UNIQUE PRESENTATION OF DUPLICATION OF THE PITUITARY GLAND-PLUS SYNDROME.

AACE Clin Case Rep 2020 Nov-Dec;6(6):e357-e360. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Objective: To shed light on a unique presentation of duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG)-plus syndrome.

Methods: We present the case report gathered from the patient.

Results: This patient uniquely had DPG-plus syndrome with a concurrent dermoid cyst.

Conclusion: DPG is a very rare developmental anomaly and there are not many case reports published in the literature. The presence of DPG with dermoid cyst in our patient has not been reported previously. This case report discusses the various presentations of the syndrome and also provides an overview of investigations and management of these patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4158/ACCR-2019-0487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685408PMC
November 2020

Targeting immunogenic cell death in cancer.

Mol Oncol 2020 12 1;14(12):2994-3006. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Glasgow, UK.

Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is a type of cancer cell death triggered by certain chemotherapeutic drugs, oncolytic viruses, physicochemical therapies, photodynamic therapy, and radiotherapy. It involves the activation of the immune system against cancer in immunocompetent hosts. ICD comprises the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) from dying tumor cells that result in the activation of tumor-specific immune responses, thus eliciting long-term efficacy of anticancer drugs by combining direct cancer cell killing and antitumor immunity. Remarkably, subcutaneous injection of dying tumor cells undergoing ICD has been shown to provoke anticancer vaccine effects in vivo. DAMPs include the cell surface exposure of calreticulin (CRT) and heat-shock proteins (HSP70 and HSP90), extracellular release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), type I IFNs and members of the IL-1 cytokine family. In this review, we discuss the cell death modalities connected to ICD, the DAMPs exposed during ICD, and the mechanism by which they activate the immune system. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential and challenges of harnessing ICD in cancer immunotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1878-0261.12851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7718954PMC
December 2020

Early childhood growth trajectory and later cognitive ability: evidence from a large prospective birth cohort of healthy term-born children.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 01;49(6):1998-2009

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Most studies of associations between child growth and cognitive ability were based on size at one or two ages and a single measure of cognition. We aimed to characterize different aspects of early growth and their associations with cognitive outcomes in childhood through adolescence.

Methods: In a sample of 12 368 Belarusian children born at term, we examined associations of length/height and weight trajectories over the first 6.5 years of life with cognitive ability at 6.5 and 16 years and its change over time. We estimated growth trajectories using two random-effects models-the SuperImposition by Translation and Rotation to model overall patterns of growth and the Jenss-Bayley to distinguish growth in infancy from post infancy. Cognitive ability was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence at 6.5 years and the computerized NeuroTrax test at 16 years.

Results: Higher length/height between birth and 6.5 years was associated with higher cognitive scores at 6.5 and 16 years {2.7 points [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1, 3.2] and 2.5 points [95% CI: 1.9, 3.0], respectively, per standard deviation [SD] increase}. A 1-SD delay in the childhood height-growth spurt was negatively associated with cognitive scores [-2.4 (95% CI: -3.0, -1.8) at age 6.5; -2.2 (95% CI: -2.7, -1.6) at 16 years]. Birth size and post-infancy growth velocity were positively associated with cognitive scores at both ages. Height trajectories were not associated with the change in cognitive score. Similar results were observed for weight trajectories.

Conclusions: Among term infants, the overall size, timing of the childhood growth spurt, size at birth and post-infancy growth velocity were all associated with cognitive ability at early-school age and adolescence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208486PMC
January 2021

Approach to large proximal ureteric stones: Let facts drive practice.

Int J Surg 2020 09 25;81:14-15. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Department of Urology, Ramaiah Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore, India.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.07.038DOI Listing
September 2020

Detection of a novel mutation in a Tunisian child with polycystic kidney disease.

IUBMB Life 2020 08 30;72(8):1799-1806. Epub 2020 May 30.

Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia.

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic disease that has an adverse impact on the patients' health and quality of life. ADPKD is usually known as "adult-type disease," but rare cases have been reported in pediatric patients. We present here a 2-year-old Tunisian girl with renal cyst formation and her mother with adult onset ADPKD. Disease-causing mutation has been searched in PKD1 and PKD2 using Long-Range and PCR followed by sequencing. Molecular sequencing displayed us to identify a novel likely pathogenic mutation (c.696 T > G; p.C232W, exon 5) in PKD1. The identified PKD1 mutation is inherited and unreported variant, which can alter the formation of intramolecular disulfide bonds essential for polycystin-1 function. We report here the first mutational study in pediatric patient with ADPKD in Tunisia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iub.2309DOI Listing
August 2020

Two new sponge species (Demospongiae: Chalinidae and Suberitidae) isolated from hyperarid mangroves of Qatar with notes on their potential antibacterial bioactivity.

PLoS One 2020 13;15(5):e0232205. Epub 2020 May 13.

Biomedical Science Department, College of Health Science, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.

This study presents the taxonomic description of two new sponge species that are intimately associated with the hyperarid mangrove ecosystem of Qatar. The study includes a preliminary evaluation of the sponges' potential bioactivity against pathogens. Chalinula qatari sp. nov. is a fragile thinly encrusting sponge with a vivid maroon colour in life, often with oscular chimneys and commonly recorded on pneumatophores in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. Suberites luna sp. nov. is a massive globular-lobate sponge with a greenish-black colour externally and a yellowish orange colour internally, recorded on pneumatophores in the shallow subtidal zone, with large specimens near the seagrass ecosystem that surrounds the mangrove. For both species, a drug extraction protocol and an antibacterial experiment was performed. The extract of Suberites luna sp. nov. was found to be bioactive against recognized pathogens such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, but no bioactive activity was recorded for Chalinula qatari sp. nov. This study highlights the importance of increasing bioprospecting effort in hyperarid conditions and the importance of combining bioprospecting with taxonomic studies for the identification of novel marine drugs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232205PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7219822PMC
July 2020

Prevalence and Associations of Metabolic Syndrome in an Urban High Diabetes Risk Population in a Low/Middle-Income Country.

Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2020 06 4;18(5):234-242. Epub 2020 May 4.

Chronic Disease Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.

We aimed to assess the burden of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and evaluate the phenotypic variation of MetS in a population at high risk for diabetes in urban Karachi, Pakistan. This study was embedded in a lifestyle intervention trial for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study population comprised participants who belonged to urban households in Karachi, Pakistan. Among 15,590 individuals who were screened through diabetes risk score (DRS), 3945 individuals met the criteria for a high DRS (≥60). After excluding 1780 participants due to refusals and ineligibility, 2165 were enrolled, a total of 1188 subjects (54.9%) met the International Diabetes Federation criteria for MetS, and a total of 1199 subjects (55.4%) participants met the US National Cholesterol Education Program. Raised serum triglycerides (TGs) and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were significantly associated with MetS. On multivariate logistic regression, higher body mass index levels (obese category: odds ratio [OR] = 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56-2.95), age >44 years (OR = 2.64, 95% CI 1.93-3.60), and family history of diabetes in both parents (OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.15-2.54) were found to be independently associated with MetS, whereas higher education (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.57-1.06) and physical activity levels (OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.57-0.96) had lower odds of MetS. One in two individuals with a high DRS in an urban low/middle-income country setting met the criteria for MetS. Patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia defined as low HDL and high TGs represent unique subphenotypes of MetS in this population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/met.2019.0098DOI Listing
June 2020

Lifestyle changes and glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a trial protocol with factorial design approach.

Trials 2020 Apr 20;21(1):346. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Community Health Sciences, The Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, PO Box 3500, Karachi, 74800, Pakistan.

Background: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been increasing globally over the past three decades. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is a challenge in both developed as well as developing countries. Self-management guidelines include maintaining logbooks for blood glucose, physical activity, and dietary intake that affect glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and a multitude of life-threatening acute complications. Innovative, cost-effective interventions along with beneficial lifestyle modifications can improve home-based self-monitoring of blood glucose in T1D patients. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between maintaining log books for blood glucose levels, reinforcement by e-messages, and/or daily step count and changes in HbA1c.

Methods/design: A randomized controlled trial will enroll participants aged 15 years and above in four groups. Each group of 30 participants will be working with a newly designed standard log book for documenting their blood glucose. The first group will be entirely on routine clinical care, the second group will be on routine care and will receive an additional e-device for recording step count (fit bit), the third group will receive routine care and daily motivational e-messages to maintain the log book, and the fourth group along with routine care will receive an e-device for measuring step count (fit bit) and e-messages about maintaining the log book. Patients will be enrolled from pediatric and endocrine clinics of a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. All groups will be followed up for a period of 6 months to evaluate outcomes. Log book data will be obtained every 3 months electronically or during a patient's clinic visit. HbA1c as a main outcome will be measured at baseline and will be evaluated twice every 3 months. A baseline questionnaire will determine the socio-demographic, nutritional, and physical activity profile of patients. Clinical information for T1D and other co-morbidities for age of onset, duration, complications, hospitalizations, habits for managing T1D, and other lifestyle characteristics will be ascertained. Behavioral modifications for maintaining daily log books as a routine, following e-messages alone, fit bit alone, or e-messages plus using fit bit will be assessed for changes in HbA1c using a generalized estimated equation.

Discussion: The proposed interventions will help identify whether maintaining log books for blood glucose, motivational e-messages, and/or daily step count will reduce HbA1c levels.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03864991. March 6, 2019.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-4205-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171752PMC
April 2020

A first report on competitive inhibition of laccase enzyme by lignin degradation intermediates.

Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2020 Apr 20;65(2):431-437. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

School of Human and Life Sciences, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, UK.

Laccases have been widely explored for their ligninolytic capability in bioethanol production and bioremediation of industrial effluents. However, low reaction rates have posed a major challenge to commercialization of such processes. This study reports the first evidence of laccase inhibition by two types of lignin degradation intermediates - fungal-solubilized lignin and alkali-treated lignin - thus offering a highly plausible explanation for low reaction rates due to buildup of inhibitors during the actual process. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of similar polar compounds in both lignin samples. A detailed kinetic study on laccase, using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) as the substrate, was used to calculate the Michaelis constant (K) and maximum reaction rate (V). With an increase in the concentration of lignin degradation intermediates, V remained nearly constant, while K increased from 1.3 to 4.0 times that of pure laccase, revealing that the inhibition was competitive in nature. The kinetic studies reported here and the insight gained into the nature of inhibition can help design process strategies to mitigate this effect and improve overall process efficiency. This work is applicable to processes that employ laccase for delignification of biomass, such as second-generation biofuels processes, as well as for industrial effluent treatment in paper and pulp industries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12223-019-00765-5DOI Listing
April 2020

BCG revaccination boosts adaptive polyfunctional Th1/Th17 and innate effectors in IGRA+ and IGRA- Indian adults.

JCI Insight 2019 12 19;4(24). Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Laboratory of Immunology of HIV-TB Co-infection, Centre for Infectious Disease Research, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

BACKGROUNDBacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is protective against Tuberculosis (TB) in children, but its efficacy wanes with age. Consequently, determining if BCG revaccination augments anti-TB immunity in young adults in TB endemic regions is vital.METHODSTwo hundred healthy adults, BCG vaccinated at birth, were tested for their IFN-γ release assay (IGRA) status. Of these, 28 IGRA+ and 30 IGRA- were BCG revaccinated, and 24 IGRA+ and 23 IGRA- subjects served as unvaccinated controls. T and innate cell responses to mycobacterial antigens were analyzed by 14-color flow cytometry over 34 weeks.RESULTSIFN-γ and/or IL-2 Ag85A- and BCG-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were boosted by revacciantion at 4 and 34 weeks, respectively, and were > 2-fold higher in IGRA+ compared with IGRA- vaccinees. Polyfunctional Ag85A, BCG, and mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) latency Ag-specific (LTAg-specific) CD4+ T cells expressing up to 8 cytokines were also significantly enhanced in both IGRA+ and IGRA- vaccinees relative to unvaccinated controls, most markedly in IGRA+ vaccinees. A focused analysis of Th17 responses revealed expansion of Ag85A-, BCG-, and LTAg-specific total IL-17A+,IL-17F+,IL-22+, and IL-10+ CD4+ T cell effectors in both IGRA+ and IGRA- subjects. Also, innate IFN-γ+ NK/γδ/NKT cell responses were higher in both IGRA+ and IGRA- vaccinees compared with controls. This is the first evidence to our knowledge that BCG revaccination significantly boosts antimycobacterial Th1/Th17 responses in IGRA+ and IGRA- subjects.CONCLUSIONThese data show that BCG revaccination is immunogenic in IGRA- and IGRA+ subjects, implying that Mtb preinfection in IGRA+ subjects does not impact immunogenicity. This has implications for public health and vaccine development strategies.FUNDINGThis work was funded principally by DBT-NIH (BT/MB/Indo-US/HIPC/2013).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.130540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6975271PMC
December 2019

Arrested fungal biofilms as low-modulus structural bio-composites: Water holds the key.

Eur Phys J E Soft Matter 2019 Oct 23;42(10):134. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

School of Human and Life Sciences, Canterbury Christ Church University, North Holmes Road, CT1 1QU, Canterbury, UK.

Biofilms are self-assembling structures consisting of rigid microbial cells embedded in a soft biopolymeric extracellular matrix (ECM), and have been commonly viewed as being detrimental to health and equipment. In this work, we show that biofilms formed by a non-pathogenic fungus Neurospora discreta, are fungal bio-composites (FBCs) that can be directed to self-organize through active stresses to achieve specific properties. We induced active stresses by systematically varying the agitation rate during the growth of FBCs. By growing FBCs that are strong enough to be conventionally tensile loaded, we find that as agitation rate increases, the elongation strain at which the FBCs break, increases linearly, and their elastic modulus correspondingly decreases. Using results from microstructural imaging and thermogravimetry, we rationalize that agitation increases the production of ECM, which concomitantly increases the water content of agitated FBCs up to 250% more than un-agitated FBCs. Water held in the nanopores of the ECM acts a plasticizer and controls the ductility of FBCs in close analogy with polyelectrolyte complexes. This paradigm shift in viewing biofilms as bio-composites opens up the possibility for their use as sustainable, biodegradable, low-modulus structural materials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epje/i2019-11899-2DOI Listing
October 2019

Aspiration of hijab pin is sharply rising among young women---A preventable health problem.

J Family Med Prim Care 2019 Aug 28;8(8):2681-2684. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Respiratory Therapist, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Introduction: Foreign body aspiration is a common life threatening emergency but largely a preventable problem. There is an increase in the number of headscarf pin aspiration cases among young girls as a result of increase in the number of veiling population. With the number of hijab wearing population increasing all over the world, attention must be brought to the risk associated with holding the hijab pins in the mouth.

Aim: To study the practice of holding hijab pin in the mouth among Muslim women.

Methods: In a first study of its kind, we interviewed 270 Muslim women with varied background to study the practice of hijab pin use and holding it in the mouth.

Results: Among 270 Muslim women, 260 (96.3%) of them wear hijab. 221 (81.85%) women use hijab pins to hold different layers of hijab. 191 (70.74%) of them hold the hijab pins in between the lips when they adjust the layers of hijab. 72 (26.67%) women had occasions when the hijab pin slipped into their mouth and 10 (3.70%) of them have aspirated the hijab pin accidentally. Maximum hijab pin use is in the age group between 21 and 40 years (89.44%) and least in the elderly (6.66%). Occasions when the pin slipped into the mouth or aspirations both are maximum in the below 20 years group. Both are nil in elderly.

Conclusion: Appropriate education and intervention need to be planned as more young population are getting involved. Most importantly refrain from holding the pin in the mouth!
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_458_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6753792PMC
August 2019

Extra-Adrenal Glucocorticoid Synthesis in the Intestinal Mucosa: Between Immune Homeostasis and Immune Escape.

Front Immunol 2019 25;10:1438. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Biochemical Pharmacology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones predominantly produced in the adrenal glands in response to physiological cues and stress. Adrenal GCs mediate potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive functions. Accumulating evidence in the past two decades has demonstrated other extra-adrenal organs and tissues capable of synthesizing GCs. This review discusses the role and regulation of GC synthesis in the intestinal epithelium in the regulation of normal immune homeostasis, inflammatory diseases of the intestinal mucosa, and the development of intestinal tumors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6611402PMC
October 2020

Challenges in diagnosis of disease reported 100 years back: Cushing syndrome; recent advances.

J Pak Med Assoc 2019 Jun;69(6):899-901

Medical Student, Baqai Medical University, Karachi.

Treatment of Cushing syndrome depends on diagnosis of etiology responsible for hypercortisolism in the body, which sometimes presents with a challenge. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling for ACTH levels, followed by peripheral venous sampling is a proven tool to be a gold standard for differentiating between peripheral and central cause of ACTH dependent Cushing syndrome. This case report is of an elderly female who presented as an outpatient in the endocrinology clinic of Aga Khan university hospital on 22/6/2017 with clinical features of hypercortisolism. After workup she was found to have cushing syndrome secondary to ACTH secreting bronchial carcinoid tumour.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
June 2019

Heavy metals accumulation from sewage sludge in the Nile tilapia (Trewavas, 1983) during a sludge-earthworm-fish short-term cycling.

Ital J Food Saf 2019 Mar 19;8(1):7257. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Biotechnology Research Center, NIETCR, Al Neelain University, Khartoum.

Municipal sewage sludge from waste-water treatment is an important nutritional source for sustainable agriculture. Here, we report on the assessment of the accumulation of heavy metals in Nile tilapia (Trewavas 1983) fed on earthworms reared on soil treated with different concentrations of sewage sludge (25% and 100%) during sludge-earthworm-fish short-term cycling. In this short-term cycling the Nile tilapia collected from the White Nile were chosen as final consumers, whereas the earthworms reared on loam soil mixed with different ratios of sludge were used as a feed for the final consumers. Our results indicate that the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn in the sludge treated soil are proportional to the sludge content in the soil. Importantly, the accumulation of these heavy metals was significantly low in the earthworms and the Nile tilapia in comparison with the treated soil and that these concentrations in the Nile tilapia were below the international limits recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (2014). Moreover, the growth and overall flesh quality of the fish were improved as indicated by the growth increase up to 146% when fed on earthworm reared in 100% sludge. Additionally, our physico-chemical properties ( pH, soil moisture, electric conductivity and organic matters) evaluation on the soil indicates an improvement of the soil quality when mixed with sewage sludge. These results suggest a sustainable application of sewage sludge in fish culture owing to its high nutritional values, low cost, and low risk of hazardous heavy metals when using primary consumers with heavy metals bioaccumulation capability such as .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ijfs.2019.7257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6452095PMC
March 2019

Intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis enzymes in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease patients.

Genes Immun 2019 09 28;20(7):566-576. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Division of Biochemical Pharmacology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are devastating chronic immunopathologies of the intestinal mucosa, which are frequently treated by immunosuppressive glucocorticoids. Endogenous glucocorticoids are not only produced by the adrenal glands, but also by the intestinal epithelium. Local glucocorticoid synthesis critically contributes to the immune homeostasis of the intestinal mucosa. As defective intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis has been associated with the development of IBD, we investigated the expression of steroidogenic enzymes and the key transcriptional regulator Liver Receptor Homolog-1 (LRH-1/NR5A2) in ileal and colonic biopsies human pediatric IBD and control patients. Furthermore, the induction of steroidogenic enzymes and their transcriptional regulation by LRH-1 was investigated in a mouse model of experimental colitis. These analyses revealed that colitis-induced expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the murine colon is dependent on the presence of LRH-1, as intestinal deletion of LRH-1 strongly reduced their colitis-induced expression. Similarly, a strong correlation between the expression of LRH-1 and different steroidogenic enzymes was seen in intestinal biopsies of human pediatric patients. Importantly, reduced expression of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 11B1 (HSD11B1) was observed in IBD patients compared to control patients, suggesting that defective local reactivation of glucocorticoids could contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41435-019-0056-1DOI Listing
September 2019
-->