Publications by authors named "Asit Mandal"

111 Publications

Effect of Chronotherapy of Antihypertensives in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Randomized Control Trial.

Indian J Nephrol 2021 Jan-Feb;31(1):9-15. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Nephrology, IPGME&R and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Introduction: There is a higher prevalence of non-dipping pattern in hypertensive chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Nocturnal hypertension has been shown to predict cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and is often superior to daytime blood pressure. We studied the effect of shifting or adding antihypertensive to night time on blood pressure profile of CKD III-IV patients.

Methods: In this single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial, eligible participants were adults from eastern India aged 18-65 years with CKD stages 3 and 4, with a non-dipping pattern on ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABPM). The intervention group received all the antihypertensives in the night time whereas the standard care group continued to take the medication in the morning. Both groups were followed up for 1 year. The primary outcome was the number of patients changed from non-dippers to dippers in the standard care group and intervention group. Secondary outcomes included a change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and change in the cardiac structure.

Results: 39 patients in the intervention group and 36 patients in the standard care group were analyzed. 10 patients (26%) reverted to dipping pattern in the intervention group as compared to none in the standard care group. Mean changes in eGFR were -2.55 and -0.18 mL/min/1.73 m in the standard care and intervention group at the end of the study, respectively. Between-group difference in eGFR was significant at 1 year (5.22 [95% CI, 4.3-6.1] ml/min/1.73 m); ( = 0.03). The cardiac structure showed no significant changes in either group.

Conclusions: Bedtime administration of antihypertensives reverted non-dippers to dippers and slowed the decline in eGFR in CKD stages 3 and 4 compared to morning administration of antihypertensives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijn.IJN_322_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101668PMC
November 2020

A comparative study on the antioxidant status, meat quality, and mineral deposition in broiler chicken fed dietary nano zinc viz-a-viz inorganic zinc.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 Mar 28;58(3):834-843. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh India.

Use of nano minerals in farm animal nutrition offers considerable advantages over inorganic or organic mineral sources. But, the conventional chemical synthesis of nano minerals suffers from disadvantage of possible environmental accumulation and pollution due to the non-biodegradable materials and chemicals. This study investigated the effects of green nano-zinc (GNZ) and market nano-zinc (MNZ) with respect to the inorganic zinc (IZ) on meat quality, antioxidant status, mineral deposition, and bone development in broiler chicken. Following a 3 × 3 factorial design, nine dietary treatments were formulated by employing three levels (40, 60, and 80 ppm) and three sources (inorganic, green nano, and market nano) of zinc viz. IZ-40, GNZ-40, MNZ-40, IZ-60, GNZ-60, MNZ-60, IZ-80, GNZ-80, MNZ-80. Six replicates of broiler chicken were assigned to each treatment with eight birds in each. The birds fed 80 ppm Zinc of either GNZ or MNZ source resulted in significantly higher serum SOD, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, zinc, calcium, and phosphorus levels; increased bone dimensions, weight, total ash, phosphorus, and zinc content along with higher liver and muscle zinc concentration. The meat of chicken fed 80 ppm zinc of MNZ source followed by GNZ source has shown significantly better antioxidant (DPPH and ABTS values) status and lower lipid peroxidation (free fatty acid and TBARS values). The 80 ppm zinc of either MNZ or GNZ source resulted in significantly lower fat and cholesterol content of chicken meat compared to lower Zn levels and IZ source. This study indicated that 80 ppm dietary zinc of either MNZ or GNZ source improved the antioxidant status, and reduced the meat cholesterol, fat content, and lipid peroxidation of chicken meat along with increased bone dimensions and mineralization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04597-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884527PMC
March 2021

In situ decomposition of crop residues using lignocellulolytic microbial consortia: a viable alternative to residue burning.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, 462038, India.

Open field burning of crop residue causes severe air pollution and greenhouse gas emission contributing to global warming. In order to seek an alternative, the current study was initiated to explore the prospective of lignocellulolytic microbes to expedite in situ decomposition of crop residues. Field trials on farmers' field were conducted in the state of Haryana and Maharashtra, to target the burning of rice and wheat residue and sugarcane trash, respectively. A comparative study among crop residue removal (CRR), crop residue burning (CRB) and in situ decomposition of crop residues (IND) revealed that IND of rice and wheat residues took 30 days whereas IND of sugarcane trash took 45 days. The decomposition status was assessed by determining the initial and final lignin to cellulose ratio which increased significantly from 0.23 to 0.25, 0.21 to 0.23 and 0.24 to 0.27 for rice, wheat residues and sugarcane trash, respectively. No yield loss was noticed in IND for both rice-wheat system and sugarcane-based system; rather IND showed relatively better crop yield as well as soil health parameters than CRB and CRR. Furthermore, the environmental impact assessment of residue burning indicated a substantial loss of nutrients (28-31, 23-25 and 51-77 kg ha of N+PO+KO for rice, wheat and sugarcane residue) as well as the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. However, more field trials, as well as refinement of the technology, are warranted to validate and establish the positive potential of in situ decomposition of crop residue to make it a successful solution against the crop residue burning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12611-8DOI Listing
February 2021

Inheritance pattern of okra enation leaf curl disease among cultivated species and its relationship with biochemical parameters.

J Genet 2020 ;99

Faculty of Horticulture, Department of Vegetable Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur 741 252, India.

Okra production in eastern India at present is severely threatened by whitefly-mediated okra enation leaf curl disease (OELCuD). Identification of resistant genotype and understanding the genetic control and biochemical relationship of OELCuD resistance are prerequisite for developing an effective breeding strategy. This study was conducted employing six populations (P, P, F, F, BC and BC) of two selected (resistant x susceptible (RxS)) crosses. Associationship between severity of OELCuD and biochemical parameters of parents and hybrids at preflowering and flowering stages was studied. Segregation pattern of the genotypes in F generation showing OELCuD reaction of two crosses suggested that two duplicate recessive genes was operative for resistance to OELCuD. Generation mean analysis revealed involvement of both additive and nonadditive effects in the inheritance of disease resistance. Hence, postponement of selection in later generations or intermating among the selected segregates followed by one or two generations of selfing to break the undesirable linkage and allow the accumulation of favourable alleles could be suggested for the development of stable resistant genotype against this disease. Higher peroxidase activity and total phenol content in leaf emerged as reliable biochemical markers for early selection of genotype resistant to OELCuD.
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June 2021

Data on optimization of microprojectile bombardment parameters in development of salinity tolerant transgenic lines.

Data Brief 2020 Apr 20;29:105305. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

ICAR-Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore 700120, WB, India.

This data deals with the optimization of microprojectile bombardment particles for efficient genetic transformation in an rice involving gene for development of salinity tolerant transgenic lines [1]. In this study, various parameters such as effect of genotypes, helium pressure, osmoticum, explants, flight distance, particle size, particle volume, vacuum, carrier DNA and stopping screen properties have been evaluated to determine their role in transformation of rice involving gene for development of salinity tolerant Pusa Basmati 1 rice variety. To perform the transformation process, plasmid vector pCAMBIA 1305.2 was used, which harbours GUS Plus™ gene, intron from the castor bean catalase gene, pBR322 ori, kanamycin resistant gene and I site. The transformants have been confirmed using slot blot, polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridization techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058906PMC
April 2020

Effect of dietary saponin rich soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) shell powder on growth performance, immunity, serum biochemistry and gut health of broiler chickens.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2019 Nov 4;103(6):1800-1809. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

ICAR- Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar, India.

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) shell powder (SSP), a cheap source of saponins, on growth performance, immunity, serum biochemistry and gut health of broiler chickens. The experimental design was 4×2, employing four saponin levels (0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg diet), each provided for two time durations (0-42 day and 21-42 day) resulting into eight dietary treatments. Results revealed no significant effect of dietary saponins on body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of birds. The abdominal fat percentage, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, faecal total plate count, coliform count and E. coli count decreased (p < .05) progressively with increasing saponin levels and lower values were observed at 150 mg and 200 mg saponin levels. Significant improvement of cell-mediated and humoral immune response was observed in birds fed 150 mg and 200 mg saponin compared to control. The serum glucose concentration was significantly (p < .05) higher in control group compared to other groups. No significant effects of dietary saponin were observed on carcass characteristics, faecal Lactobacillus count, intestinal histomorphometry and cost economics of broiler chicken production. Thus, dietary saponins at 150 mg/kg diet as SSP for three weeks (21-42 days) was optimum for better immunity and welfare of birds without adverse effects on the growth performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13190DOI Listing
November 2019

Polyethylene Glycol-Modified Layered Double Hydroxides: Synthesis, Characterization, and Study on Adsorption Characteristics for Removal of Acid Orange II from Aqueous Solution.

ACS Omega 2019 Feb 20;4(2):3745-3754. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600020 Tamil Nadu, India.

The present study aimed to improve the adsorption characteristics of the pristine layered double hydroxide (LDH) by physicochemical modification using polyethylene glycol (PEG), a nontoxic hydrophilic polymer. With this objective, LDH was synthesized and modified with different concentrations of PEG. The PEG-modified LDHs (LDH/PEGs) were characterized using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and porosity measurement, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and zeta potential measurements. The adsorption properties of the pristine LDH (PLDH) and the LDH/PEGs were studied for the removal of Acid Orange II from water, and the results were compared. The PLDH treated with 15% PEG solution showed ∼30% increase in adsorption capacity as compared to the PLDH. The adsorption isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models. The values of thermodynamic parameters such as Δ and Δ showed the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption process. The adsorption kinetics data for both PLDH and the LDH/PEG adsorbents presented a good fit to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b02743DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6648746PMC
February 2019

Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Different Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Polymers.

ACS Omega 2018 Sep 24;3(9):11710-11717. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Polymer Science & Technology Division and Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Department and Centre for High Computing, CSIR-CLRI, Adyar, Chennai 600020, India.

Diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based polymers are often considered as the most promising donor moiety in traditional bulk heterojunction solar cell devices. In this paper, we report the synthesis, characterization of various DPP-based copolymers with different molecular weights, and polydispersity where other aromatic repeating units (phenyl or thiophene based) are connected by alternate double bonds or triple bonds. Some of the copolymers were used for device fabrication and the crucial parameters such as fill factor (FF) and open circuit voltage ( ) were calculated. The density functional theory was used to optimize the geometries and deduce highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gaps of all the polymers and theoretically predict their optical and electronic properties. Optical properties of all the polymers, electrochemical properties, and band gaps were also obtained experimentally and compared with the theoretically predicted values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b01132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6645348PMC
September 2018

Scalable Synthesis of Hide Substance-Chitosan-Hydroxyapatite: Novel Biocomposite from Industrial Wastes and Its Efficiency in Dye Removal.

ACS Omega 2018 Sep 20;3(9):11486-11496. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Leather Technology Division and Department of Polymer Science and Technology, Government College of Engineering and Leather Technology, Block-LB 11, Sector-III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700106, West Bengal, India.

A novel porous polymer-inorganic hybrid biocomposite with various functional groups (hide substance/chitosan/hydroxyapatite) has been synthesized in simple, economic, and scalable process utilizing leather industry solid waste and seafood industry waste composed with hydroxyapatite. Physicochemical characterization of the material reveals formation of composites with homogenous distribution of the constituents in the material matrix. The composite is hard and porous (with 0.1632 cm/g slit-shaped mesopores and micropores) having particle sizes 40-80 μm and a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 55.54 m/g. The material is polycrystalline in nature with a fair amount of amorphous substance and less hydrophilic in character than constituent polymers. The dye removal efficiency of the material has been tested with two model dyes, namely, methylene blue (MB) (cationic/basic dye) and sunset yellow (SY) (anionic/acid dye). Optimum adsorptions of 3.8 mg MB (pH 12, RT ≈ 27 °C) and 168 mg of SY (pH 3, RT ≈ 27 °C) have been found per gram of the composite material. Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second order rate models have been found to be the best-fit models to explain the equilibrium isotherm and kinetics of the adsorption process for both the dyes. However, higher and faster adsorption of SY in comparison with MB indicated higher binding efficiency of the material toward the acidic dye. Desorption of dyes from the dye-adsorbed material was studied using a suitable eluent of appropriate pH and recycling for five times showed without loss of efficiency. The prepared composite showed very high dye removal efficiency toward four different commercially used dyes (496 mg/g of Orange-NR, 477 mg/g of Red-VLN, 488 mg/g of Blue-113 dye, and 274 mg/g of Green-PbS dye) from their individual and cocktail solutions. It was also efficient to decolorize dye-bearing tannery exhaust bath. Hence, waste materials generated during industrial processes could be efficiently used for the decontamination of colored wastewater produced by various industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b00650DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6645111PMC
September 2018

Genomic insights into HSFs as candidate genes for high-temperature stress adaptation and gene editing with minimal off-target effects in flax.

Sci Rep 2019 04 3;9(1):5581. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Division of Crop Improvement, ICAR-Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Kolkata, West Bengal, 700121, India.

Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a cool season crop commercially cultivated for seed oil and stem fibre production. A comprehensive characterization of the heat shock factor (HSF) candidate genes in flax can accelerate genetic improvement and adaptive breeding for high temperature stress tolerance. We report the genome-wide identification of 34 putative HSF genes from the flax genome, which we mapped on 14 of the 15 chromosomes. Through comparative homology analysis, we classified these genes into three broad groups, and sub-groups. The arrangement of HSF-specific protein motifs, DNA-binding domain (DBD) and hydrophobic heptad repeat (HR-A/B), and exon-intron boundaries substantiated the phylogenetic separation of these genes. Orthologous relationships and evolutionary analysis revealed that the co-evolution of the LusHSF genes was due to recent genome duplication events. Digital and RT-qPCR analyses provided significant evidence of the differential expression of the LusHSF genes in various tissues, at various developmental stages, and in response to high-temperature stress. The co-localization of diverse cis-acting elements in the promoters of the LusHSF genes further emphasized their regulatory roles in the abiotic stress response. We further confirmed DNA-binding sites on the LusHSF proteins and designed guide RNA sequences for gene editing with minimal off-target effects. These results will hasten functional investigations of LusHSFs or assist in devising genome engineering strategies to develop high-temperature stress tolerant flax cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41936-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447620PMC
April 2019

Effect of dietary supplementation of hemp (Cannabis sativa) and dill seed (Anethum graveolens) on performance, serum biochemicals and gut health of broiler chickens.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2019 Mar 3;103(2):525-533. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar, India.

The present study was carried out to study the effect of different doses of hemp seed alone or in combination with dill seed against antibiotic growth promoter on performance, serum biochemicals and gut health of broiler chickens over a period of 42 days. Total 192 broiler chicks were grouped randomly into six treatments and fed with basal diet (BD) along with different levels of seeds, viz., T (BD), T (BD + 0.2% HS), T (BD + 0.2% HS + 0.3 DS), T (BD + 0.3% HS) and T (BD + 0.3% HS + 0.3 DS) and T (BD + 0.025% Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate-BMD). The performance traits like feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) and carcass traits like cut-up parts, giblet and abdominal fat yield remained unaffected due to dietary treatments for overall trial period; however, the average feed intake in early phase (0-3 weeks) reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in treatment birds than both controls (T1 & T6). Serum protein concentration remained unchanged, whereas significant (p < 0.05) reduction in serum lipids like triglyceride, LDL and total cholesterol concentration was noticed due to dietary inclusion of seeds. Serum enzymes like AST and ALT concentrations depleted significantly (p < 0.05) treated groups, except at higher seed doses (T5); however, alkaline phosphatase levels were unaffected. Coliform count in caecum and jejunum reduced linearly (p < 0.01) due to seed inclusion, whereas dose-dependent proliferation of lactobacilli was evident (p < 0.01) in caecum and jejunum of treated birds. No effect was observed on the villus height and crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa. To conclude, dietary supplementation of hemp and dill seed could not affect the growth performance and carcass traits; however, it positively altered the serum lipid profile of the birds and improved gut health as well, thereby enhanced overall performance of broiler chickens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13052DOI Listing
March 2019

Effect of feeding rice based distillers dried grains with solubles and gluten meal on nutrient transporter genes and immunity in broiler chickens.

Vet World 2018 Nov 20;11(11):1592-1596. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Durg, Chhattisgarh, India.

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding rice based distillers dried grains with solubles (rDDGS) and gluten meal on nutrient transporter genes and immunity in broiler chickens.

Materials And Methods: A 2×3 factorial design resulted in six experimental diets, namely T1 (no rDDGS/rice gluten meal [RGM]/enzyme), T2 (no rDDGS/RGM, with multienzymes), T3 (12.5% rDDGS, 15% RGM, no enzyme), T4 (12.5% rDDGS, 15% RGM, with protease enzyme), T5 (10% rDDGS, 12.5% RGM, no enzyme), and T6 (10% rDDGS, 12.5% RGM, with protease enzyme). Each treatment was allocated five replicates of chicks, with eight birds in each. Nutrient transporter genes such as Mucin (MUC 2), excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), and peptide transporter (PepT1) and immunity were estimated using standard procedures.

Results: Feeding rDDGS and RGM combination improved humoral immunity, while cell-mediated immunity did not show any significant (p>0.05) effect on broiler chickens. MUC and PepT1 genes showed significantly (p<0.01) decreased relative fold expression in 12.5% rDDGS +15% RGM combination, while EAAT3 gene showed significantly (p<0.01) decreased relative fold expression in both rDDGS and RGM combination levels.

Conclusion: Thus, it may be concluded that feeding rDDGS and RGM combination improved humoral immunity but had an adverse effect on nutrient transporter gene in broiler chickens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2018.1592-1596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303493PMC
November 2018

Physicochemical Understanding of Self-Aggregation and Microstructure of a Surface-Active Ionic Liquid [Cmim] [COSO] Mixed with a Reverse Pluronic 10R5 (POEOPO).

ACS Omega 2018 May 11;3(5):5155-5164. Epub 2018 May 11.

Centre for Surface Science, Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, India.

Physicochemical studies on aqueous mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) and reverse pluronics are limited. Self-aggregation dynamics and microstructure of a surface-active IL (SAIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsulfate [Cmim] [COSO], in the presence of a reverse pluronic, POEOPO (known as 10R5), were studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) methods. Also, cryo-/freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy was employed to determine the microstructures of SAIL/10R5 mixtures. The ITC and NMR results revealed facilitation of SAIL aggregation in the presence of 10R5 forming mixed aggregates as well as free SAIL micelles. H spin relaxation rate data pointed out the onset of slow dynamics of the aqueous SAIL/10R5 mixture with an increase in either the former or the latter. Globular morphologies of the mixed species as well as their individual components were corroborated from the measurements. The preferential location of interaction of the SAIL with the 10R5 was identified from C NMR chemical shift findings to be in the interfacial region of the assembled SAIL. The formed species were mixed interacted aggregates but not mixed micelles that arise from mixed surfactants. The physicochemical information acquired herein would enrich the literature on the 10R5/SAIL mixed microheterogeneous systems having importance in the making of useful green drug carrier systems and templates for the synthesis of nanomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b00267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6641978PMC
May 2018

Phylloplane bacteria of Jatropha curcas: diversity, metabolic characteristics, and growth-promoting attributes towards vigor of maize seedling.

Can J Microbiol 2017 Oct 31;63(10):822-833. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Indian Institute of Soil Science, Nabibagh, Bhopal 462038, India.

The complex role of phylloplane microorganisms is less understood than that of rhizospheric microorganisms in lieu of their pivotal role in plant's sustainability. This experiment aims to study the diversity of the culturable phylloplane bacteria of Jatropha curcas and evaluate their growth-promoting activities towards maize seedling vigor. Heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the phylloplane of J. curcas and their 16S rRNA genes were sequenced. Sequences of the 16S rRNA gene were very similar to those of species belonging to the classes Bacillales (50%), Gammaproteobacteria (21.8%), Betaproteobacteria (15.6%), and Alphaproteobacteria (12.5%). The phylloplane bacteria preferred to utilize alcohol rather than monosaccharides and polysaccharides as a carbon source. Isolates exhibited ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) deaminase, phosphatase, potassium solubilization, and indole acetic acid (IAA) production activities. The phosphate-solubilizing capacity (mg of PO solubilized by 10 cells) varied from 0.04 to 0.21. The IAA production potential (μg IAA produced by 10 cells in 48 h) of the isolates varied from 0.41 to 9.29. Inoculation of the isolates to maize seed significantly increased shoot and root lengths of maize seedlings. A linear regression model of the plant-growth-promoting activities significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with the growth parameters. Similarly, a correspondence analysis categorized ACC deaminase and IAA production as the major factors contributing 41% and 13.8% variation, respectively, to the growth of maize seedlings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjm-2017-0189DOI Listing
October 2017

Specific adsorption of cadmium on surface-engineered biocompatible organoclay under metal-phenanthrene mixed-contamination.

Water Res 2016 Nov 5;104:119-127. Epub 2016 Aug 5.

Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, ACT Building, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia; Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GCER), Faculty of Science and Information Technology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia. Electronic address:

Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is extremely challenging when they coexist with heavy metals. This constrain has led to adsorption-based techniques that help immobilize the metals and reduce toxicity. However, the adsorbents can also non-selectively bind the organic compounds, which reduces their bioavailability. In this study we developed a surface-engineered organoclay (Arquad 2HT-75-bentonite-palmitic acid) which enhanced bacterial proliferation and adsorbed cadmium, but elevated phenanthrene bioavailability. Adsorption models of single and binary solutes revealed that the raw bentonite adsorbed cadmium and phenanthrene non-selectively at the same binding sites and sequestrated phenanthrene. In contrast, cadmium selectively bound to the deprotonated state of carboxyl groups in the organoclay and phenanthrene on the outer surface of the adsorbent led to a microbially congenial microenvironment with a higher phenanthrene bioavailability. This study provided valuable information which would be highly important for developing a novel clay-modulated bioremediation technology for cleaning up PAHs under mixed-contaminated situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.08.009DOI Listing
November 2016

Improved design and development of a functional moulded prosthetic foot.

Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol 2016 19;11(5):407-12. Epub 2014 Nov 19.

a Shoe Design and Development Centre, CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute , Adyar , Chennai , India.

Purpose: In the Indian scenario, the Jaipur foot is a low-cost breakthrough that enabled the disabled person to adapt to the Indian environment. The aim of this study is to modify the present foot in terms of ankle support design and method of fabrication, foot moulds profile and the inner core material in order to improve the performance and durability.

Method: The optimized design of ankle support and flat foot profile moulds suitable for both left and right foot were developed through CAD/CAM and prosthetic feet were fabricated using ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) foam as an appropriate alternative core material for microcellular rubber (MCR). The developed prosthetic feet were tested for rigidity by load-deflection analysis in universal testing machine.

Result: EVA foot had shown better rigidity than conventional MCR foot, which will help in weight transfer during walking and increase the durability. The CAD modeled ankle support and single block EVA had made the manufacturing process easy and reduced the weight of foot and improved Gait to the person fitted with it due to improved flat foot profile.

Conclusion: The new artificial foot had proven to be efficacious technically as well as functionally, which is clearly borne out from the extremely positive feedback given by the amputees. Implications of Rehabilitation Persons with below knee amputation are usually provided with transtibial prosthesis, which allows for easier ambulation and helps them to get back to their normal life. Transtibial prosthesis is an artificial limb that replaces a lower limb that is amputated below the knee. In our study, a new prosthetic foot with a modified ankle support and flat foot profile using better inner-core material than the conventional Jaipur foot was developed and the process was also optimized for mass production. The developed prosthetic foot can be fitted with both above and below knee exoskeleton type of prosthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/17483107.2014.979331DOI Listing
January 2017

Surface tailored organobentonite enhances bacterial proliferation and phenanthrene biodegradation under cadmium co-contamination.

Sci Total Environ 2016 Apr 2;550:611-618. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), ACT Building, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia; Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GCER), Faculty of Science and Information Technology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia. Electronic address:

Co-contamination of soil and water with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and heavy metals makes biodegradation of the former extremely challenging. Modified clay-modulated microbial degradation provides a novel insight in addressing this issue. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and phenanthrene degradation performance of Mycobacterium gilvum VF1 in the presence of a palmitic acid (PA)-grafted Arquad® 2HT-75-based organobentonite in cadmium (Cd)-phenanthrene co-contaminated water. The PA-grafted organobentonite (ABP) adsorbed a slightly greater quantity of Cd than bentonite at up to 30mgL(-1) metal concentration, but its highly negative surface charge imparted by carboxylic groups indicated the potential of being a significantly superior adsorbent of Cd at higher metal concentrations. In systems co-contained with Cd (5 and 10mgL(-1)), the Arquad® 2HT-75-modified bentonite (AB) and PA-grafted organobentonite (ABP) resulted in a significantly higher (72-78%) degradation of phenanthrene than bentonite (62%) by the bacterium. The growth and proliferation of bacteria were supported by ABP which not only eliminated Cd toxicity through adsorption but also created a congenial microenvironment for bacterial survival. The macromolecules produced during ABP-bacteria interaction could form a stable clay-bacterial cluster by overcoming the electrostatic repulsion among individual components. Findings of this study provide new insights for designing clay modulated PAH bioremediation technologies in mixed-contaminated water and soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.164DOI Listing
April 2016

Assessment of genetic purity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) hybrids using microsatellite markers.

3 Biotech 2016 Jun 8;6(1):50. Epub 2016 Feb 8.

Directorate of Seed Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Mau, 275101, Uttar Pradesh, India.

The objective of the present study is to detect genetic impurity in the seed lots of CMS lines, restorers and hybrids and to identify signature markers to differentiate parents and hybrids through DNA-based assays. Furthermore, attempts have been made to find out an alternative to Grow-Out-Test, which is very tedious, time consuming and used conventionally for seed genetic purity testing since beginning of quality seed multiplication chain. Fifty-one rice-specific sequence tagged microsatellite (STMS) primer pairs distributed throughout the rice genome were employed for fingerprinting of eight rice hybrids and their parental lines with a view to assess variation within parental lines and to test the genetic purity of the commercial seed lots. Among those, 51 markers, 28 microsatellite markers showed polymorphism (54.90 %). A total of 98 alleles were obtained with an average of 1.92 alleles per primer pair and number of alleles amplified for each primer pair ranged from 1 to 4. A set of markers were identified to differentiate parental lines of the hybrids and which emphasizes the immense scope of those molecular markers for their use in the unambiguous identification of hybrid, which would be of great benefit to farmers that depend on the hybrids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-015-0337-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4746197PMC
June 2016

pH and redox sensitive albumin hydrogel: A self-derived biomaterial.

Sci Rep 2015 Nov 3;5:15977. Epub 2015 Nov 3.

CSIR-CLRI Adyar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Serum albumin can be transformed to a stimuli (pH and redox) responsive hydrogel using the reduction process followed by oxidative refolding. The preparation of albumin hydrogel involves a range of concentrations (75, 150, 300, 450, 600 and 750 μM) and pH (2.0-10.0) values and the gelation begins at a concentration of 150 μM and 4.5-8.0 pH value. The hydrogel shows maximum swelling at alkali pH (pH > 9.0). The increase in albumin concentration increases hydrogel stability, rheological property, compressive strength, proteolytic resistance and rate of in vivo biodegradation. Based on the observed physical and biological properties of albumin hydrogel, 450 μM was determined to be an optimum concentration for further experiments. In addition, the hemo- and cytocompatibility analyses revealed the biocompatibility nature of albumin hydrogel. The experiments on in vitro drug (Tetracycline) delivery were carried out under non reducing and reducing conditions that resulted in the sustained and fast release of the drug, respectively. The methodology used in the preparation of albumin hydrogel may lead to the development of autogenic tissue constructs. In addition, the methodology can have various applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep15977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4630586PMC
November 2015

Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Decorated with Polypyrrole-TiO2 Nanocomposites.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2015 May;15(5):3879-86

Nanomaterials decorated with polypyrrole were synthesized using two types of oxidants by chemical oxidative polymerization method. The interaction and influence of the addition of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in polypyrrole (PPy) were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Thermal stability has been observed by using thermogravimetric analysis. Electrochemical properties were calculated by using Cyclic Voltammetry to study comparative analysis between samples. Particle size measurements and morphology were determined by Field emission transmission electron microscopy. All the nanocomposites exhibit better thermal and electrochemical properties than native polymer. The size of the polypyrrole particles were in the range of 50 nm to 60 nm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2015.9255DOI Listing
May 2015

Molecular Level Insights on Collagen-Polyphenols Interaction Using Spin-Relaxation and Saturation Transfer Difference NMR.

J Phys Chem B 2015 Nov 21;119(44):14076-85. Epub 2015 Oct 21.

Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR) , Anusandhan Bhavan, 2 Rafi Marg, New Delhi 110 001, India.

Interaction of small molecules with collagen has far reaching consequences in biological and industrial processes. The interaction between collagen and selected polyphenols, viz., gallic acid (GA), pyrogallol (PG), catechin (CA), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), has been investigated by various solution NMR measurements, viz., (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts (δH and δC), (1)H nonselective spin-lattice relaxation times (T1NS) and selective spin-lattice relaxation times (T1SEL), as well as spin-spin relaxation times (T2). Furthermore, we have employed saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR method to monitor the site of GA, CA, PG, and EGCG which are in close proximity to collagen. It is found that -COOH group of GA provides an important contribution for the interaction of GA with collagen, as evidenced from (13)C analysis, while PG, which is devoid of -COOH group in comparison to GA, does not show any significant interaction with collagen. STD NMR data indicates that the resonances of A-ring (H2', H5' and H6') and C-ring (H6 and H8) protons of CA, and A-ring (H2' and H6'), C-ring (H6 and H8), and D-ring (H2″and H6″) protons of EGCG persist in the spectra, demonstrating that these protons are in spatial proximity to collagen, which is further validated by independent proton spin-relaxation measurement and analysis. The selective (1)H T1 measurements of polyphenols in the presence of protein at various concentrations have enabled us to determine their binding affinities with collagen. EGCG exhibits high binding affinity with collagen followed by CA, GA, and PG. Further, NMR results propose that presence of gallic acid moiety in a small molecule increases its affinity with collagen. Our experimental findings provide molecular insights on the binding of collagen and plant polyphenols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b07911DOI Listing
November 2015

Selective interactions of trivalent cations Fe³⁺, Al³⁺ and Cr³⁺ turn on fluorescence in a naphthalimide based single molecular probe.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2016 Jan 5;153:465-70. Epub 2015 Sep 5.

Chemical Laboratory, CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar Chennai 600020, India. Electronic address:

Synthesis and fluorescence turn-on behavior of a naphthalimide based probe is described. Selective interactions of trivalent cations Fe(3+), Al(3+) or Cr(3+) with probe 1 inhibit the PET operating in the probe, and thereby, permit the detection of these trivalent cations present in aqueous samples and live cells. Failure of other trivalent cations (Eu(3+), Gd(3+) and Nb(3+)) to inhibit the PET process in 1 demonstrates the role of chelating ring size vis-à-vis ionic radius in the selective recognition of specific metal ions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2015.08.044DOI Listing
January 2016

An additional fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) moiety in di-Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine induces pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation with significant advantages.

Soft Matter 2015 Nov;11(41):8126-40

Bioorganic Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research - Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600020, India.

In recent years, several fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-functionalized amino acids and peptides have been used to construct hydrogels, which find a wide range of applications. Although several hydrogels have been prepared from mono Fmoc-functionalized amino acids, herein, we demonstrate the importance of an additional Fmoc-moiety in the hydrogelation of double Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine [Fmoc(Nα)-L-lysine(NεFmoc)-OH, (Fmoc-K(Fmoc))] as a low molecular weight gelator (LMWG). Unlike other Fmoc-functionalized amino acid gelators, Fmoc-K(Fmoc) exhibits pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation (hydrogelation at different pH values as well as organogelation), which is significant among the gelators. Distinct fibrous morphologies were observed for Fmoc-K(Fmoc) hydrogels formed at different pH values, which are different from organogels in which Fmoc-K(Fmoc) showed bundles of long fibers. In both hydrogels and organogels, the self-assembly of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) was driven by aromatic π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions, as evidenced from spectroscopic analyses. Characterization of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) gels using several biophysical methods indicates that Fmoc-K(Fmoc) has several advantages and significant importance as a LMWG. The advantages of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) include pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation, pH stimulus response, high thermal stability (∼100 °C) even at low minimum hydrogelation concentration (0.1 wt%), thixotropic property, high kinetic and mechanical stability, dye removal properties, cell viability to the selected cell type, and as a drug carrier. While single Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine amino acids failed to exhibit gelation under similar experimental conditions, the pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) demonstrates the benefit of a second Fmoc moiety in inducing gelation in a LMWG. We thus strongly believe that the current findings provide a lead to construct or design various new synthetic Fmoc-based LMW organic gelators for several potential applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5sm01767jDOI Listing
November 2015

Heavy metal-immobilizing organoclay facilitates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in mixed-contaminated soil.

J Hazard Mater 2015 Nov 12;298:129-37. Epub 2015 May 12.

Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095, Australia; Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106, Australia.

Soils contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose toxic metal stress to native PAH-degrading microorganisms. Adsorbents such as clay and modified clay minerals can bind the metal and reduce its toxicity to microorganisms. However, in a mixed-contaminated soil, an adsorption process more specific to the metals without affecting the bioavailability of PAHs is desired for effective degradation. Furthermore, the adsorbent should enhance the viability of PAH-degrading microorganisms. A metal-immobilizing organoclay (Arquad(®) 2HT-75-bentonite treated with palmitic acid) (MIOC) able to reduce metal (cadmium (Cd)) toxicity and enhance PAH (phenanthrene) biodegradation was developed and characterized in this study. The MIOC differed considerably from the parent clay in terms of its ability to reduce metal toxicity (MIOC>unmodified bentonite>Arquad-bentonite). The MIOC variably increased the microbial count (10-43%) as well as activities (respiration 3-44%; enzymatic activities up to 68%), and simultaneously maintained phenanthrene in bioavailable form in a Cd-phenanthrene mixed-contaminated soil over a 21-day incubation period. This study may lead to a new MIOC-assisted bioremediation technique for PAHs in mixed-contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.05.009DOI Listing
November 2015

Altering the concentration of silica tunes the functional properties of collagen-silica composite scaffolds to suit various clinical requirements.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2015 Dec 9;52:131-138. Epub 2015 Apr 9.

Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Adyar, Chennai 600020, India.

The success of a tissue engineering scaffold depends on a fine balance being achieved between the physicochemical and biological properties. This study attempts to understand the influence of silica concentration on the functional properties of collagen-silica (CS) composite scaffolds for soft tissue engineering applications. Increasing the ratio of silica to collagen (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5 and 2.0 w/w) gave a marked advantage in terms of improving the water uptake and compressive modulus of the CS scaffolds, while also enhancing the biological stability and the turnover time. With increase in silica concentration the water uptake and compressive modulus increased concurrently, whereas it was not so for surface porous architecture and biocompatibility which are crucial for cell adhesion and infiltration. Silica:collagen ratio of ≤1 exhibits favourable surface biocompatibility, and any further increase in silica concentration has a detrimental effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2015.04.006DOI Listing
December 2015

Controlled decoration of the surface with macromolecules: polymerization on a self-assembled monolayer (SAM).

Chem Soc Rev 2015 May 2;44(10):3212-43. Epub 2015 Apr 2.

Polymer Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)-CLRI, Adyar, Chennai-600020, India.

Polymer functionalized surfaces are important components of various sensors, solar cells and molecular electronic devices. In this context, the use of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation and subsequent reactions on the surface have attracted a lot of interest due to its stability, reliability and excellent control over orientation of functional groups. The chemical reactions to be employed on a SAM must ensure an effective functional group conversion while the reaction conditions must be mild enough to retain the structural integrity. This synthetic constraint has no universal solution; specific strategies such as "graft from", "graft to", "graft through" or "direct" immobilization approaches are employed depending on the nature of the substrate, polymer and its area of applications. We have reviewed current developments in the methodology of immobilization of a polymer in the first part of the article. Special emphasis has been given to the merits and demerits of certain methods. Another issue concerns the utility - demonstrated or perceived - of conjugated or non-conjugated macromolecules anchored on a functionally decorated SAM in the areas of material science and biotechnology. In the last part of the review article, we looked at the collective research efforts towards SAM-based polymer devices and identified major pointers of progress (236 references).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4cs00378kDOI Listing
May 2015

"Cross-linked fibrous" spherulites formed from a low molecular weight compound, Fmoc-functionalized phenolic amino acid.

Soft Matter 2015 Jun;11(21):4154-7

Bioorganic Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)-Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600020, India.

While biomacromolecules such as proteins are shown to form fibrous spherulites, which are generally "semicrystalline" in nature, here we show that a simple, low molecular weight compound such as fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-functionalized phenolic amino acid (Fmoc-l-tyrosine) can form "fibrous" spherulites with highly "cross-linked" microfibrils using the supramolecular self-assembly process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5sm00518cDOI Listing
June 2015

Antimicrobial behavior of biosynthesized silica-silver nanocomposite for water disinfection: a mechanistic perspective.

J Hazard Mater 2015 Jun 24;290:117-26. Epub 2015 Feb 24.

Bioproducts Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) - Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Chennai 600020, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi 110001, India. Electronic address:

The biosynthesis of nano-silica silver nanocomposite (NSAgNC) and it is as antibacterial effect on gram-negative bacteria viz.Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been investigated for disinfection of water. The as-synthesized NSAgNC exhibited antibacterial activity in a dose dependent manner and ∼ 99.9% of E. coli and P. aeruginosa were killed at a concentration of 1.5 mg/mL of NSAgNC (5.1 wt% Ag) within 5h. The NSAgNC showed similar antibacterial activities both in oxic and anoxic conditions. The results further demonstrated that NSAgNC exhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) independent "particle specific" antibacterial activity through multiple steps in absence of leached out Ag(+) ions. The initial binding of NSAgNC on the cell wall caused loss of cell membrane integrity and leakage of cytoplasmic materials. Inhibition of respiratory chain dehydrogenase by NSAgNC caused metabolic inactivation of the cells and affecting the cell viability. Genomic and proteomic studies further demonstrated the fragmentations of both plasmid and genomic DNA and down regulation of protein expression in NSAgNC treated cells, which leading to the cell death. Thus the biosynthesized NSAgNC has great potential as disinfectant for water purification while minimizing the toxic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.02.061DOI Listing
June 2015

In vitro and in vivo assessments of a 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid bioconjugated gelatin-based injectable hydrogel for biomedical applications.

J Mater Chem B 2015 Feb 17;3(7):1230-1244. Epub 2014 Dec 17.

Microbiology Division, CSIR-CLRI, Adyar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Imparting functional properties on a biomaterial for high end applications is always a challenging task. In the present study, an attempt was made to construct an injectable hydrogel through bioconjugation of dihydroxy phenolic acids to a gelatin backbone. Bioconjugating caffeic acid with gelatin followed by oxidation with mild oxidation agents provided a hydrogel with all the requisite properties (biocompatibility, controlled biodegradability, and antioxidant, antimicrobial and wound healing ability). Bioconjugation was performed using EDC/NHS and the resultant gel named as caffeic acid bioconjugated gel (CBG gel). The physicochemical, rheological, swelling, in vitro (biocompatibility, biodegradability, antimicrobial properties, antioxidant properties and drug release properties) and in vivo (biocompatibility, biodegradability and wound healing properties) studies on the CBG gel were carried out using standard protocols. The bioconjugation was confirmed by H NMR and UV-Vis analysis. Rheological analysis of the CBG gel revealed that the storage modulus was greater than the loss modulus at all the frequencies and suggested the elastic nature of the gel. About 50% weight gain within 12 hours during swelling studies and 50% weight loss within 12 hours during evaporation suggested the suitability of the CBG gel as a drug carrier. The drug release studies implied that there was an initial burst and later the release was sustained. The CBG gel promotes cell migration and demonstrates radical scavenging behavior. When subcutaneously injected into the animal, as in situ CBG gel, the gel was highly biocompatible and did not cause any necrosis. The crosstalk with adjacent tissue cells was smooth and the gel completely degraded within 24 days. The wound healing efficacy on full-thickness wounds suggested that the CBG gel accelerated healing and imparted high strength on the healed skin at an appreciable level. With all these additional functional properties, the CBG gel could be useful for biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4tb01196aDOI Listing
February 2015

Microbial surfactant mediated degradation of anthracene in aqueous phase by marine MTCC 5514.

Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 2014 Dec 17;4:161-170. Epub 2014 Oct 17.

Microbiology Division, CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600020, Tamil Nadu, India.

The present study emphasizes the biosurfactant mediated anthracene degradation by a marine alkaliphile (MTCC 5514). The isolate, MTCC 5514 degraded >95% of 300 ppm anthracene in an aqueous medium within 22 days and the degradation percentage reduced significantly when the concentration of anthracene increased to above 500 ppm. Naphthalene, naphthalene 2-methyl, phthalic acid and benzene acetic acid are the products of degradation identified based on thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and mass analyses. It has been observed that the degradation is initiated by the biosurfactant of the isolate for solubilization through micellation and then the alkali pH and intra/extra cellular degradative enzymes accomplish the degradation process. Encoding of genes responsible for biosurfactant production ( as well as catabolic reactions (C23O) made with suitable primers designed. The study concludes production of biosurfactant mediates the degradation of anthracene by .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.btre.2014.10.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5466138PMC
December 2014
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