Publications by authors named "Asif Muneer"

152 Publications

A BURST-BAUS consensus document for best practice in the conduct of scrotal exploration for suspected testicular torsion: the Finding consensus for orchIdopeXy In Torsion (FIX-IT) study.

BJU Int 2022 Jun 10. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

British Urology Researchers in Surgical Training (BURST) Collaborative.

Objectives: To produce a best practice consensus guideline for the conduct of scrotal exploration for suspected testicular torsion using formal consensus methodology.

Materials And Methods: A panel of 16 expert urologists, representing adult, paediatric, general, and andrological urology used the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Consensus Methodology to score a 184 statement pre-meeting questionnaire on the conduct of scrotal exploration for suspected testicular torsion. The collated responses were presented at a face-to-face online meeting and each item was rescored anonymously after a group discussion, facilitated by an independent chair with expertise in consensus methodology. Items were scored for agreement and consensus and the items scored with consensus were used to derive a set of best practice guidelines.

Results: Statements scored as with consensus increased from Round 1 (122/184, 66.3%) to Round 2 (149/200, 74.5%). Recommendations were generated in ten categories: consent, assessment under anaesthetic, initial incision, intraoperative decision making, fixation, medical photography, closure, operation note, logistics and follow-up after scrotal exploration. Our statements assume that the decision to operate has already been made. Key recommendations in the consent process included the discussion of the possibility of orchidectomy and the possibility of subsequent infection of the affected testis or wound requiring antibiotic therapy. If after the examination under anaesthesia, the index of suspicion of testicular torsion is lower than previously thought, then the surgeon should still proceed to scrotal exploration as planned. A flow chart guiding decision making dependent on intraoperative findings has been designed. If no torsion is present on exploration and the bell clapper deformity is absent, the testis should not be fixed. When fixing a testis using sutures, 3 or 4-point is acceptable and non-absorbable sutures are preferred.

Conclusions: We have produced consensus recommendations to inform best practice in the conduct of scrotal exploration for suspected testicular torsion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15818DOI Listing
June 2022

Detection rates of urogenital cancers and benign pathology in men presenting with hematospermia.

Curr Urol 2022 Mar 28;16(1):44-49. Epub 2022 Jan 28.

Department of Urology, Institute of Andrology, University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, London, UK.

Background: Hematospermia, although often found to be a benign condition, can be an alarming sign. Consequently, patients can undergo multiple investigations with no current standardized pathway based on data from large series. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of an underlying pathology and the value of diagnostic investigations performed in patients presenting with hematospermia.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective review of 393 consecutive men who underwent investigations for hematospermia was performed in a single tertiary center. Patient demographics, radiological and microbiological results were recorded together with symptoms of concomitant hematuria and clinical outcomes.

Results: In this cohort, the overall prostate cancer detection rate was 5.3% and 7.2% in the ≥40 years group. One patient was diagnosed with testicular seminoma detected on scrotal ultrasound scan and one with G1pTa urothelial carcinoma of the bladder detected on flexible cystoscopy. In addition, 5.6% of patients were found to have a significant benign pathology for which intervention was proposed. A total of 288 patients underwent a transrectal ultrasound scan and 58.7% ( = 169) of these patients were found to have a positive finding. One hundred ten patients underwent a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and 73.6% ( = 81) had a positive finding.

Conclusions: Apart from transrectal ultrasound and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, the remaining investigations have a low diagnostic yield. Prostate cancer detection was 5.3%; 7.2% in the ≥40 years group, and two further patients were diagnosed with testicular and bladder malignancy. Based on our results, we propose an algorithm for the management of hematospermia to limit unnecessary investigations with the majority requiring reassurance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CU9.0000000000000080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9132186PMC
March 2022

Medications mostly associated with priapism events: assessment of the 2015-2020 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pharmacovigilance database entries.

Int J Impot Res 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

A range of drugs have a direct role in triggering ischaemic priapism. We aimed at identifying: a) which medications are associated with most priapism-reports; and, b) within these medications, comparing their potential to elicit priapism through a disproportionality analysis. The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database was queried to identify those drugs associated the most with priapism reports over the last 5 years. Only those drugs being associated with a minimum of 30 priapism reports were considered. The Proportional Reporting Ratios (PRRs), and their 95% confidence intervals were computed. Out of the whole 2015-2020 database, 1233 priapism reports were identified, 933 of which (75.7%) were associated with 11 medications with a minimum of 30 priapism-reports each. Trazodone, olanzapine and tadalafil showed levels of disproportionate reporting, with a PRR of 9.04 (CI95%: 7.73-10.58), 1.55 (CI95%: 1.27-1.89), and 1.42 (CI95%: 1.10-1.43), respectively. Most (57.5%) of the reports associated with the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) were related with concomitant priapism-eliciting drugs taken at the same time and/or inappropriate intake/excessive dosage. Patients taking trazodone and/or antipsychotics need to be aware of the priapism-risk; awareness among prescribers would help in reducing priapism-related detrimental sequelae; PDE5I-intake is not responsible for priapism by itself, when appropriate medical supervision is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41443-022-00583-3DOI Listing
May 2022

Are finasteride-related penile curvature/Peyronie's disease Adverse Event Reports worthy of further clinical investigation? Disproportionality analysis based on both the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) pharmacovigilance databases.

Int J Impot Res 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

A limited number of studies have described patients on finasteride showing findings which were consistent with Peyronie's disease (PD). We aimed to detect a pharmacovigilance signal of possible association between finasteride and PD-related clinical features. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database was queried to identify the ten drugs which were associated the most with the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded as "penile curvature" and/or "Peyronie's disease". A similar analysis, including the same drugs, was carried out for the EMA (European Medicines Agency) EudraVigilance (EV) database. Descriptive data have been analyzed, and Proportional Reporting Ratios (PRRs) have been computed against the other nine drugs of the database. Overall, 860 reports of "penile curvature" and/or "Peyronie's disease", were identified in the FAERS database, 214 of which (24.9%) were associated with finasteride. Most reports (56.9%) were submitted by healthcare professionals. Where a treatment-indication was stated, the vast majority of reports (176/210; 83.8%) were associated with androgenetic alopecia. The outcome of most ADRs was "serious" (82.2%), with 96 ADRs resulting in levels of permanent disability. For 97/214 individual cases, penile curvature/PD reports were not part of a syndromic cluster suggestive of post-finasteride syndrome (PFS). The PRR resulted 6.6 (95% CI: 5.6-7.8) and 11.8 (95% CI: 9.08-15.33), respectively, in the FAERS and in the EV databases. Notwithstanding the related limitations and biasing factors of pharmacovigilance studies based on spontaneous reporting, the PRR values here identified should be interpreted as strong signals of disproportionality. These findings, per se, are however not useful to confirm any causal association. Clinical studies are needed to investigate on the possible role for finasteride in causing PD-related clinical features, an hypothesis which remains highly speculative due to the very questionable quality of present data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41443-022-00568-2DOI Listing
May 2022

Lymphovascular and perineural invasion are risk factors for inguinal lymph node metastases in men with T1G2 penile cancer.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2022 Sep 12;148(9):2231-2234. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Urology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

Purpose: To analyse the risk of inguinal lymph node (ILN) metastases in T1G2 penile cancer stratified by lymphovascular invasion (LVI), perineural invasion (PNI) and tumour size.

Methods: Retrospective study of men with localised T1G2 penile cancer with non-palpable lymph nodes and no local recurrence during follow-up at six European institutional high-volume centres was performed. ILN involvement was defined as cancer detected during ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology, core needle biopsy, dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy, ILN dissection or inguinal recurrence during follow-up. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed.

Results: In the cohort of 554 men with T1G2 penile cancer, from 6 European institutions, ILN metastases were observed in 46/554 men (8%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6-11%). Men with both, LVI- and PNI- primary cancers had the lowest risk of ILN involvement (6%) whereas men with LVI + or PNI + showed ILN metastases in 22% and 30%. In multivariable regression, men with LVI + or PNI + had higher odds for ILN metastases compared to men with LVI- and PNI- (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.6-9.0, p value < 0.01) Tumour size was not associated with ILN risk (OR 1.01 95% CI 0.99-1.04, p = 0.17).

Conclusion: Approximately, one out of ten men with T1G2 overall and one out of four men with either LVI + or PNI + still have ILN metastases despite being clinically node negative. Therefore, invasive ILN staging should strongly be recommended in T1G2 with LVI + or PNI + but importantly, must be discussed in patients with T1G2 with LVI- or PNI-.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-022-04012-2DOI Listing
September 2022

A Systematic Review of Penile Prosthesis Insertion in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury.

Sex Med Rev 2022 07 24;10(3):468-477. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Institute of Andrology, Department of Urology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. Electronic address:

Introduction: A penile prosthesis (PP) may be inserted for erectile dysfunction (ED) and/or urinary management in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). This group of patients is considered high risk for complications due to their reduced mobility and sensation.

Objectives: To identify the complication and satisfaction rates following PP insertion in patients with SCI.

Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed according to the PRISMA checklist. The Medline/PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched up to July 27th 2021. Studies on men ≥18 years who had a PP inserted for ED secondary to SCI were included. Two reviewers independently screened all articles, assessed for risk of bias and performed data extraction.

Results: Eleven studies including 475 men with SCI were included for analysis. The overall complication rate was 4.2-61.1%. Specific complications included infection, 0-16%; erosion, 3.7-11.1% and mechanical failure, 0-16.7%. The explantation rate was 2.1-16.7% and the revision rate was 2.7-44.4%. Overall, 79.2-92.9% of men were satisfied with their PP and, 36-86.1% were having satisfactory sexual intercourse. In those who used the PP for urinary management ± ED, 86.5--92.8%% were satisfied. Men with SCI had higher rates of complications compared to those without SCI (infection, 2.1-9.1% vs non-SCI, 0.8-5.7%; erosion, 2.1-8.3% vs non-SCI, 0%; explanation, 2.1-8.3% vs non-SCI, 0.8-5.7%).

Conclusion: PP is an option for SCI patients for the management of end-stage ED or urinary function, but the rate of infection, erosion and implant explantation is higher compared with men without SCI. Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) is the preferred PP due to the lower risk of erosion, however, they are prone to mechanical failure and require good hand dexterity. A thorough pre-operative counselling is essential. Pang KH, Muneer A, Alnajjar HM, et al. A Systematic Review of Penile Prosthesis Insertion in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury. Sex Med Rev 2022;10:461-470.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sxmr.2022.01.004DOI Listing
July 2022

Male genital lichen sclerosus, microincontinence and occlusion: mapping the disease across the prepuce.

Clin Exp Dermatol 2022 Jun 18;47(6):1124-1130. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Dermatology, University College London Hospital, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) can lead to significant sexual dysfunction and urological morbidity, and is also a risk factor for premalignant disease (penile intraepithelial neoplasia and penile cancer), particularly squamous cell carcinoma. Although the precise aetiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial, accumulated evidence indicates that it is related to chronic, intermittent, occluded exposure to urine.

Aim: To perform spatial mapping of MGLSc across the human prepuce and assess how this supports the urinary occlusion hypothesis.

Methods: Preputial samples were collected from 10 patients with clinically diagnosed MGLSc undergoing circumcision. The samples were then divided into a grid pattern and 10 punch biopsies were obtained from each section to determine the extent and distribution of the disease process across each prepuce.

Results: All 10 patients reported having urinary microincontinence, and all were histologically confirmed as having MGLSc. The most proximal aspect of the prepuce was found to be universally affected by MGLSc in all patients, whereas the most distal part was overwhelmingly shown to be the least affected area. Of the 63 MGLSc-affected regions, 62 were in direct physical contiguity with one another. The histological extent of the disease was not found to be congruent with either the severity of the symptoms reported by the patients or the clinical examination.

Conclusion: In uncircumcised men with urinary microincontinence, after the prepuce has been replaced post micturition, small amounts of urine can pool between the juxtaposed epithelial surfaces. The proximal aspect of the prepuce is subjected to the maximum amount of occlusion and maximal contact with accumulated urine, whereas the distal prepuce is subjected to the least. Our findings suggest that accentuated contact between urine and susceptible penile epithelium due to occlusion can lead to MGLSc. Furthermore, contiguity data suggest that once established, it is possible that MGLSc advances across tissues by physical contact. This is the first study examining the changes in the preputial landscape in patients with LSc and contributes to our understanding of disease aetiology and progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ced.15127DOI Listing
June 2022

A systematic review of non-HPV prognostic biomarkers used in penile squamous cell carcinoma.

Turk J Urol 2021 Sep;47(5):358-365

MRC Centre for Transplantation, Guy's Hospital Campus, King's College London, King's Health Partners, London, UK;Department of Urology, King's College Hospital, London, UK.

The presence of lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic indicator for patients with penile cancer. However, predicting which clinically node negative patients will harbor lymph node metastases remains unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of biomarkers p53, Ki-67, and SCCAg in predicting lymph node metastasis (LNM) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from inception until 15 October 2020. Eligible studies were identified by three independent reviewers. Outcome measures included the presence of penile LNM and CSS. Extracted data were narratively synthesized with GRADE criteria utilized to evaluate the quality of evidence. In total, 999 articles were screened with 20 selected for inclusion. Studies reporting the use of p53 to predict LNM and CSS were rated as having the highest quality of evidence using the GRADE criteria, and the majority showed a positive association between p53 expression and LNM and CSS. All biomarkers and outcome combinations had at least one study showing a significant effect on predicting the outcome. However, studies were heterogeneous, and many reported nonsignificant effects. Identifying p53 overexpression may help one to identify patients at higher risks of LNM to be considered for early inguinal lymphadenectomy. There is contradictory and unreliable evidence for the prognostic value of Ki-67 and SCCAg in penile SCC for LNM and CSS. Larger studies are required with more rigorous methods and reports to improve the evidence base.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/tud.2021.21199DOI Listing
September 2021

Global inequality in sub-fertility treatment needs safer, cost effective, evidence-based and economically viable choices for patients and stakeholders.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2022 01 17;26(1):1-2. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

EGA Institute for Womens Health, Faculty of Population Health Science, University College London, London, WC1E 6HX, UK.

The global increase in subfertility diagnosis and treatments and the rise of private equity investors concentrating on high profits based on in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatments raise profound societal and economic questions for stakeholders and patients. The question remains as to whose benefits will ultimately be greater when promoting high margins treatment options resulting from cross-border mergers and acquisitions of IVF clinics.This paper covers wide-ranging issues from the erroneously constructed UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's (NICE) guidelines on treatment choices, the cost-effectiveness of treatments, the promotion of IVF, and add-ons where evidence remains minimal, the commercial size of the fertility industry. Investment in improving intrauterine insemination (IUI) success rates has understandably been avoided for its short-term impact on the IVF industry. However, IUI efficiency would cut across many of the global subfertility treatment economic and access problems while allowing stakeholder, feepaying, and patients financial savings will likely allow for more funded IVF cycles in acutely deserving cases. The recommendations will help expand choices for globally economically challenged patients' and services while enhancing an ethical and moral dimension towards fertility treatment choices for patients and stakeholders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1518-0557.20210111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8769187PMC
January 2022

Clinicopathological predictors of finding additional inguinal lymph node metastases in penile cancer patients after positive dynamic sentinel node biopsy: a European multicentre evaluation.

BJU Int 2022 07 7;130(1):126-132. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Department of Urology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Objective: To develop a predictive model for additional inguinal lymph node metastases (LNM) at inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) after positive dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) using DSNB characteristics to identify a patient group in which ILND might be omitted.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 407 inguinal basins with a positive DSNB in penile cancer patients who underwent subsequent ILND from seven European centres. From the histopathology reports, the number of positive and negative lymph nodes, presence of extranodal extension and size of the metastasis were recorded. Using bootstrapped logistic regression, variables were selected for the clinical prediction model based on the optimization of Akaike's information criterion. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operating characteristic curve was calculated for the resulting model. Decision curve analysis (DCA) was used to evaluate the clinical utility of the model.

Results: Of the positive DSNBs, 64 (16%) harboured additional LNM at ILND. Number of positive nodes at positive DSNB (odds ratio [OR] 2.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-4.00; P = 0.01) and largest metastasis size in mm (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.10; P = 0.001) were selected for the clinical prediction model. The AUC was 0.67 (95% CI 0.60-0.74). The DCA showed no clinical benefit of using the clinical prediction model.

Conclusion: A small but clinically important group of basins harbour additional LNM at completion ILND after positive DSNB. While DSNB characteristics were associated with additional LNM, they did not improve the selection of basins in which ILND could be omitted. Thus, completion ILND remains necessary in all basins with a positive DSNB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15678DOI Listing
July 2022

Glansectomy and Reconstruction for Penile Cancer: A Systematic Review.

Eur Urol Focus 2021 Dec 10. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Institute of Andrology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. Electronic address:

Penile cancer (PeCa) is a rare disease, with a global incidence of 36068 new cases reported in the 2020 GLOBOCAN database. Narrower excision margins are now acceptable without compromising survival. Glansectomy is commonly performed for invasive PeCa confined to the glans penis. The majority of data on glansectomy are from small single-centre series. We provide a contemporary update on the outcomes of glansectomy via a systematic review of glansectomy for PeCa. Overall, 20 studies were included in the analysis. The local recurrence rate was 2.6-16.7%. The incidence of salvage penectomy for positive margins and/or recurrence was 1.2-8.3%. The disease-specific survival rate was 89-96.6%. A split-thickness skin graft was commonly used to reconstruct a neoglans and the graft loss rate was 1.5-23.5%. The incidence of meatal stenosis was 2.8-14.3%. Good cosmetic outcomes and normal erections were reported in 95-100% and 50-100% of cases, respectively. Glansectomy provides acceptable oncological control without significantly compromising functional outcomes. PATIENT SUMMARY: Penile cancer invading into the head of the penis can be surgically treated with a procedure called glansectomy that has good cancer control and cosmetic outcomes. In addition, penile length can be preserved, which allows men to urinate standing up and to achieve penetrative sexual intercourse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2021.11.008DOI Listing
December 2021

Clinical performance in ERN eUROGEN for penile, testicular, adrenal and soft tissue cancers.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2022 Mar 20;48(3):680-686. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Department of Urology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

Background: European Reference Network (ERN) eUROGEN is a cross-border collaboration set up by the European Commission in 2017 aimed at tackling rare urogenital conditions, including cancers.

Objective: This report aims to assess ERN eUROGEN's operational activity with a focus on rare urogenital cancers.

Design, Setting And Participants: Data for descriptive analyses were collected retrospectively between 2013 and 2017, and prospectively between 2018 and 2020.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Operational indicators were set by the European Commission from 2018. Additionally, in 2019/20 centres self-assessed clinical service provision and provided clinical metrics for rare cancer specialist centres as established by experts.

Results And Limitations: Results revealed that the cumulative rare urogenital cancer population increased 519.8% from 1,631 in 2013 to 10,109 in 2020. This may provide opportunities for research and creation of a large cancer registry. In total, ten centres met the clinical requirements for rare cancer specialist centres providing evidence of high-volume. Differences in data collection methods between centres limit further analyses. Other rare cancer data identified 39 panel discussions, three webinars, and eight publications.

Conclusions: Whilst limitations to data analysis remain, ERN eUROGEN has demonstrated excellent operational performance with promising opportunities for rare cancer research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2021.11.014DOI Listing
March 2022

Clinical features, molecular characteristics and surgical management of primary penile mucosal melanoma based on the European Association of Urology Penile Cancer Guidelines.

Melanoma Res 2022 02;32(1):27-34

Institute of Andrology, University College London Hospital.

Penile mucosal melanoma is an aggressive and rare genital malignancy. The aim of the present study was to review the management and outcomes of a homogenous cohort of patients with histologically confirmed penile mucosal melanoma, at a single specialist centre. A retrospective review of an institutional database identified patients with penile mucosal melanoma over a 10-year period. Patient demographics, histopathological characteristics, type of primary surgery, recurrence, presence of metastatic disease and molecular markers were evaluated. The management of the patients was initially based on the European Association of Urology (EAU) penile cancer guidelines which are primarily for squamous cell carcinoma with inputs from a melanoma multidisciplinary team. Twelve patients with penile mucosal melanoma were analysed. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] age was 69.5 (67.25-81) years. The overall median follow-up (IQR) was 69.5 (20-114) months, while median follow-up for cancer-specific survival (CSS) was 11.5 (8-37) months. Location of the primary tumour was glans penis (n = 7), urethra (n = 2) and inner prepuce (n = 3). The CSS at 1, 2 and 5 years after primary surgery was 33%, 16.7% and 0%, respectively. The recurrence-free survival at 1, 3 and 5 months after the primary surgery was 90%, 67% and 56%, respectively. All patients with metastatic disease or with inguinal lymph node invasion at presentation, died within 25 months of the primary diagnosis. Management based on the modified EAU penile cancer guidelines still led to poor outcomes. We present a management diagram based on our experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CMR.0000000000000788DOI Listing
February 2022

The relationship between testicular tumour characteristics and azoospermia: a systematic review.

Int J Impot Res 2021 Nov 6. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

Institute of Andrology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Subfertility is a risk factor for testicular cancers (TT), and conversely, TT may induce subfertility due to local and regional toxic effects. We aimed to identify the association between TT characteristics and pre-orchidectomy azoospermia. A systematic review of the literature was performed according to the PRISMA checklist. Overall, eight non-randomised studies involving 469 men with TT (azoospermia, n = 57; no azoospermia n = 412) were included in the qualitative analysis. Bilateral TT (12.3% vs 2.9% in non-azoospermia), non-seminoma germ cell tumours (6.4% vs 1.9%), germ cell neoplasia in-situ (GCNIS) (11.1% vs 1.2%), stage 2-3 disease (22.2% vs 0%), Sertoli Cell only (SCO) on biopsy (60% vs 37.5%) and a history of undescended testis (UDT) (66.7% vs 50%) were more common in azoospermic men. FSH levels are higher (18.7-23.2 mIU/L vs <0.1-8 mIU/L in non-azoospermia), testosterone is lower, and testis size are smaller (lower range 1 mL vs 10 mL) in men with azoospermia. Leydig cell tumours and hyperplasia were only detected in men with azoospermia. In summary, bilateral TT, GCNIS, higher tumour stage, smaller testes, SCO and history of UDT may have direct effects on spermatogenesis. Small testis, raised FSH and low testosterone may reflect reduced testicular function in azoospermic men. Performing a pre-orchidectomy semen analysis is important to identify those with azoospermia or severe oligospermia in order to plan for cryopreservation or onco-TESE in young men who wish to conceive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41443-021-00492-xDOI Listing
November 2021

Use of grafting materials during penile prosthesis implantation in patients with Peyronie's disease-a systematic review.

Int J Impot Res 2021 Oct 30. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Department of Urology, University College London Hospital, London, UK.

Severe Peyronie's disease (PD) and concomitant erectile dysfunction (ED) may require plaque incision/excision and grafting (PIG) as an adjunct to penile prosthesis implantation (IPP). Currently, there is no available consensus on the best graft material to use. Our aim was to systematically review graft materials used as patches following PIG + IPP. Literature search was performed in March 2021. Only original articles in English with a series of 10 or more patients were included. Overall, a total of 17 studies were included, corresponding to a cohort of 662 patients. The mean age ranged from 45 to 65 years and most patients had curvatures >45°. Average penile lengthening ranged from 1 to 3.5 cm, average residual curvatures from 0 to 20% and decreased glans sensitivity from 0 to 20%. Eighty to 100% of patients were satisfied with cosmetic and functional results. PIG + IPP with the use of various grafts offers promising results for the treatment of patients suffering from severe PD with concomitant ED. Unfortunately, the absence of high quality and comparative studies makes it difficult to establish the optimum graft. Therefore, the level of experience of the surgical team with one or more methods should guide their choice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41443-021-00479-8DOI Listing
October 2021

Long-term consequences of bilateral cavernous crush injury in normal and diabetic rats: a functional study.

Int J Impot Res 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Urology, University College London Hospital, London, UK.

A recent statement from the European-Society-for-Sexual-Medicine has highlighted the limitations of using the rat model for nerve-sparing prostatectomy. The use of young rats with no comorbidities and the early evaluation of the erectile function (EF) are deemed a source of bias. Our aim was to evaluate the long-term consequences in EF of bilateral nerve cavernous crush- injury (BNCI) in type 1 diabetic (DM) rats 30-male/12-week-old rats were divided into four groups: Sham, BNCI, DM, and BNCI + DM. Sham group underwent an intraperitoneal injection (IP) of saline solution and after 1 month underwent a sham laparotomy. BNCI underwent an IP of saline solution and after 1 month to BNCI. DM underwent an IP of 60 mg/kg-1-streptozotocin (STZ) and after 1 month to a sham laparotomy. BNCI + DM underwent an IP of 60 mg/kg-1-STZ and after 1 month to BNCI. After 5 months from the induction of diabetes, all rats underwent measurement of intracorporeal pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during CN-electrostimulation. Multiple groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance followed by Mann-Whitney U test for post hoc comparisons. Blood glucose-level was higher (p < 0.05) in the groups with DM and BNCI + DM. After 5-months, DM and BNCI + DM also showed a lower weight compared to other groups (p < 0.05). No differences were noted in ICP/MAP between the sham and BNCI. BNCI + DM showed lower ICP/MAP compared to all the groups (p < 0.05). DM Showed lower ICP/MAP compared to Sham and BNCI (p < 0.05). BNCI in rats without comorbidities did not induce long-term erectile dysfunction (ED) suggesting a spontaneous EF recovery. BNCI in DM induced long-term ED. The results of previous short-term studies can only provide evidence on the time to recovery of spontaneous EF as to the actual EF recovery rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41443-021-00474-zDOI Listing
October 2021

Impact of radiation therapy on perineal urethrostomy for penile cancer.

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2021 Sep 9;30:84-87. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Genitourinary Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, United Kingdom.

Objective: A lack of demonstrated clinical benefit precludes radiotherapy (RT) from being recommended for pN1/pN2 penile cancer (PeCa) lesions; but it may be recommended in case of extranodal (pN3) disease or for positive resection margins. Perineal urethrostomy (PU) is a technique of urinary diversion in patients with PeCa requiring total or subtotal penectomy as primary therapy. Prior studies suggest PU failure rates of up to 30%, without specific mention of the potential role of RT. When RT is delivered for PeCa it is usually to the pre-pubic fat, groin and lateral pelvis, and not to the region of the PU. Here we describe the role of perioperative RT in a large, multi-institutional registry of PU for PeCa.

Methods: In our cohort, 299 patients from seven international, high-volume centers in Belgium, Brazil, China, Netherlands, United Kingdom and the United States underwent PU as urinary diversion for PeCa between 2000 and 2020. Demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics were reviewed.

Results: Median patient age was 67 years and median follow-up was 19 months. Seven patients (2.3%) received pre-operative RT; six of them with chemotherapy. 37 received RT post-operatively, 21 (57%) with chemotherapy. Stenosis of the PU occurred in 35 (12%) of the total population. The majority of these patients (74%) required surgical revision at a median of 6.1 months post-operatively. RT delivery was neither significantly related to PU stenosis (p = 0.16) or to subsequent revision ( = 0.75).

Conclusion: Receipt of RT was not significantly associated with increased stenosis risk in PeCa patients who underwent PU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctro.2021.08.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8367760PMC
September 2021

Practice Patterns Among Penile Cancer Surgeons Performing Dynamic Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy and Radical Inguinal Lymph Node Dissection in Men with Penile Cancer: A eUROGEN Survey.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2021 Feb 7;24:39-42. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Urology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trusts, Manchester, UK.

Dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy (DSNB) and radical inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) are important in the management of penile cancer patients, but high-level evidence for preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative management remains scarce. According to an online survey of 35 surgeons from ten European countries, 57% perform >10 ILND procedures per year and 86% offer DSNB. Furthermore, management differs substantially for dye injection site, use of lymphoscintigraphy, preferred incision sites, techniques for lymphatic control, duration of empiric antibiotic therapy, perioperative thromboprophylaxis, time points for drain removal, and definition of the ILND dissection floor. Consensus was observed for the use of perioperative antibiotics (although not duration and type) and the borders for ILND template definitions. We conclude that there is significant variation in patient management among eUROGEN penile cancer surgeons. This heterogeneity may confound multicentre studies; therefore, a consensus to standardise inguinal node management in penile cancer across European penile cancer centres is warranted.

Patient Summary: Our survey reveals that preferences and surgical techniques for inguinal lymph node sampling and removal varies significantly between European penile cancer surgeons. Consensus is needed to standardise the management approach for penile cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euros.2020.12.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317807PMC
February 2021

Surgical technique and outcomes following coronal-sparing glans resurfacing for benign and malignant penile lesions.

Int J Impot Res 2022 Aug 20;34(5):495-500. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Institute of Andrology, Department of Urology, University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, London, UK.

The aim of this study is to describe the outcomes for a modified glans-resurfacing technique for benign and malignant penile conditions in which the uninvolved glans corona is preserved in order to maintain glans erogenous sensation. A total of 13 patients underwent coronal-sparing glans resurfacing (CSGR), with follow-up every 3 months for ≥2 years. Positive surgical margin and local recurrence (LR) rates were evaluated. Surgical complications and cosmetic outcomes were also recorded. Patients were asked to complete the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire starting 12 months after the surgery. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age and follow-up periods were 63 (53-68) years and 29 (14-38) months, respectively. Eight patients were diagnosed with primary penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), three had refractory lichen sclerosus, and two had penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). No surgical complications were recorded. All patients had a complete graft take and reported satisfactory cosmetic results with preserved erogenous sensation. Two cancer patients developed LR which was managed with further penile preserving surgery. The median (IQR) postoperative IIEF-5 value was 20 (17-23). This modified coronal-sparing technique was suitable for glans lesions that spare the coronal ridge and coronal sulcus. Preservation of the coronal ridge helps maintain sexual function and provides excellent cosmetic outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41443-021-00452-5DOI Listing
August 2022

Multidisciplinary Approach for the Management of Penoscrotal Extramammary Paget's disease -An eUROGEN study.

Urol Oncol 2021 08 27;39(8):501.e1-501.e10. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Male Genital Cancer Centre, Institute of Andrology, University College London Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London, NW1 2BU, UK; Male Genital Cancer Centre, Institute of Andrology, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre UCLH, 235 Euston Road, London, NW1 2BU, UK; Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, UCL, University College London Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London, NW1 2BU, UK. Electronic address:

Introduction: We reviewed the medical and surgical management and long-term outcomes for patients diagnosed with penoscrotal extramammary Pagets disease (EMPD) within an eUROGEN centre.

Patients And Methods: Retrospective review of cases from an institutional database with biopsy proven penoscrotal EMPD.

Results: A total of 10 patients were identified with penoscrotal EMPD over a 10-year period. Two patients had a previous history of gastrointestinal and urogenital cancers (20%) and no synchronous or metachronous cancers were identified. Eight patients with non-invasive EMPD (80%) underwent wide local excision of the affected skin, with at least a 5mm macroscopic resection margin and in selected cases simultaneous multiple mapping biopsies around the lesion were performed. Residual disease was present at the margins in seven patients (87.5%), of which three required further surgical excision or adjuvant topical immunotherapy (42.8%). Recurrence after complete excision was 12.5% and was successfully treated with topical imiquimod immunotherapy and CO laser therapy. Two patients (20%) had invasive carcinoma and metastatic disease at diagnosis.

Conclusion: Reported recurrence rates of non-invasive penoscrotal EMPD are high and residual disease is present in most cases requiring either close clinical surveillance or adjuvant treatment. We propose an algorithm in the management of this rare disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.05.018DOI Listing
August 2021

Semen sampling as a simple, noninvasive surrogate for prostate health screening.

Syst Biol Reprod Med 2021 Oct 27;67(5):354-365. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Discovery and Translational Science Department, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

The detection rates for prostate cancer (pCa) by invasive biopsy are high, fully justifying its use in confirmatory testing. False-positive results of prior, relatively insensitive screening tests, however, can lead to expensive and often unnecessary surgery. Several reports have suggested the potential use of the ejaculate to screen for prostate conditions. Hitherto, the potential impact of sterilization on the diagnostic potential of seminal plasma screening has not been examined. Herein, we report cellular and molecular comparisons of semen samples obtained from normal (N = 5), vasectomized (N = 5) and prostate pathology patients (N = 4; confirmed by a biopsy) that were centrifuged over 60% PureSperm cushions. Non-penetrating cells were washed prior to immunocytochemistry with prostatic epithelial cell markers including PSMA, NKX3.1 and CD24. KRT18 was used to highlight epithelial cells in these samples. RNA sequencing was then used to identify differentially expressed small RNAs associated with vasectomy and prostate pathology. Specific gene transcripts were confirmed by RT-qPCR. PMSA/KRT18, CD24/KRT18 and NKX3.1/KRT18 cells were observed, albeit infrequently in most processed semen samples by indirect immunocytochemistry. Targeted RT-qPCR supported their enrichment, along with their putative designation as prostatic luminal cells. Small RNAs in seminal plasma were highly heterogeneous, with tRNAs and miRNAs being the dominant forms. Hsa-miR-143 and hsa-miR-199 were among the most prominent of the differentially expressed miRNAs upregulated in samples with prostate pathology but not vasectomy. The targets of these small RNAs illustrate biological processes involved among others in transcription regulation and collagen metabolism. Our outcomes strongly support an appraisal of selected biologically meaningful small RNAs of ejaculate semen for prostate health screening. A long-term goal would be a simple, routine, noninvasive test for monitoring prostate health, potentially among younger men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19396368.2021.1923086DOI Listing
October 2021

Outcomes of perineal urethrostomy for penile cancer: A 20-year international multicenter experience.

Urol Oncol 2021 08 13;39(8):500.e9-500.e13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Genitourinary Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL. Electronic address:

Purpose: Perineal urethrostomy (PU) is often the definitive form of urinary diversion in patients with locally-advanced or anatomically unfavorable penile cancer (PC) requiring total penectomy. Here, we report post-operative PU-related complications and PU stenosis rates after total penectomy with PU in a large multicenter cohort of PC patients.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 299 patients who underwent PU as a means of urinary diversion for primary PC across seven international centers from 2000 to 2020. The Clavien-Dindo grading system was used to record 30-day post-operative complications. Cumulative incidence of stenosis was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Median patient age was 67 years (interquartile range (IQR) 58-74), and median follow-up was 19 months (IQR 7.2-57). A total of 58 patients (19%) developed a 30-day post-operative complication, of which 45 (79%) were deemed minor (CD Grade I and II). Wound infection (11%; CD grade I-III) and dehiscence (4.0%; CD grade I-III) were the more common complications. The overall incidence of stenosis was 12% (35/299 patients), of which 26 (74%) needed surgical revision (probability of stenosis revision at one year of 9.3%, median time until the revision: 6.1 months (IQR 3.0-13)). Only two stenoses were seen after two years of follow-up.

Conclusion: We present the most extensive series of PU in the management of PC to date. Wound infections of the primary surgical site were the most common complication. Stenosis occurred mostly within one and a half years after treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.04.023DOI Listing
August 2021

Erectile dysfunction management: a critical appraisal of clinical practice guidelines with the AGREE II instrument.

Int J Impot Res 2022 Aug 3;34(5):471-476. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Urology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Our study aimed to assess the methodological strengths and weaknesses of erectile dysfunction clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for individuals using the AGREE II tool. Erectile dysfunction related CPGs were identified from three databases: the National Guideline Clearinghouse, the Guidelines International Network, and PubMed between 2000 and 2020. We designed an independent assessment for each of the erectile dysfunction related CPGs using the AGREE II tool. Four appraisers performed these assessments. The literature search identified 8 CPGs that met our inclusion criteria. The evaluation of the AGREE II domains of each individual revealed that the median scores of domains related to applicability were quite low (39%). Also, the median scores of domains related to the rigour of development and the stakeholder involvement were relatively low (53% and 63%). We determined the highest median scores in three AGREE II domains: clarity of presentation (80.5%), editorial independence (77%), and scope and purpose (89.5%). We found that the European Association of Urology (EAU), the American Urological Association (AUA), and the British Society for Sexual Medicine (BSSM) guidelines had >60% in >4 domains and that their average AGREE II scores were over 70%. In the Canadian Diabetic Association (CDA) and the Japanese Society for Sexual Medicine (JSSM) guidelines, we found that >4 domains were >60%, but their average AGREE II scores were below 70%. The British Medical Journal (BMJ), the Canadian Urologic Association (CUA), and the Malaysian Urologic Association (MUA) guidelines had >60% in <3 domains. We highly recommended EAU, AUA and BSSM guidelines, while we moderately recommended CDA and JSSM guidelines. BMJ, CUA and MUA guidelines were weakly recommended. The quality of the guidelines for erectile dysfunction was variable according to AGREE II. We noted significant deficiencies in the methodological quality of the CPGs developed by different organisations in the areas of applicability and rigour of development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41443-021-00442-7DOI Listing
August 2022

Quality of life, anxiety and depression patient-reported outcome measures in testicular cancer: A systematic review.

Psychooncology 2021 09 1;30(9):1420-1429. Epub 2021 May 1.

MRC Centre for Transplantation, Guy's Hospital Campus, King's College London, King's Health Partners, London, UK.

Objectives: Several patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are available for the assessment of quality of life (QoL), anxiety and depression for testicular cancer (TCa); however, these PROMs have uncertain validation of their psychometric properties for TCa-only cohorts. This systematic review aims to critically analyse and evaluate the psychometric properties of these QoL, anxiety and depression PROMs.

Methods: PubMed, EMBASE and PsycInfo were searched by two independent reviewers from inception to August 2020. Evaluative studies that assessed measurement properties of PROM(s) tools used for measuring QoL, anxiety and depression in TCa patients were included. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) updated criteria for good measurement properties were used in the evaluation of PROM psychometric quality. This systematic review was registered on the PROSPERO database (CRD42020160232).

Results: Of 4,305 abstracts screened, a final eight full-text articles were included in this review. Five general and two TCa-specific PROMs were identified (depression, n = 1; anxiety and depression, n = 2; QoL, n = 4). All studies were incomplete in the validation of nine measurement properties and the modal methodological quality was 'indeterminate'. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality -Testicular Cancer 26 questionnaire and CAYA-T had the highest psychometric validation with three out of nine measurement properties being 'sufficient'.

Conclusion: This systematic review identifies a paucity of PROM-validation studies assessing anxiety, depression and QoL in TCa-only cohorts. We recommend further comprehensive and standardised psychometric validation studies of QoL, anxiety and depression PROMs in TCa-only study populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.5700DOI Listing
September 2021

Development and content validation of a competency-based assessment tool for penile prosthesis surgery.

Int J Impot Res 2022 Mar 24;34(2):187-194. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Institute of Andrology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

The aim of this study was to identify potential hazards for the inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) surgical procedure and from this develop and content validate an IPP intraoperative competency-based assessment tool. A multi-institutional longitudinal prospective observational study was conducted over a 6-month period. Healthcare Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (HFMEA) methodology was used to prospectively risk assess the IPP procedure using a collaborative multidisciplinary team (MDT) approach. International content validation of the developed tool was then undertaken via face-to-face meetings and WebEx seminars. A total of 22 h of observation led to the construction of a detailed process map consisting of 11 stages and 49 sub-stages. HFMEA identified 50 failure modes and 45 failure mode effects, nine failure modes were excluded after analysis leaving 41 key failure modes included in the checklist. The high-risk steps identified were related to corporal dilatation, incorrect sizing of the prosthesis cylinders and incorrect localisation of the superficial inguinal ring for blind reservoir placement. The final content validated IPP assessment tool (PPAT) consisted of 13 processes and 27 sub-processes. We concluded that HFMEA methodology successfully allowed for the identification of key steps within the IPP procedure from which the PPAT was developed. Formal international content validation confirmed that all key procedural steps were included in the PPAT and that completion of all steps would indicate trainee competency in the procedure. Further validation is required before the tool can be used to assess learning curves for the IPP procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41443-021-00415-wDOI Listing
March 2022

Penile Length Measurement: Methodological Challenges and Recommendations, a Systematic Review.

J Sex Med 2021 03 27;18(3):433-439. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Institute of Andrology, University College London Hospital, London, United Kingdom; NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University College London Hospital, London, United Kingdom; Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, UCL. Electronic address:

Background: Penile length measurement techniques vary widely in published studies leading to inaccurate and nonstandardized measurements.

Aim: To review the methodology used to report data in studies evaluating penile length and provide a detailed recommendation in conducting future high-quality research.

Methods: The MEDLINE database was searched for randomized clinical trials and open-label prospective or retrospective studies.

Outcomes: The panel reviewed the modality of data reporting on these specific areas: patients' age and assessment, patient position, type of measurement instrument used, penile length technique description, examination conditions, and actual examiner.

Results: Overall, 70 studies investigating penile length were selected; among these, 72.85% included at least 50 patients: 16 prospective studies, 5 randomized clinical trials, and 49 retrospective cross-sectional studies. Amongst all studies, 90% reported to measure penile length by health care practitioners in clinical settings. Penile length was assessed in all 70 studies, whereas penile girth was measured in 57.14% of patients. A semi-rigid ruler was the most commonly used measurement aid to assess penile length/girth in 62.86% of studies. Penile measurements were reportedly obtained: (i) stretched state, 60%; (ii) flaccid state only, 52.68%; and (iii) during erection, 27.43%. All studies investigating the penile length in an erect state were simultaneously assessing penile length in the flaccid state. About 90% of studies investigated penile length in adults, whereas 10% were conducted in adolescents.

Clinical Implications: The use of shared methodology to assess penile length in both adults and adolescents allows more accurate and standardized measurements.

Strength & Limitations: A systematic review of the published literature allowed proper data interpretation in order to provide accurate recommendations. Main limitations of the study relied on a relatively limited number of databases for the identification of potentially eligible studies.

Conclusion: The methodology used in studies measuring penile length should be precise and standardized in order to provide accurate data to both clinicians and researchers. Cakir OO, Pozzi E, Castiglione F, et al. Penile Length Measurement: Methodological Challenges and Recommendations, a Systematic Review. J Sex Med 2021;18:433-439.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2020.11.012DOI Listing
March 2021

The prevalence of human leucocyte antigen and human papillomavirus DNA in penile intraepithelial neoplasia in England 2011-2012.

Int J STD AIDS 2021 04 12;32(5):388-395. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Dermatology Department, University College Hospital, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK.

Background: The pathogenesis of penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) is unclear but human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and polymorphisms in human leucocyte antigen (HLA).

Objectives: To examine the prevalence of HPV DNA and HLA in PeIN.

Methods: Adult Caucasian men with a clinical and histological diagnosis of PeIN, that is, Bowenoid papulosis (BP), Bowen's disease of penis (BDP) and erythroplasia of Queyrat (EQ) were selected and phenotyped from the clinical records. DNA was extracted from blood and paraffin-embedded sections for HLA and HPV typing, respectively. Human leucocyte antigen allele frequencies were compared with those derived from the UK-based Caucasian population.

Results: Seventy-two cases of PeIN (20 BP, 34 BDP and 18 EQ) were studied. Human papillomavirus DNA was identified in 65/72 (90.2%) PeIN; types were detected in 62/72 (85%) followed by types in 9/72 (12.5%) and cutaneous types in 7/72 (9.7%); HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype at 35/72 (48.6%) followed by HPV33 at 7/72 (9.7%); multiple infections were seen in 18/72 (25%) PeIN. HLA-C*15 (Bonferroni corrected = 0.049) confers susceptibility to PeIN, whereas HLA-DQA1*01 (corrected = 0.02) protects against PeIN. HPV16-associated PeIN cases showed no statistically significant association with HLA genotype after multiple corrections.

Conclusion: Human papillomavirus is involved in the pathogenesis of PeIN. Immunogenotype may play a role in the pathogenesis of PeIN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462420970727DOI Listing
April 2021

Penile cancer.

Nat Rev Dis Primers 2021 02 11;7(1):11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Laboratory of Experimental Urology, Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is a rare cancer with orphan disease designation and a prevalence of 0.1-1 per 100,000 men in high-income countries, but it constitutes up to 10% of malignancies in men in some African, Asian and South American regions. Risk factors for PSCC include the absence of childhood circumcision, phimosis, chronic inflammation, poor penile hygiene, smoking, immunosuppression and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Several different subtypes of HPV-related and non-HPV-related penile cancers have been described, which also have different prognostic profiles. Localized disease can be effectively managed by topical therapy, surgery or radiotherapy. As PSCC is characterized by early lymphatic spread and imaging is inadequate for the detection of micrometastatic disease, correct and upfront surgical staging of the inguinal lymph nodes is crucial in disease management. Advanced stages of disease require multimodal management. Optimal sequencing of treatments and patient selection are still being investigated. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens are the mainstay of systemic therapy for advanced PSCC, but they have poor and non-durable responses and high rates of toxic effects, indicating a need for the development of more effective and less toxic therapeutic options. Localized and advanced penile cancers and their treatment have profound physical and psychosexual effects on the quality of life of patients and survivors by altering sexual and urinary function and causing lymphoedema.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41572-021-00246-5DOI Listing
February 2021

A patient-centric pathway for testicular cancer - A multicentre study investigating the uptake of semen cryopreservation and impact on treatment.

Andrology 2021 05 28;9(3):823-828. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Institute of Andrology, University College London Hospital, London, UK.

Background: The option of semen cryopreservation following a diagnosis of testicular cancer shows a variable uptake with the option to cryopreserve before surgery often dependent on the preference of the treating clinician and the fertility laboratory resources available.

Objectives: To assess whether the introduction of a patient-centric pathway for managing suspected testicular cancer increases the uptake of semen cryopreservation and the impact of this on surgical waiting times.

Materials And Methods: A multicentre retrospective analysis of patients treated as part of a patient-centric pathway was conducted for suspected testicular cancer at two specialist centres within a one-stop testicular clinic. Clinical information, including semen cryopreservation acceptance rate, time intervals to surgery and CT scan, TNM stage, histology and age, was recorded from an institutional database.

Results: Eighty nine patients (median age: 34 years (range: 14-89)) underwent orchidectomy for suspected testicular cancer over a 15-month period after the introduction of a patient-centric testicular cancer pathway at two UK centres. The overall uptake of semen cryopreservation was 68.5% (n = 61) with all men under the age of 33 years accepting this option. A microdissection oncoTESE was performed in 9/61 (14.8%) patients who attempted cryopreservation but were found to be azoospermic. Pre-operative CT imaging was completed for 85.4% of patients, and the median time from initial outpatient consultation to orchidectomy was 9 days.

Discussion And Conclusions: A patient-centric pathway ensures that the uptake of semen cryopreservation remains high particularly for those men within the common age for paternity. It also identifies men who may benefit from microdissection oncoTESE for complex cases such as tumours in solitary testicles, bilateral tumours or an atrophic contralateral testicle as well as those diagnosed with de novo azoospermia. The additional time taken for semen cryopreservation to be performed did not significantly delay orchidectomy or influence the decisions for adjuvant treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/andr.12984DOI Listing
May 2021
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