Publications by authors named "Asif M Paker"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Gene Therapy for Cerebral Adrenoleukodystrophy.

N Engl J Med 2017 10 4;377(17):1630-1638. Epub 2017 Oct 4.

From Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (F.E., P.L.M.), Dana-Farber and Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center (C. Duncan, M.A., C. Dansereau, D.A.W.), and Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Harvard Stem-Cell Institute (D.A.W.), Boston, and Bluebird Bio, Cambridge (A.M.P., E.S., T.O., D.D.) - all in Massachusetts; University of Minnesota Children's Hospital, Minneapolis (P.J.O., T.C.L., W.P.M., G.V.R.); University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles (S.D.O., R.S., A.J.S.); University College London Great Ormond Street Hospital Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Trust, London (A.J.T., H.B.G., P.G.); Pediatric Neurology Department, Hôpital Bicêtre-Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Sud, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France (C.S., P.A.); Fundacion Investigar, Buenos Aires (H.A.); and Women's and Children's Hospital, North Adelaide, SA, Australia (D.B., N.J.C.S.).

Background: In X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, mutations in ABCD1 lead to loss of function of the ALD protein. Cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy is characterized by demyelination and neurodegeneration. Disease progression, which leads to loss of neurologic function and death, can be halted only with allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.

Methods: We enrolled boys with cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy in a single-group, open-label, phase 2-3 safety and efficacy study. Patients were required to have early-stage disease and gadolinium enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at screening. The investigational therapy involved infusion of autologous CD34+ cells transduced with the elivaldogene tavalentivec (Lenti-D) lentiviral vector. In this interim analysis, patients were assessed for the occurrence of graft-versus-host disease, death, and major functional disabilities, as well as changes in neurologic function and in the extent of lesions on MRI. The primary end point was being alive and having no major functional disability at 24 months after infusion.

Results: A total of 17 boys received Lenti-D gene therapy. At the time of the interim analysis, the median follow-up was 29.4 months (range, 21.6 to 42.0). All the patients had gene-marked cells after engraftment, with no evidence of preferential integration near known oncogenes or clonal outgrowth. Measurable ALD protein was observed in all the patients. No treatment-related death or graft-versus-host disease had been reported; 15 of the 17 patients (88%) were alive and free of major functional disability, with minimal clinical symptoms. One patient, who had had rapid neurologic deterioration, had died from disease progression. Another patient, who had had evidence of disease progression on MRI, had withdrawn from the study to undergo allogeneic stem-cell transplantation and later died from transplantation-related complications.

Conclusions: Early results of this study suggest that Lenti-D gene therapy may be a safe and effective alternative to allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in boys with early-stage cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. Additional follow-up is needed to fully assess the duration of response and long-term safety. (Funded by Bluebird Bio and others; STARBEAM number, NCT01896102 ; number, 2011-001953-10 .).
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October 2017

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in cancer patients: a single institution retrospective study.

J Neurooncol 2016 05 22;128(1):75-84. Epub 2016 Feb 22.

Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, 1400 Holcombe Blvd, Room FC7.3000, Unit 431, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiologic entity. Its management and outcome in the oncology population is limited because it is still difficult to identify despite an increasingly recognized occurrence. This is the largest retrospective study of PRES in cancer patients reported from a single institution. We explore the clinical manifestations and radiologic features to comprehensively assess PRES in order to prevent permanent neurologic deficits and mortality. We retrospectively identified 69 patients with cancer who developed PRES at MDACC between 01/2006 to 06/2012. Clinical and radiographic data were abstracted from their records and reviewed for our analysis. Mean age at PRES onset was 52 ± 17.8 years. Fifty-two (75 %; p < 0.001) patients were women. Most common diagnoses were leukemia (30 %) and lymphoma (12 %). Forty-eight (70 %) patients were treated with chemotherapy, 21 (30 %) bone marrow transplant and 14 (20 %) tacrolimus. Most common clinical presentation was seizures (67 %). PRES was associated with hypertension in 62 (90 %) patients. On brain MRI, 33 (44 %) patients had some evidence of hemorrhage, 22 (73 %) of these were thrombocytopenic. Thirty-five (51 %) patients fully recovered and 19 (28 %) had permanent neurological deficits. Morbidity and mortality were associated with continuation with offending agent, thrombocytopenia, variations in mean arterial pressure ≥20 mmHg, electrographic seizures at onset, atypical MRI pattern and delay in diagnostic imaging (7.4 ± 4.8 days vs. 1.9 ± 1.8 days; p = 0.031) as half of them did not receive a prompt intervention. Special attention should be given to patients who present with high-risk factors in order to prevent development of PRES or decrease patient morbidity and mortality. Management of PRES should be guided by the radiographic findings. Overall, early recognition, discontinuation of the offending agents, correction of thrombocytopenia and blood pressure control are still the main strategies to manage PRES.
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May 2016

Hemichorea in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis.

J Neurol Sci 2014 Jul 2;342(1-2):189-91. Epub 2014 May 2.

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States.

Background: Chorea is a common presenting feature of metabolic disorders, including nonketotic hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but rarely has been reported in diabetic ketoacidosis, hypothyroidism and vitamin B12 deficiency.

Methods: Review the literature for reported cases of chorea as a presenting manifestation in metabolic disorders.

Results: We report a case of hemichorea in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by diabetic ketoacidosis. The patient had a two day history of right sided hemichorea and decreased level of consciousness. Initial laboratory studies revealed hyperglycemia, ketosis and an anion gap metabolic acidosis consistent with diabetic ketoacidosis. Once treatment was started the choreiform movements significantly improved over three weeks.

Conclusion: Although DKA has been rarely reported as a trigger for chorea, it should be in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with an acute chorea. Given the reversible nature of this disease, early recognition and treatment are imperative.
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July 2014

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the leukodystrophies: a systematic review of the literature.

Neuropediatrics 2014 Jun 23;45(3):169-74. Epub 2014 Jan 23.

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Objective: The objective of this study is to systematically review the literature on worldwide numbers of leukodystrophy patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) as well as the safety and efficacy of the procedure in this patient population.

Materials And Methods: A PubMed and EMBASE search up to June 2012 was conducted with a manual search of references from relevant articles. Selected studies were evaluated using internationally accepted criteria. The effect estimates of HSCT upon survival in early-stage disease versus late-stage disease were compared.

Results: One hundred and fifty-two studies qualified for inclusion and reported on a total of 689 patients. Study quality ranged from poor to good; no study was rated excellent. Small sample sizes limited most studies. Meta-analysis in a subset of larger studies indicates that transplantation in earlier stages of disease fairs better than in the late stages. Beyond survival, little longitudinal data on functional outcome is reported and neurological outcome is sparse.

Conclusion: Further studies are needed to determine the neurological outcome following HSCT in the leukodystrophies. HSCT in the early stages of cerebral disease is still recommended for select leukodystrophies.
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June 2014