Publications by authors named "Asher A Chanan-Khan"

76 Publications

Efficacy of Daratumumab-Based Regimens for the Treatment of Plasma Cell Leukemia.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 Jan 12. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Divion of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.01.002DOI Listing
January 2021

Ixazomib and lenalidomide maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma.

Ann Hematol 2021 Mar 8;100(3):851-853. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Deparment of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Mangurian Building, 3rd Floor, 4500 San Pablo Road S, Jacksonville, FL, 32224, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04340-8DOI Listing
March 2021

Daratumumab, bortezomib, and dexamethasone in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: subgroup analysis of CASTOR based on cytogenetic risk.

J Hematol Oncol 2020 08 20;13(1):115. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

University Hospital of Salamanca/IBSAL/Cancer Research Center-IBMCC (USAL-CSIC), Salamanca, Spain.

Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) patients with high cytogenetic risk have poor outcomes. In CASTOR, daratumumab plus bortezomib/dexamethasone (D-Vd) prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) versus bortezomib/dexamethasone (Vd) alone and exhibited tolerability in patients with relapsed or refractory MM (RRMM).

Methods: This subgroup analysis evaluated D-Vd versus Vd in CASTOR based on cytogenetic risk, determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or karyotype testing performed locally. High-risk patients had t(4;14), t(14;16), and/or del17p abnormalities. Minimal residual disease (MRD; 10 sensitivity threshold) was assessed via the clonoSEQ® assay V2.0. Of the 498 patients randomized, 40 (16%) in the D-Vd group and 35 (14%) in the Vd group were categorized as high risk.

Results: After a median follow-up of 40.0 months, D-Vd prolonged median PFS versus Vd in patients with standard (16.6 vs 6.6 months; HR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.19-0.37; P < 0.0001) and high (12.6 vs 6.2 months; HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.21-0.83; P = 0.0106) cytogenetic risk. D-Vd achieved deep responses, including higher rates of MRD negativity and sustained MRD negativity versus Vd, regardless of cytogenetic risk. The safety profile was consistent with the overall population of CASTOR.

Conclusion: These updated data reinforce the effectiveness and tolerability of daratumumab-based regimens for RRMM, regardless of cytogenetic risk status.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02136134 . Registered 12 May 2014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-020-00948-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7439722PMC
August 2020

Atrial fibrillation in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treated with ibrutinib: risk prediction, management, and clinical outcomes.

Ann Hematol 2021 Jan 1;100(1):143-155. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Background: Ibrutinib therapy is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Risk assessment tools and outcomes of AF in these patients are not well described.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with CLL treated with ibrutinib at Mayo Clinic between October 2012 and November 2018.

Results: Two hundred ninety-eight patients were identified with a median time on ibrutinib of 19 months (range 0.23-69.7 months). Fifty-one patients developed treatment-emergent AF; the risk of treatment-emergent AF at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years was 9%, 12%, and 16%, respectively. The following were associated with an increased risk of treatment-emergent AF on multivariable analyses: past history of AF (hazard ratio [HR] 3.5, p = 0.0072) and heart failure (HR 3.4, p = 0.0028). Most patients are able to continue ibrutinib therapy (dose reduced in 43%). Development of treatment-emergent AF was associated with shorter event-free survival (EFS; HR 2.0, p = 0.02) and shorter overall survival (OS; HR 3.2, p = 0.001), after adjusting for age, prior treatment status, TP53 disruption, heart failure, valvular disease, and past history of AF.

Conclusions: Patient comorbidities, rather than CLL-related factors, predict risk of treatment-emergent AF in patients treated with ibrutinib. Although the vast majority of patients with treatment-emergent AF are able to continue ibrutinib (with dose reduction in 43%), treatment-emergent AF appears to be associated with worse outcomes, independent of other adverse prognostic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04094-3DOI Listing
January 2021

Targeting CD38 is lethal to Breg-like chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and Tregs, but restores CD8+ T-cell responses.

Blood Adv 2020 05;4(10):2143-2157

Department of Cancer Biology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are characterized by monoclonal expansion of CD5+CD23+CD27+CD19+κ/λ+ B lymphocytes and are clinically noted to have profound immune suppression. In these patients, it has been recently shown that a subset of B cells possesses regulatory functions and secretes high levels of interleukin 10 (IL-10). Our investigation identified that CLL cells with a CD19+CD24+CD38hi immunophenotype (B regulatory cell [Breg]-like CLL cells) produce high amounts of IL-10 and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and are capable of transforming naive T helper cells into CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) in an IL-10/TGF-β-dependent manner. A strong correlation between the percentage of CD38+ CLL cells and Tregs was observed. CD38hi Tregs comprised more than 50% of Tregs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with CLL. Anti-CD38 targeting agents resulted in lethality of both Breg-like CLL and Treg cells via apoptosis. Ex vivo, use of anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy was associated with a reduction in IL-10 and CLL patient-derived Tregs, but an increase in interferon-γ and proliferation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells with an activated phenotype, which showed an improved ability to lyse patient-autologous CLL cells. Finally, effects of anti-CD38 mAb therapy were validated in a CLL-patient-derived xenograft model in vivo, which showed decreased percentage of Bregs, Tregs, and PD1+CD38hiCD8+ T cells, but increased Th17 and CD8+ T cells (vs vehicle). Altogether, our results demonstrate that targeting CD38 in CLL can modulate the tumor microenvironment; skewing T-cell populations from an immunosuppressive to immune-reactive milieu, thus promoting immune reconstitution for enhanced anti-CLL response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7252547PMC
May 2020

The impact of dose modification and temporary interruption of ibrutinib on outcomes of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in routine clinical practice.

Cancer Med 2020 05 18;9(10):3390-3399. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Division of Hematology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

To study the impact of dose modification and temporary interruption of ibrutinib in routine clinical practice, we conducted a retrospective study of consecutive CLL patients treated with ibrutinib outside the context of a clinical trial at Mayo Clinic, (Rochester, MN) from 11/2013 to 12/2017. Of 209 patients, 131 (74%) had unmutated IGHV, 38 (20%) had TP53 disruption, and 47 (22%) were previously untreated. A total of 87/209 (42%) patients started reduced dose ibrutinib (<420 mg daily; n = 43, physician preference; n = 33, concomitant medications; and n = 11, other). During 281 person-years of treatment, 91/209 patients had temporary dose interruption (54%, nonhematologic toxicity; 29%, surgical procedures; 10%, hematologic toxicity; and 7%, other). After a median follow-up of 24 months, the estimated median event-free survival (EFS) was 36 months, and median overall survival (OS) was not reached. On multivariable analyses, temporary ibrutinib interruption (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.37, P = .006) and TP53 disruption at ibrutinib initiation (HR: 1.81, P = .048) were associated with shorter EFS, whereas only TP53 disruption (HR: 2.38, P = .015) was associated with shorter OS. Initial ibrutinib dose and dose modification during therapy did not appear to impact EFS or OS. These findings illustrate the challenges associated with continuous oral therapy with ibrutinib in patients with CLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221301PMC
May 2020

Use of KRD-PACE as Salvage Therapy in Aggressive, Relapsed/Bortezomib-Refractory Extramedullary Multiple Myeloma: A Report of Two Cases and Literature Review.

Case Rep Hematol 2020 18;2020:4360926. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Extramedullary multiple myeloma is defined by the presence of plasma cell infiltration outside of the bone marrow. It is associated with a poor prognosis and resistance to therapy and is often associated with high-risk cytogenetics. Aggressive relapsed and refractory extramedullary multiple myeloma is often treated with salvage infusional chemotherapy to achieve rapid disease control. Commonly used regimens include DCEP, CVAD, and VTD-PACE. While VTD-PACE contains bortezomib and thalidomide which have potent antimyeloma activity, the advent of novel agent therapy with proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory agents being used in the first-line setting has resulted in many patients being refractory to bortezomib by the time they are treated with VTD-PACE. Herein, we discuss two cases of aggressive relapsed, high-risk, bortezomib-refractory extramedullary multiple myeloma treated with KRD-PACE and review the available clinical data on salvage chemotherapy regimens used in relapsed refractory myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4360926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7049436PMC
February 2020

Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma in the Era of Novel Therapies.

JCO Oncol Pract 2020 02;16(2):56-66

Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Despite the evolution of the therapeutic arsenal for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) over the past decade, autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) remains an integral part of the treatment of patients with both newly diagnosed and relapsed MM. The advent of novel therapies, such as immunomodulatory agents, proteasome inhibitors, and monoclonal antibodies, has led to unprecedented levels of deep hematologic responses. Nonetheless, studies show that ASCT has an additive effect leading to additional deepening of responses. As the therapeutic agents for MM continue to evolve, the timing, duration, and sequence of their use in combination with ASCT will be crucial to understand to obtain the deepest response and survival benefit for patients with MM. This review aims to discuss the role of ASCT for the management of MM, with a particular focus on the role of ASCT in the context of novel therapies and minimal residual disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JOP.19.00335DOI Listing
February 2020

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma, Version 4.2020, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2020 02;18(2):185-217

National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are characterized by a progressive accumulation of leukemic cells in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid tissues. Treatment of CLL/SLL has evolved significantly in recent years because of the improved understanding of the disease biology and the development of novel targeted therapies. In patients with indications for initiating treatment, the selection of treatment should be based on the disease stage, patient's age and overall fitness (performance status and comorbid conditions), and cytogenetic abnormalities. This manuscript discusses the recommendations outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with CLL/SLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.0006DOI Listing
February 2020

Long-Term Studies Assessing Outcomes of Ibrutinib Therapy in Patients With Del(11q) Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2019 11 15;19(11):715-722.e6. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Internal Medicine and German CLL Study Group, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Background: Certain genomic features, such as del(11q), expression of unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region (IGHV) gene, or complex karyotype, predict poorer outcomes to chemotherapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).

Patients And Methods: We examined the pooled long-term follow-up data from PCYC-1115 (RESONATE-2), PCYC-1112 (RESONATE), and CLL3001 (HELIOS), comprising a total of 1238 subjects, to determine the prognostic significance of these markers in patients treated with ibrutinib.

Results: With a median follow-up of 47 months, ibrutinib-treated patients had longer progression-free survival (PFS) than patients treated in the comparator arm, regardless of genomic risk factors. Among patients treated with ibrutinib, we found that high-risk genomic features were not associated with shorter PFS (63-75% across all subgroups at 42 months) or overall survival (79-83% across all subgroups at 42 months). Surprisingly, we observed that ibrutinib-treated patients with del(11q) actually had a significantly longer PFS than ibrutinib-treated patients without del(11q) (42-month PFS rate 70% vs. 65%, P = .02).

Conclusion: These analyses not only demonstrate that genomic risk factors previously associated with poor outcomes lose their adverse prognostic significance but also that del(11q) can be associated with a superior PFS with ibrutinib therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2019.07.004DOI Listing
November 2019

Survival trends in glioblastoma and association with treating facility volume.

J Clin Neurosci 2019 Oct 24;68:271-274. Epub 2019 May 24.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, United States. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most lethal cancers. Various prognostic factors impact the survival of GBM patients. To further understand this extremely poor prognosis disease, we evaluated the effect of the treatment facility volumes on overall survival (OS) over the years, especially after the approval of multimodality therapy using temozolomide (TMZ) in 2005. National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) was utilized to identify GBM cases from 2004 through 2013 using ICD-O-3 code 9440/3 to identify eligible patients. We focused on studying the association between treatment facility volume and OS after adjusting for the patient-, disease-, and facility-characteristics. A total of 60,672 eligible GBM patients with median age of 65 years, treated at 1166 facilities were included in this analysis. The median annual facility volume was 3 patients/year (range: 0.1-55.1) and median OS was 8.1 months. There was an improvement in OS across all facilities after 2005, when multimodality therapy with TMZ was approved. Treatment at quartile 4 centers (Q4; >7 patients/year) was independently associated with decreased all-cause mortality in a multivariate analysis (Q3 hazard ratio [HR]: 1.11, 95% CI 1.09, 1.13; Q2 HR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.12, 1.19; Q1 HR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.17, 1.33). Treatment facility volume independently affects OS among GBM patients. Factors that are variable in high- and low-volume centers should be addressed to mitigate outcome disparities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2019.04.028DOI Listing
October 2019

Prognostic risk score for patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with targeted therapies or chemoimmunotherapy: a retrospective, pooled cohort study with external validations.

Lancet Haematol 2019 Jul 17;6(7):e366-e374. Epub 2019 May 17.

Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Clinically validated prognostic models for overall survival do not exist for patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) who are on targeted therapies. We aimed to create a prognostic model to identify high-risk individuals who do not achieve a good outcome with available targeted therapies.

Methods: In this retrospective, pooled cohort study, 2475 patients with CLL treated between June 22, 2012, and Sept 23, 2015, in six randomised trials of ibrutinib, idelalisib, and venetoclax, or at the Mayo Clinic CLL Database (MCCD) were included. Eligible patients had CLL, were previously treated, were aged 18 years or older, had ECOG performance status 0-1, and required further treatment as per the international workshop on CLL 2008 criteria. There was heterogeneity in other eligibility criteria. We evaluated 28 candidate factors known to affect the overall survival of these patients and applied univariate and multivariate analyses to derive the risk score in a training dataset (n=727) of patients treated with ibrutinib or chemoimmunotherapy. We validated the score in an internal-validation dataset (n=242) of patients treated with ibrutinib or chemoimmunotherapy and three external-validation datasets (idelalisib or chemoimmunotherapy dataset, n=897; venetoclax or chemoimmunotherapy dataset, n=389; and the MCCD [including patients treated with heterogeneous therapies], n=220), applying C-statistics as a measure of discrimination.

Findings: The derived model consisted of four factors (one point each; serum β-microglobulin ≥5 mg/dL, lactate dehydrogenase >upper limit of normal, haemoglobin <110 g/L for women or <120 g/L for men, and time from initiation of last therapy <24 months), separating patients into low (score 0-1), intermediate (score 2-3), and high risk (score 4) groups. The risk score was prognostic for overall survival in the training dataset (CS=0·74, 95% CI 0·60-0·85, log-rank p<0·0001), and in the internal-validation (CS=0·79, 0·56-0·97, log-rank p=0·0003), and all three external-validation cohorts (idelalisib or chemoimmunotherapy: CS=0·71, 0·59-0·81, log-rank p<0·0001; venetoclax or chemoimmunotherapy: CS =0·76, 0·66-0·85, log-rank p=0·014; MCCD cohort: CS=0·61, 0·56-0·66), log-rank p<0·0001). The risk score is available on Calculate by QxMD.

Interpretation: We present the first validated risk score to predict overall survival in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL treated with targeted therapy. The model is applicable to patients treated with all currently approved targeted therapies (ibrutinib, idelalisib, and venetoclax) and chemoimmunotherapy. This tool allows the identification of a well defined cohort of previously treated patients with CLL who are at high risk of death, and could be used in future prospective trials to test therapeutic options for these patients with an unmet clinical need.

Funding: Lymphoma Research Foundation, Lymphoma Research Fund (Andrew D Zelenetz), and National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30085-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6620111PMC
July 2019

Rapid disease progression following discontinuation of ibrutinib in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated in routine clinical practice.

Leuk Lymphoma 2019 11 24;60(11):2712-2719. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

We identified all patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia at Mayo Clinic treated with ibrutinib outside the context of a clinical trial; timing and reasons for discontinuation were ascertained, as were symptoms, exam and radiographic findings, and laboratory changes following discontinuation. Of 202 patients who received ibrutinib, 52 discontinued therapy (estimated 1- and 2-year risk of discontinuation 18% and 28%, respectively). The most common reasons for discontinuation were toxicity (56%) and progression of disease (32%, including Richter's transformation in 15%). Rapid progression of disease within 4 weeks after discontinuation was observed in 9/36 (25%) patients with adequate records for review, mostly in those stopping ibrutinib for disease progression ( = 8) rather than toxicity ( = 1). This was evident by sudden worsening of disease-related symptoms ( = 9), exam/radiographic changes ( = 7), and laboratory changes ( = 8). An estimated one in every three patients discontinued ibrutinib by 2 years, with 25% developing rapid disease progression afterwards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2019.1602268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6813846PMC
November 2019

Phase I study of the anti-FcRH5 antibody-drug conjugate DFRF4539A in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Blood Cancer J 2019 02 4;9(2):17. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN, USA.

FcRH5 is a cell surface marker enriched on malignant plasma cells when compared to other hematologic malignancies and normal tissues. DFRF4539A is an anti-FcRH5 antibody-drug conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), a potent anti-mitotic agent. This phase I study assessed safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), anti-tumor activity, and pharmacokinetics of DFRF4539A in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. DFRF4539A was administered at 0.3-2.4 mg/kg every 3 weeks or 0.8-1.1 mg/kg weekly as a single-agent by intravenous infusion to 39 patients. Exposure of total antibody and antibody-conjugate-MMAE analytes was linear across the doses tested. There were 37 (95%) adverse events (AEs), 8 (21%) serious AEs, and 15 (39%) AEs ≥ grade 3. Anemia (n = 10, 26%) was the most common AE considered related to DFRF4539A. Two cases of grade 3 acute renal failure were attributed to DFRF4539A. There were no deaths; the MTD was not reached. DFRF4539A demonstrated limited activity in patients at the doses tested with 2 (5%) partial response, 1 (3%) minimal response, 18 (46%) stable disease, and 16 (41%) progressive disease. FcRH5 was confirmed to be expressed and occupied by antibody post-treatment and thus remains a valid myeloma target. Nevertheless, this MMAE-based antibody-drug-conjugate targeting FcRH5 was unsuccessful for myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-019-0178-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362066PMC
February 2019

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma, Version 2.2019.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2019 Jan;17(1):12-20

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is generally characterized by an indolent disease course. Histologic transformation (also known as Richter's transformation) to more aggressive lymphomas, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or Hodgkin lymphoma, occurs in approximately 2% to 10% of patients and is associated with a poor prognosis. These NCCN Guidelines Insights discuss the recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with histologic transformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2019.0002DOI Listing
January 2019

IGH translocations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes.

Am J Hematol 2019 03 8;94(3):338-345. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

The prevalence, clinicopathologic correlates, and outcomes of previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients with IGH-BCL2 and IGH-BCL3 translocations are not well known. Using the Mayo Clinic CLL database, we identified patients seen between March 1, 2002 and September 30, 2016 who had FISH testing performed within 3 years of CLL diagnosis. The prognostic profile, time to first therapy (TTT), and overall survival (OS) of patients with IGH-BCL2 and IGH-BCL3 translocation were compared to patients without these abnormalities (non-IGH group). Of 1684 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 38 (2.2%) had IGH-BCL2, and 16 (0.9%) had IGH-BCL3 translocation at diagnosis. Patients with IGH-BCL3 translocation were more likely to have high and very-high CLL-International Prognostic Index, compared to patients with IGH-BCL2 translocation and the non-IGH group. The 5-year probability of requiring therapy was significantly higher for IGH-BCL3 compared to IGH-BCL2 and non-IGH groups (84% vs 33% vs 29%, respectively, P < 0.0001). The 5-year OS was significantly shorter for IGH-BCL3 compared to IGH-BCL2 and non-IGH groups (45% vs 89% vs 86%, respectively, P < 0.0001). On multivariable analyses, IGH-BCL3 translocation was associated with a shorter TTT (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.7; P = 0.005) and shorter OS (HR = 5.5; P < 0.0001); IGH-BCL2 translocation did not impact TTT and OS. In conclusion, approximately 3% of all newly diagnosed CLL patients have either an IGH-BCL2 or IGH-BCL3 translocation. Patients with IGH-BCL3 translocations have a distinct prognostic profile and outcome. These results support the inclusion of an IGH probe during the routine evaluation of FISH abnormalities in newly diagnosed CLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6625355PMC
March 2019

Daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone bortezomib and dexamethasone in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: updated analysis of CASTOR.

Haematologica 2018 12 20;103(12):2079-2087. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

University Hospital of Salamanca/IBSAL, Spain.

Daratumumab, a CD38 human monoclonal antibody, demonstrated significant clinical activity in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone bortezomib and dexamethasone alone in the primary analysis of CASTOR, a phase 3 study in relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma. A analysis based on treatment history and longer follow up is presented. After 19.4 (range: 0-27.7) months of median follow up, daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone prolonged progression-free survival (median: 16.7 7.1 months; hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.39; <0.0001) and improved the overall response rate (83.8% 63.2%; <0.0001) compared with bortezomib and dexamethasone alone. The progression-free survival benefit of daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone was most apparent in patients with 1 prior line of therapy (median: not reached 7.9 months; hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% con fidence interval, 0.12-0.29; <0.0001). Daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone was also superior to bortezomib and dexamethasone alone in subgroups based on prior treatment exposure (bortezomib, thalidomide, or lenalidomide), lenalidomide-refractory status, time since last therapy (≤12, >12, ≤6, or >6 months), or cytogenetic risk. Minimal residual disease-negative rates were >2.5-fold higher with daratumumab across subgroups. The safety profile of daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone remained consistent with longer follow up. Daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone demonstrated significant clinical activity across clinically relevant subgroups and provided the greatest benefit to patients treated at first relapse. Trial registration: .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.194118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6269293PMC
December 2018

Autoimmune cytopenias in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with ibrutinib in routine clinical practice at an academic medical centre.

Br J Haematol 2018 11 16;183(3):421-427. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

The effects of ibrutinib on the natural history of autoimmune cytopenias (AIC) among chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients treated in routine clinical practice require further investigation. Using the Mayo Clinical CLL Database, 193 CLL patients treated with ibrutinib between November 2013 and January 2017 outside the context of a clinical trial were identified; complete review of their medical records was performed for details of past history of AIC and treatment-emergent AIC. We identified 29/193 (15%) patients with history of AIC prior to ibrutinib start. Of 12 patients requiring AIC therapy at ibrutinib start, 8 (67%) were able to discontinue or de-escalate AIC treatment, and no patient had worsening of their AIC after initiating ibrutinib. Eleven (6%) patients developed treatment-emergent AIC after a median of 59 (range, 6-319) days following the initiation of ibrutinib, 7 of whom (64%) were able to continue ibrutinib. Overall and event-free survival from time of ibrutinib start were not significantly different between patients with history of AIC and those with no history of AIC. Treatment-emergent AIC were seen exclusively in patients with unmutated IGHV and were associated with a shorter EFS. These results suggest a low rate of treatment-emergent AIC and improvement in patients with existing AIC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234062PMC
November 2018

Targeting CD38 with daratumumab is lethal to Waldenström macroglobulinaemia cells.

Br J Haematol 2018 10 6;183(2):196-211. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

CD38 is expressed on Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM) cells, but its role as a therapeutic target remains undefined. With recent approval of the anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody, daratumumab (Dara), we hypothesized that blocking CD38 would be lethal to WM cells. In vitro Dara treatment of WM cells (including ibrutinib-resistant lines) elicited antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis (ADCP) and direct apoptosis. In vivo, Dara treatment was well tolerated and delayed tumour growth in RPCI-WM1-xenografted mice. CD38 is reported to augment B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling; we noted that Dara significantly attenuated phosphorylated SYK, LYN, BTK, PLCγ2, ERK1/2, AKT, mTOR, and S6 levels, and this effect was augmented by cotreatment with ibrutinib. Indeed, WM cells, including ibrutinib-resistant WM cell lines treated with the ibrutinib + Dara combination, showed significantly more cell death through ADCC, CDC, ADCP and apoptosis relative to single-agent Dara or ibrutinib. In summary, we are the first to report the in vitro and in vivo anti-WM activity of Dara. Furthermore, we show a close connection between BCR and CD38 signalling, which can be co-targeted with ibrutinib + Dara to induce marked WM cell death, irrespective of acquired resistance to ibrutinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294509PMC
October 2018

Utilization of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for the treatment of multiple myeloma: a Mayo Stratification of Myeloma and Risk-Adapted Therapy (mSMART) consensus statement.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 03 9;54(3):353-367. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

Over the last two decades, the utilization of various novel therapies in the upfront or salvage settings has continued to improve survival outcomes for patients with Multiple Myeloma (MM). Thus, the conventional role for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in MM either in the form of an autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) or an allogeneic stem cell transplant (Allo-SCT) warrants re-evaluation, given the aforementioned clinical advances. Here, we present a consensus statement of our multidisciplinary group of over 30 Mayo Clinic physicians with a special interest in the care of patients with MM and provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of HSCT in MM. We specifically address topics that include the role and timing of an ASCT for MM in the era of novel agents, eligibility for an ASCT, post-ASCT consolidation, and maintenance options, and finally the utility of an upfront tandem ASCT, salvage second ASCT, and an allo-SCT in MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0264-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463224PMC
March 2019

Second primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults: a SEER analysis of incidence and outcomes.

Cancer Med 2018 02 28;7(2):499-507. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Division of Hematology & Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida.

We conducted a surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER)-based analysis to describe the incidence and characteristics of second primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia (sALL) among adults (≥18 years) with a history of primary malignancies (1M). Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of sALL cases were calculated by site and 1M stage. We also evaluated the differences in 5-year sALL survival by age, site, and extent of 1M, latency of sALL after 1M, and evidence of underlying racial/ethnic disparity. We identified 10,956 patients with de-novo/primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia (1ALL) and 772 with sALL. Women (49.1% vs. 42.9%), white patients (72.0% vs. 59.5%), older patients (58.8% vs. 25.2%; age ≥65 years), and patients diagnosed between 2003 and 2012 (66.8% vs. 53.9%) had a higher proportion of sALL compared with 1ALL. There was a significantly inferior median 5-year survival for sALL patients compared to 1ALL (6 vs. 15 months; HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.10-1.31, P < 0.001). The median latency period was 60.0 months; the most common 1M among sALL patients were breast (17.9%) and prostate (17.4%). Patients with any 1M were at increased risk of developing sALL (SIR 1.76, 95% CI 1.58-1.95, P < 0.001). Hematological-1M sites had significantly higher SIRs (hematological-SIR 7.35; solid-SIR 1.33; P < 0.001). We observed a significant increase in sALL incidence after a 1M and a significantly worse 5-year survival with different demographic characteristics from 1ALL. There is a need to define appropriate screening methods for patients surviving their primary cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5806098PMC
February 2018

Correlation of sociodemographic and clinical parameters with depression and distress in patients with hematologic malignancies.

Ann Hematol 2018 Mar 7;97(3):519-528. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

Department of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Road, Jacksonville, FL, 32224, USA.

A quarter of cancer patients struggle with distress or depression during their illness. Multiple organizations including the National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommend universal screening for distress and depression. Herein, we describe a universal screening program in patients with hematologic malignancies and factors associated with distress and depression. Between December 2013 and February 2015, patients with hematologic malignancies took the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) and Distress Thermometer (DT) prior to receiving their first outpatient parenteral chemotherapy. Patient demographic information as well as information regarding visit burden and baseline use of psychiatric medications were recorded. A PHQ-9 score of ≥ 9 and a DT score ≥ 4 suggested a high risk of major depression and distress. Intergroup comparisons of categorical and continuous variables were performed via chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Multivariate models were constructed using the stepwise selection technique using all potential variables. Two hundred forty-six patients with a median age at diagnosis 65 years (range 18-94 years) were included. In the multivariate analysis, a PHQ-9 score ≥ 9 was associated with living alone (P = 0.007), positive PHQ-2 (P = 0.003), and high Charlson comorbidity index (CCI; P = 0.02), while a DT score ≥ 4 was associated with being married (P = 0.03) and female (P = 0.03). There was no other association with high scores on either questionnaire. Patients with hematologic malignancies often have prolonged treatment and surveillance. We identified subpopulations within this group who may be at high risk of developing distress and depression and who should be aggressively screened even when universal screening programs are not available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-017-3198-0DOI Listing
March 2018

Racial disparity in utilization of therapeutic modalities among multiple myeloma patients: a SEER-medicare analysis.

Cancer Med 2017 Dec 3;6(12):2876-2885. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida.

Outcomes have improved considerably in multiple myeloma (MM), but disparities among racial-ethnic groups exist. Differences in utilization of novel therapeutics are likely contributing factors. We explored such differences from the SEER-Medicare database. A utilization analysis of lenalidomide, thalidomide, bortezomib, and stem cell transplant (SCT) was performed for patients diagnosed with MM between 2007 and 2009, including use over time, use by race, time-dependent trends for each racial subgroup, and survival analysis. A total of 5338 MM patients were included with median 2.4-year follow-up. Within the first year of MM diagnosis, utilization of lenalidomide, bortezomib, SCT, and more than one novel agent increased over time while utilization of thalidomide decreased. There was significantly lower utilization of lenalidomide among African-Americans (P < 0.01), higher thalidomide use among Hispanics and Asians (P < 0.01), and lower bortezomib use among Asians (P < 0.01). Hispanics had the highest median number of days to first dose of bortezomib (P = 0.02) and the lowest utilization of SCT (P < 0.01). Hispanics and Asians were the only groups without notable increases in lenalidomide and bortezomib use, respectively. SCT utilization increased over time for all except African-Americans. SCT use within the first year after diagnosis was associated with better overall survival (HR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.4-0.68), while bortezomib use was associated with inferior survival (HR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02-1.28). We noted considerable variability in MM therapeutics utilization with seeming inequity for racial-ethnic minorities. These trends should be considered to eliminate drug access and utilization disparities and achieve equitable benefit of therapeutic advances across all races.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5727310PMC
December 2017

Lenalidomide maintenance therapy in previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CONTINUUM): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2017 Nov 25;4(11):e534-e543. Epub 2017 Sep 25.

Hematology, Department of Cellular Biotechnologies and Hematology, Policlinico Umberto 1, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Background: The efficacy and safety of lenalidomide as maintenance therapy after chemotherapy-based second-line therapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is unknown. Although kinase inhibitors can improve outcomes for some patients with relapsed and refractory disease, not all patients have access to these novel drugs. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide as maintenance therapy in patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Methods: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial (CONTINUUM) was done at 111 hospitals, medical centres, and clinics in 21 countries. Patients were eligible if they had chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; were aged 18 years or older; had been treated with two lines of therapy (with at least a partial response after second-line therapy); had received a purine analogue, bendamustine, anti-CD20 antibody, chlorambucil, or alemtuzumab as first-line or second-line treatment; and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score of 0-2. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by an interactive voice-response system to receive either oral lenalidomide (2·5 mg/day) or matching oral placebo capsules (2·5 mg/day) for 28-day cycles, until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Lenalidomide dose escalation (to 5 mg or 10 mg per day) was permitted if the drug was well tolerated. Patients, investigators, and those completing data analyses were masked to treatment allocation. Randomisation was stratified by age, response to second-line therapy, and prognostic factors. Co-primary endpoints were progression-free survival and overall survival; the primary endpoint was later changed to overall survival after the data cutoff for this analysis. Secondary endpoints were time from randomisation to second disease progression or death (PFS2), tumour response (improvement in response and duration of response), safety, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Efficacy analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00774345, and is closed to accrual, but follow-up is ongoing.

Findings: Between Feb 16, 2009 and Sept 29, 2015, 314 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either lenalidomide (n=160) or placebo (n=154). With a median follow-up of 31·5 months (IQR 18·9-50·8), there was no significant difference in overall survival between the lenalidomide and the placebo groups (median 70·4 months, 95% CI 57·5-not estimable [NE] vs NE, 95% CI 62·8-NE; hazard ratio [HR] 0·96, 95% CI 0·63-1·48; p=0·86). Progression-free survival was significantly longer in the lenalidomide group (median 33·9 months, 95% CI 25·5-52·5) than in the placebo group (9·2 months, 7·4-13·6; HR 0·40, 95% CI 0·29-0·55; p<0·0001). PFS2 was significantly longer in the lenalidomide group than in the placebo group (median 57·5 months [47·7-NE] vs 32·7 months [26·4-49·0]; HR 0·46, 95% CI 0·29-0·70; p<0·01). Improved responses from baseline were observed in ten (6%) of 160 lenalidomide-treated patients versus four (3%) of 154 placebo-treated patients (p=0·12). Median time to improved response was 12·2 weeks (IQR 7·2-22·5) in the lenalidomide group versus 76·3 weeks (20·2-182·6) in the placebo group. Duration of improved response was not estimable in either group (95% CI 22·9-NE in the lenalidomide group vs NE-NE for placebo). There were no clinically meaningful differences in HRQoL between lenalidomide-treated patients and placebo-treated patients, as measured by FACT-Leu and EQ-5D, during maintenance treatment. In the safety population, the most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events included neutropenia (94 [60%] of 157 patients in the lenalidomide group vs 35 [23%] of 154 patients in the placebo group), thrombocytopenia (26 [17%] vs ten [6%]), and diarrhoea (13 [8%] vs one [<1%]). There were five fatal adverse events (three [2%] patients in the lenalidomide group and two [1%] patients in the placebo group).

Interpretation: Lenalidomide might delay time to subsequent therapy and does not adversely affect response to subsequent therapy. Chemoimmunotherapy followed by lenalidomide maintenance could be an effective treatment option for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia who do not have access to kinase inhibitors.

Funding: Celgene Corporation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(17)30168-0DOI Listing
November 2017

Liver dysfunction in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Prevalence, outcomes, and pathological findings.

Am J Hematol 2017 Dec 19;92(12):1362-1369. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

The prevalence of liver dysfunction and its association with outcomes in patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is unknown. Newly diagnosed (<12 months) previously untreated CLL patients seen at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN between 9/1993 and 4/2016 who had baseline assessment of at least one liver function test (LFT) were included in this analysis. The prevalence of liver dysfunction at baseline, proportion of patients who acquired LFT abnormalities, time to first therapy (TTFT) and overall survival (OS) were assessed. An abnormal LFT was present in 82/2336 (3.5%) patients at diagnosis and was associated with advanced Rai stage (Rai III-IV) (21% vs. 6%; P < .001), lower hemoglobin (13.1 g/dL vs. 13.9 g/dL; P < .001), and lower platelet count (187 × 109/L vs. 200 × 109/L; P = .03). Additionally, 236 patients with normal LFTs at diagnosis developed acquired liver dysfunction during follow-up. Patients with abnormal LFTs at diagnosis had a shorter OS compared to those with normal LFTs (HR 1.80 95% CI 1.13-2.87; P = .014, adjusted for age, sex, Rai stage, and treatment), although TTFT was not different. Of 52 patients who underwent a liver biopsy, CLL was present in liver tissue in 39/52 (73%) patients, with the portal tracts the most common region involved. Histopathology findings of liver involvement by CLL had limited correlation with choice of CLL therapy. In conclusion, approximately 1 of 25 newly diagnosed CLL patients has abnormal LFTs at diagnosis. Although the TTFT was not different among patients with abnormal LFTs, these patients have a shorter OS compared to those with normal LFTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.24915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7219181PMC
December 2017

Pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone for patients with relapsed lenalidomide-refractory multiple myeloma.

Blood 2017 09 6;130(10):1198-1204. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

This phase 1/2 trial evaluated the maximum tolerated doses, safety, and efficacy of pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (PVD) combination in patients with relapsed lenalidomide-refractory multiple myeloma (MM). In phase 1, dose level 1 consisted of pomalidomide (4 mg by mouth on days 1 to 21), IV or subcutaneous bortezomib (1.0 mg/m on days 1, 8, 15, and 22), and dexamethasone (40 mg by mouth on days 1, 8, 15, and 22) given every 28 days. Bortezomib was increased to 1.3 mg/m for dose level 2 and adopted in the phase 2 expansion cohort. We describe the results of 50 patients. Objective response rate was 86% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73-94) among all evaluable patients (stringent complete response, 12%; complete response, 10%; very good partial response, 28%; and partial response, 36%) and 100% among high-risk patients. Within a median follow-up of 42 months, 20% remain progression free, 66% are alive, and 4% remain on treatment. Median progression-free survival was 13.7 months (95% CI, 9.6-17.7). The most common toxicities were neutropenia (96%), leukopenia (84%), thrombocytopenia (82%), anemia (74%), and fatigue (72%); however, the majority of these were grade 1 or 2. The most common grade ≥3 toxicities included neutropenia (70%), leukopenia (36%), and lymphopenia (20%). Deep vein thrombosis occurred in 5 patients. In conclusion, PVD is a highly effective combination in lenalidomide-refractory MM patients. Weekly administration of bortezomib enhanced tolerability and convenience. Toxicities are manageable, mostly consisting of mild cytopenias with no significant neuropathy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01212952.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2017-05-782961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5606008PMC
September 2017

Pembrolizumab in patients with CLL and Richter transformation or with relapsed CLL.

Blood 2017 06 19;129(26):3419-3427. Epub 2017 Apr 19.

Division of Hematology and.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients progressed early on ibrutinib often develop Richter transformation (RT) with a short survival of about 4 months. Preclinical studies suggest that programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathway is critical to inhibit immune surveillance in CLL. This phase 2 study was designed to test the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab, a humanized PD-1-blocking antibody, at a dose of 200 mg every 3 weeks in relapsed and transformed CLL. Twenty-five patients including 16 relapsed CLL and 9 RT (all proven diffuse large cell lymphoma) patients were enrolled, and 60% received prior ibrutinib. Objective responses were observed in 4 out of 9 RT patients (44%) and in 0 out of 16 CLL patients (0%). All responses were observed in RT patients who had progression after prior therapy with ibrutinib. After a median follow-up time of 11 months, the median overall survival in the RT cohort was 10.7 months, but was not reached in RT patients who progressed after prior ibrutinib. Treatment-related grade 3 or above adverse events were reported in 15 (60%) patients and were manageable. Analyses of pretreatment tumor specimens from available patients revealed increased expression of PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and a trend of increased expression in PD-1 in the tumor microenvironment in patients who had confirmed responses. Overall, pembrolizumab exhibited selective efficacy in CLL patients with RT. The results of this study are the first to demonstrate the benefit of PD-1 blockade in CLL patients with RT, and could change the landscape of therapy for RT patients if further validated. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02332980.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2017-02-765685DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5492091PMC
June 2017

Therapy for Relapsed Multiple Myeloma: Guidelines From the Mayo Stratification for Myeloma and Risk-Adapted Therapy.

Mayo Clin Proc 2017 04 11;92(4):578-598. Epub 2017 Mar 11.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Life expectancy in patients with multiple myeloma is increasing because of the availability of an increasing number of novel agents with various mechanisms of action against the disease. However, the disease remains incurable in most patients because of the emergence of resistant clones, leading to repeated relapses of the disease. In 2015, 5 novel agents were approved for therapy for relapsed multiple myeloma. This surfeit of novel agents renders management of relapsed multiple myeloma more complex because of the occurrence of multiple relapses, the risk of cumulative and emergent toxicity from previous therapies, as well as evolution of the disease during therapy. A group of physicians at Mayo Clinic with expertise in the care of patients with multiple myeloma regularly evaluates the evolving literature on the biology and therapy for multiple myeloma and issues guidelines on the optimal care of patients with this disease. In this article, the latest recommendations on the diagnostic evaluation of relapsed multiple myeloma and decision trees on how to treat patients at various stages of their relapse (off study) are provided together with the evidence to support them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2017.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5554888PMC
April 2017